TY - JOUR
AB - Transverse relaxation rate measurements in magic-angle spinning solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance provide information about molecular motions occurring on nanosecond-to-millisecond (ns–ms) time scales. The measurement of heteronuclear (13C, 15N) relaxation rate constants in the presence of a spin-lock radiofrequency field (R1ρ relaxation) provides access to such motions, and an increasing number of studies involving R1ρ relaxation in proteins have been reported. However, two factors that influence the observed relaxation rate constants have so far been neglected, namely, (1) the role of CSA/dipolar cross-correlated relaxation (CCR) and (2) the impact of fast proton spin flips (i.e., proton spin diffusion and relaxation). We show that CSA/D CCR in R1ρ experiments is measurable and that the CCR rate constant depends on ns–ms motions; it can thus provide insight into dynamics. We find that proton spin diffusion attenuates this CCR due to its decoupling effect on the doublet components. For measurements of dynamics, the use of R1ρ rate constants has practical advantages over the use of CCR rates, and this article reveals factors that have so far been disregarded and which are important for accurate measurements and interpretation.
AU - Kurauskas, Vilius
AU - Weber, Emmanuelle
AU - Hessel, Audrey
AU - Ayala, Isabel
AU - Marion, Dominique
AU - Schanda, Paul
ID - 8453
IS - 34
JF - The Journal of Physical Chemistry B
KW - Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
KW - Materials Chemistry
KW - Surfaces
KW - Coatings and Films
SN - 1520-6106
TI - Cross-correlated relaxation of dipolar coupling and chemical-shift anisotropy in magic-angle spinning R1ρ NMR measurements: Application to protein backbone dynamics measurements
VL - 120
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy is an important technique to study molecular structure, dynamics and interactions, and is rapidly gaining importance in biomolecular sciences. Here we provide an overview of experimental approaches to study molecular dynamics by MAS solid-state NMR, with an emphasis on the underlying theoretical concepts and differences of MAS solid-state NMR compared to solution-state NMR. The theoretical foundations of nuclear spin relaxation are revisited, focusing on the particularities of spin relaxation in solid samples under magic-angle spinning. We discuss the range of validity of Redfield theory, as well as the inherent multi-exponential behavior of relaxation in solids. Experimental challenges for measuring relaxation parameters in MAS solid-state NMR and a few recently proposed relaxation approaches are discussed, which provide information about time scales and amplitudes of motions ranging from picoseconds to milliseconds. We also discuss the theoretical basis and experimental measurements of anisotropic interactions (chemical-shift anisotropies, dipolar and quadrupolar couplings), which give direct information about the amplitude of motions. The potential of combining relaxation data with such measurements of dynamically-averaged anisotropic interactions is discussed. Although the focus of this review is on the theoretical foundations of dynamics studies rather than their application, we close by discussing a small number of recent dynamics studies, where the dynamic properties of proteins in crystals are compared to those in solution.
AU - Schanda, Paul
AU - Ernst, Matthias
ID - 8454
IS - 8
JF - Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
SN - 0079-6565
TI - Studying dynamics by magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy: Principles and applications to biomolecules
VL - 96
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Solid-state NMR spectroscopy allows the characterization of the structure, interactions and dynamics of insoluble and/or very large proteins. Sensitivity and resolution are often major challenges for obtaining atomic-resolution information, in particular for very large protein complexes. Here we show that the use of deuterated, specifically CH3-labelled proteins result in significant sensitivity gains compared to previously employed CHD2 labelling, while line widths increase only marginally. We apply this labelling strategy to a 468 kDa-large dodecameric aminopeptidase, TET2, and the 1.6 MDa-large 50S ribosome subunit of Thermus thermophilus.
AU - Kurauskas, Vilius
AU - Crublet, Elodie
AU - Macek, Pavel
AU - Kerfah, Rime
AU - Gauto, Diego F.
AU - Boisbouvier, Jérôme
AU - Schanda, Paul
ID - 8455
IS - 61
JF - Chemical Communications
KW - Materials Chemistry
KW - Electronic
KW - Optical and Magnetic Materials
KW - General Chemistry
KW - Surfaces
KW - Coatings and Films
KW - Metals and Alloys
KW - Ceramics and Composites
KW - Catalysis
SN - 1359-7345
TI - Sensitive proton-detected solid-state NMR spectroscopy of large proteins with selective CH3labelling: Application to the 50S ribosome subunit
VL - 52
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Understanding the principles that led to the current complexity of the genetic code is a central question in evolution. Expansion of the genetic code required the selection of new transfer RNAs (tRNAs) with specific recognition signals that allowed them to be matured, modified, aminoacylated, and processed by the ribosome without compromising the fidelity or efficiency of protein synthesis. We show that saturation of recognition signals blocks the emergence of new tRNA identities and that the rate of nucleotide substitutions in tRNAs is higher in species with fewer tRNA genes. We propose that the growth of the genetic code stalled because a limit was reached in the number of identity elements that can be effectively used in the tRNA structure.
AU - Saint-Léger, Adélaïde
AU - Bello, Carla
AU - Dans, Pablo D
AU - Torres, Adrian G
AU - Novoa, Eva M
AU - Camacho, Noelia
AU - Orozco, Modesto
AU - Fyodor Kondrashov
AU - Ribas De Pouplana, Lluís
ID - 849
IS - 4
JF - Science advances
TI - Saturation of recognition elements blocks evolution of new tRNA identities
VL - 2
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In this paper we study a so-called separatrix map introduced by Zaslavskii–Filonenko (Sov Phys JETP 27:851–857, 1968) and studied by Treschev (Physica D 116(1–2):21–43, 1998; J Nonlinear Sci 12(1):27–58, 2002), Piftankin (Nonlinearity (19):2617–2644, 2006) Piftankin and Treshchëv (Uspekhi Mat Nauk 62(2(374)):3–108, 2007). We derive a second order expansion of this map for trigonometric perturbations. In Castejon et al. (Random iteration of maps of a cylinder and diffusive behavior. Preprint available at arXiv:1501.03319, 2015), Guardia and Kaloshin (Stochastic diffusive behavior through big gaps in a priori unstable systems (in preparation), 2015), and Kaloshin et al. (Normally Hyperbolic Invariant Laminations and diffusive behavior for the generalized Arnold example away from resonances. Preprint available at http://www.terpconnect.umd.edu/vkaloshi/, 2015), applying the results of the present paper, we describe a class of nearly integrable deterministic systems with stochastic diffusive behavior.
AU - Guardia, M.
AU - Kaloshin, Vadim
AU - Zhang, J.
ID - 8493
JF - Communications in Mathematical Physics
SN - 0010-3616
TI - A second order expansion of the separatrix map for trigonometric perturbations of a priori unstable systems
VL - 348
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We prove a form of Arnold diffusion in the a-priori stable case. Let
H0(p)+ϵH1(θ,p,t),θ∈Tn,p∈Bn,t∈T=R/T,
be a nearly integrable system of arbitrary degrees of freedom n⩾2 with a strictly convex H0. We show that for a “generic” ϵH1, there exists an orbit (θ,p) satisfying
∥p(t)−p(0)∥>l(H1)>0,
where l(H1) is independent of ϵ. The diffusion orbit travels along a codimension-1 resonance, and the only obstruction to our construction is a finite set of additional resonances.
For the proof we use a combination of geometric and variational methods, and manage to adapt tools which have recently been developed in the a-priori unstable case.
AU - Bernard, Patrick
AU - Kaloshin, Vadim
AU - Zhang, Ke
ID - 8494
IS - 1
JF - Acta Mathematica
SN - 0001-5962
TI - Arnold diffusion in arbitrary degrees of freedom and normally hyperbolic invariant cylinders
VL - 217
ER -
TY - JOUR
AU - Avila, Artur
AU - De Simoi, Jacopo
AU - Kaloshin, Vadim
ID - 8496
IS - 2
JF - Annals of Mathematics
SN - 0003-486X
TI - An integrable deformation of an ellipse of small eccentricity is an ellipse
VL - 184
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We study the dynamics of the restricted planar three-body problem near mean motion resonances, i.e. a resonance involving the Keplerian periods of the two lighter bodies revolving around the most massive one. This problem is often used to model Sun–Jupiter–asteroid systems. For the primaries (Sun and Jupiter), we pick a realistic mass ratio μ=10−3 and a small eccentricity e0>0. The main result is a construction of a variety of non local diffusing orbits which show a drastic change of the osculating (instant) eccentricity of the asteroid, while the osculating semi major axis is kept almost constant. The proof relies on the careful analysis of the circular problem, which has a hyperbolic structure, but for which diffusion is prevented by KAM tori. In the proof we verify certain non-degeneracy conditions numerically.
Based on the work of Treschev, it is natural to conjecture that the time of diffusion for this problem is ∼−ln(μe0)μ3/2e0. We expect our instability mechanism to apply to realistic values of e0 and we give heuristic arguments in its favor. If so, the applicability of Nekhoroshev theory to the three-body problem as well as the long time stability become questionable.
It is well known that, in the Asteroid Belt, located between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, the distribution of asteroids has the so-called Kirkwood gaps exactly at mean motion resonances of low order. Our mechanism gives a possible explanation of their existence. To relate the existence of Kirkwood gaps with Arnol'd diffusion, we also state a conjecture on its existence for a typical ϵ-perturbation of the product of the pendulum and the rotator. Namely, we predict that a positive conditional measure of initial conditions concentrated in the main resonance exhibits Arnol’d diffusion on time scales −lnϵϵ2.
AU - Féjoz, Jacques
AU - Guàrdia, Marcel
AU - Kaloshin, Vadim
AU - Roldán, Pablo
ID - 8497
IS - 10
JF - Journal of the European Mathematical Society
SN - 1435-9855
TI - Kirkwood gaps and diffusion along mean motion resonances in the restricted planar three-body problem
VL - 18
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Fitness landscapes depict how genotypes manifest at the phenotypic level and form the basis of our understanding of many areas of biology, yet their properties remain elusive. Previous studies have analysed specific genes, often using their function as a proxy for fitness, experimentally assessing the effect on function of single mutations and their combinations in a specific sequence or in different sequences. However, systematic high-throughput studies of the local fitness landscape of an entire protein have not yet been reported. Here we visualize an extensive region of the local fitness landscape of the green fluorescent protein from Aequorea Victoria (avGFP) by measuring the native function (fluorescence) of tens of thousands of derivative genotypes of avGFP. We show that the fitness landscape of avGFP is narrow, with 3/4 of the derivatives with a single mutation showing reduced fluorescence and half of the derivatives with four mutations being completely non-fluorescent. The narrowness is enhanced by epistasis, which was detected in up to 30% of genotypes with multiple mutations and mostly occurred through the cumulative effect of slightly deleterious mutations causing a threshold-like decrease in protein stability and a concomitant loss of fluorescence. A model of orthologous sequence divergence spanning hundreds of millions of years predicted the extent of epistasis in our data, indicating congruence between the fitness landscape properties at the local and global scales. The characterization of the local fitness landscape of avGFP has important implications for several fields including molecular evolution, population genetics and protein design.
AU - Karen Sarkisyan
AU - Bolotin, Dmitry A
AU - Meer, Margarita V
AU - Usmanova, Dinara R
AU - Mishin, Alexander S
AU - Sharonov, George V
AU - Ivankov, Dmitry N
AU - Bozhanova, Nina G
AU - Baranov, Mikhail S
AU - Soylemez, Onuralp
AU - Bogatyreva, Natalya S
AU - Vlasov, Peter K
AU - Egorov, Evgeny S
AU - Logacheva, Maria D
AU - Kondrashov, Alexey S
AU - Chudakov, Dmitriy M
AU - Putintseva, Ekaterina V
AU - Mamedov, Ilgar Z
AU - Tawfik, Dan S
AU - Lukyanov, Konstantin A
AU - Fyodor Kondrashov
ID - 850
JF - Nature
TI - Local fitness landscape of the green fluorescent protein
VL - 533
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - A comparative analysis of the metagenomes from two 30 000-year-old permafrost samples, one of lake-alluvial origin and the other from late Pleistocene Ice Complex sediments, revealed significant differences within microbial communities. The late Pleistocene Ice Complex sediments (which have been characterized by the absence of methane with lower values of redox potential and Fe2+ content) showed a low abundance of methanogenic archaea and enzymes from both the carbon and nitrogen cycles, but a higher abundance of enzymes associated with the sulfur cycle. The metagenomic and geochemical analyses described in the paper provide evidence that the formation of the sampled late Pleistocene Ice Complex sediments likely took place under much more aerobic conditions than lake-alluvial sediments.
AU - Rivkina, Elizaveta
AU - Petrovskaya, Lada E
AU - Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A
AU - Krivushin, Kirill V
AU - Shmakova, Lyubov A
AU - Tutukina, Maria
AU - Meyers, Arthur J
AU - Fyodor Kondrashov
ID - 853
IS - 7
JF - Biogeosciences
TI - Metagenomic analyses of the late Pleistocene permafrost - Additional tools for reconstruction of environmental conditions
VL - 13
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Hybrid systems represent an important and powerful formalism for modeling real-world applications such as embedded systems. A verification tool like SpaceEx is based on the exploration of a symbolic search space (the region space). As a verification tool, it is typically optimized towards proving the absence of errors. In some settings, e.g., when the verification tool is employed in a feedback-directed design cycle, one would like to have the option to call a version that is optimized towards finding an error trajectory in the region space. A recent approach in this direction is based on guided search. Guided search relies on a cost function that indicates which states are promising to be explored, and preferably explores more promising states first. In this paper, we propose an abstraction-based cost function based on coarse-grained space abstractions for guiding the reachability analysis. For this purpose, a suitable abstraction technique that exploits the flexible granularity of modern reachability analysis algorithms is introduced. The new cost function is an effective extension of pattern database approaches that have been successfully applied in other areas. The approach has been implemented in the SpaceEx model checker. The evaluation shows its practical potential.
AU - Bogomolov, Sergiy
AU - Donzé, Alexandre
AU - Frehse, Goran
AU - Grosu, Radu
AU - Johnson, Taylor
AU - Ladan, Hamed
AU - Podelski, Andreas
AU - Wehrle, Martin
ID - 1705
IS - 4
JF - International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer
TI - Guided search for hybrid systems based on coarse-grained space abstractions
VL - 18
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Volunteer supporters play an important role in modern crisis and disaster management. In the times of mobile Internet devices, help from thousands of volunteers can be requested within a short time span, thus relieving professional helpers from minor chores or geographically spread-out tasks. However, the simultaneous availability of many volunteers also poses new problems. In particular, the volunteer efforts must be well coordinated, or otherwise situations might emerge in which too many idle volunteers at one location become more of a burden than a relief to the professionals.
In this work, we study the task of optimally assigning volunteers to selected locations, e.g. in order to perform regular measurements, to report on damage, or to distribute information or resources to the population in a crisis situation. We formulate the assignment tasks as an optimization problem and propose an effective and efficient solution procedure. Experiments on real data of the Team Österreich, consisting of over 36,000 Austrian volunteers, show the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach.
AU - Pielorz, Jasmin
AU - Lampert, Christoph
ID - 1707
TI - Optimal geospatial allocation of volunteers for crisis management
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We calculate admissible values of r such that a square-free polynomial with integer coefficients, no fixed prime divisor and irreducible factors of degree at most 3 takes infinitely many values that are a product of at most r distinct primes.
AU - Browning, Timothy D
AU - Booker, Andrew
ID - 173
JF - Discrete Analysis
TI - Square-free values of reducible polynomials
VL - 8
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider Conditional random fields (CRFs) with pattern-based potentials defined on a chain. In this model the energy of a string (labeling) (Formula presented.) is the sum of terms over intervals [i, j] where each term is non-zero only if the substring (Formula presented.) equals a prespecified pattern w. Such CRFs can be naturally applied to many sequence tagging problems. We present efficient algorithms for the three standard inference tasks in a CRF, namely computing (i) the partition function, (ii) marginals, and (iii) computing the MAP. Their complexities are respectively (Formula presented.), (Formula presented.) and (Formula presented.) where L is the combined length of input patterns, (Formula presented.) is the maximum length of a pattern, and D is the input alphabet. This improves on the previous algorithms of Ye et al. (NIPS, 2009) whose complexities are respectively (Formula presented.), (Formula presented.) and (Formula presented.), where (Formula presented.) is the number of input patterns. In addition, we give an efficient algorithm for sampling, and revisit the case of MAP with non-positive weights.
AU - Kolmogorov, Vladimir
AU - Takhanov, Rustem
ID - 1794
IS - 1
JF - Algorithmica
TI - Inference algorithms for pattern-based CRFs on sequence data
VL - 76
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Relational models for contingency tables are generalizations of log-linear models, allowing effects associated with arbitrary subsets of cells in the table, and not necessarily containing the overall effect, that is, a common parameter in every cell. Similarly to log-linear models, relational models can be extended to non-negative distributions, but the extension requires more complex methods. An extended relational model is defined as an algebraic variety, and it turns out to be the closure of the original model with respect to the Bregman divergence. In the extended relational model, the MLE of the cell parameters always exists and is unique, but some of its properties may be different from those of the MLE under log-linear models. The MLE can be computed using a generalized iterative scaling procedure based on Bregman projections.
AU - Klimova, Anna
AU - Rudas, Tamás
ID - 1833
JF - Journal of Multivariate Analysis
TI - On the closure of relational models
VL - 143
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider random matrices of the form H=W+λV, λ∈ℝ+, where W is a real symmetric or complex Hermitian Wigner matrix of size N and V is a real bounded diagonal random matrix of size N with i.i.d.\ entries that are independent of W. We assume subexponential decay for the matrix entries of W and we choose λ∼1, so that the eigenvalues of W and λV are typically of the same order. Further, we assume that the density of the entries of V is supported on a single interval and is convex near the edges of its support. In this paper we prove that there is λ+∈ℝ+ such that the largest eigenvalues of H are in the limit of large N determined by the order statistics of V for λ>λ+. In particular, the largest eigenvalue of H has a Weibull distribution in the limit N→∞ if λ>λ+. Moreover, for N sufficiently large, we show that the eigenvectors associated to the largest eigenvalues are partially localized for λ>λ+, while they are completely delocalized for λ<λ+. Similar results hold for the lowest eigenvalues.
AU - Lee, Jioon
AU - Schnelli, Kevin
ID - 1881
IS - 1-2
JF - Probability Theory and Related Fields
TI - Extremal eigenvalues and eigenvectors of deformed Wigner matrices
VL - 164
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Kinetics of electrochemical reactions are several orders of magnitude slower in solids than in liquids as a result of the much lower ion diffusivity. Yet, the solid state maximizes the density of redox species, which is at least two orders of magnitude lower in liquids because of solubility limitations. With regard to electrochemical energy storage devices, this leads to high-energy batteries with limited power and high-power supercapacitors with a well-known energy deficiency. For such devices the ideal system should endow the liquid state with a density of redox species close to the solid state. Here we report an approach based on biredox ionic liquids to achieve bulk-like redox density at liquid-like fast kinetics. The cation and anion of these biredox ionic liquids bear moieties that undergo very fast reversible redox reactions. As a first demonstration of their potential for high-capacity/high-rate charge storage, we used them in redox supercapacitors. These ionic liquids are able to decouple charge storage from an ion-accessible electrode surface, by storing significant charge in the pores of the electrodes, to minimize self-discharge and leakage current as a result of retaining the redox species in the pores, and to raise working voltage due to their wide electrochemical window.
AU - Mourad, Eléonore
AU - Coustan, Laura
AU - Lannelongue, Pierre
AU - Zigah, Dodzi
AU - Mehdi, Ahmad
AU - Vioux, André
AU - Freunberger, Stefan Alexander
AU - Favier, Frédéric
AU - Fontaine, Olivier
ID - 7279
IS - 4
JF - Nature Materials
SN - 1476-1122
TI - Biredox ionic liquids with solid-like redox density in the liquid state for high-energy supercapacitors
VL - 16
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - If proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are ever to succeed in sustainable energy landscape as a potential zero emission technology, it is inevitable to reduce electricity production cost associated mainly with its MEAs, cell hardware and gas storage units. We demonstrate a diverse strategy for achieving this target with a concomitant amplification of its specific energy and power, by rolling a thin graphene oxide (GO) based MEA alone into a tubular and air breathing architecture with internal fuel storage. The unique properties of GO being a barrier for molecular fuels and proton conducting to construct a GO based cylindrical MEA. This makes the tubular PEMFC ∼75 times lighter, featuring ∼37 and ∼92 times respectively, the power and energy per overall weight, making it a potential candidate for portable applications. The intrinsic electrochemical kinetics at the three-phase boundary are somewhat affected by the bending of the MEA, albeit at overall reduction in power production cost.
AU - Thimmappa, Ravikumar
AU - Chattanahalli Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari
AU - Shafi, Shahid
AU - Freunberger, Stefan Alexander
AU - Ottakam Thotiyl, Musthafa
ID - 7293
IS - 47
JF - International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
SN - 0360-3199
TI - Proton conducting hollow graphene oxide cylinder as molecular fuel barrier for tubular H2-air fuel cell
VL - 41
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Mesoporous nanocrystalline TiO2 and TiO2–V2O5 microspheres were prepared by non-hydrolytic sol–gel from TiCl4, VOCl3, and iPr2O at 110 °C without any solvent or additives. The samples were characterized by elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen physisorption, and impedance measurements. At low vanadium loadings, only TiO2 anatase was detected, and V2O5 scherbinaite was also detected at high vanadium loadings. The texture of the samples depended on the V loading, but all the samples appeared built of primary nanoparticles (≈10–20 nm in size) that aggregate to form mesoporous micron-sized spheres. The lithium insertion properties of these materials were evaluated by galvanostatic measurements taken using coin-type cells, in view of their application as electrode for rechargeable Li-ion batteries. The mesoporous TiO2 microspheres showed good performances, with a specific reversible capacity of 145 and 128 mAh g−1 at C/2 and C, respectively (C = 335.6 mA g−1), good coulombic efficiency, and a moderate capacity fade (6 %) from the 2nd to the 20th cycle at C/20. Although the addition of V effectively increased the electronic conductivity of the powders, the specific reversible capacity and cycling performances of the TiO2–V2O5 samples were only minimally improved for a 5 at% V loading and were lower at higher V loading.
AU - Escamilla-Pérez, A. M.
AU - Louvain, N.
AU - Kaschowitz, M.
AU - Freunberger, Stefan Alexander
AU - Fontaine, O.
AU - Boury, B.
AU - Brun, N.
AU - Mutin, P. H.
ID - 7294
IS - 2
JF - Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology
SN - 0928-0707
TI - Lithium insertion properties of mesoporous nanocrystalline TiO2 and TiO2–V2O5 microspheres prepared by non-hydrolytic sol–gel
VL - 79
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Redox ionic liquids consisting of ions bearing redox moieties are receiving increasing interest in electrochemical applications, as they associate electroactive properties with the classical properties of ionic liquids. Here, biredox ionic liquid electrolytes are described in which both anion and cation are functionalized with anthraquinone and 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl (TEMPO) groups, respectively. In-depth investigations based on crossed experimental and theoretical studies were carried out to elucidate how the bulkiness of ions bearing a redox moiety impacted electron and mass transfers, and accordingly the efficiency of electrochemical devices. The values of solvated radii of different redox ions, as well as the related kinetic constants, were extracted from cyclic voltammetry experiments. Reformulating the basic relations of electron transfer theory (based on Marcus-Hush theory) evidenced that in such redox species, with an unsymmetrical located redox centre, the electron transfer was not governed by the overall size of the solvated redox species, but rather by the radius of the redox active subunit, which takes preferential orientation towards the surface, thus allowing higher kinetic constants than what classical theory would predict. This vision opens ample opportunities for biredox ILs as electrolytes in electrochemical devices.
AU - Mourad, Eléonore
AU - Coustan, Laura
AU - Freunberger, Stefan Alexander
AU - Mehdi, Ahmad
AU - Vioux, André
AU - Favier, Frédérique
AU - Fontaine, Olivier
ID - 7295
IS - 7
JF - Electrochimica Acta
SN - 0013-4686
TI - Biredox ionic liquids: Electrochemical investigation and impact of ion size on electron transfer
VL - 206
ER -