TY - JOUR
AB - Meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies, which dominate genetic discovery, are based on data from diverse historical time periods and populations. Genetic scores derived from genome-wide association studies explain only a fraction of the heritability estimates obtained from whole-genome studies on single populations, known as the ‘hidden heritability’ puzzle. Using seven sampling populations (n = 35,062), we test whether hidden heritability is attributed to heterogeneity across sampling populations and time, showing that estimates are substantially smaller across populations compared with within populations. We show that the hidden heritability varies substantially: from zero for height to 20% for body mass index, 37% for education, 40% for age at first birth and up to 75% for number of children. Simulations demonstrate that our results are more likely to reflect heterogeneity in phenotypic measurement or gene–environment interactions than genetic heterogeneity. These findings have substantial implications for genetic discovery, suggesting that large homogenous datasets are required for behavioural phenotypes and that gene–environment interaction may be a central challenge for genetic discovery.
AU - Tropf, Felix C.
AU - Lee, S. Hong
AU - Verweij, Renske M.
AU - Stulp, Gert
AU - van der Most, Peter J.
AU - de Vlaming, Ronald
AU - Bakshi, Andrew
AU - Briley, Daniel A.
AU - Rahal, Charles
AU - Hellpap, Robert
AU - Iliadou, Anastasia N.
AU - Esko, Tõnu
AU - Metspalu, Andres
AU - Medland, Sarah E.
AU - Martin, Nicholas G.
AU - Barban, Nicola
AU - Snieder, Harold
AU - Robinson, Matthew Richard
AU - Mills, Melinda C.
ID - 7728
IS - 10
JF - Nature Human Behaviour
SN - 2397-3374
TI - Hidden heritability due to heterogeneity across seven populations
VL - 1
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Quantifying the effects of inbreeding is critical to characterizing the genetic architecture of complex traits. This study highlights through theory and simulations the strengths and shortcomings of three SNP-based inbreeding measures commonly used to estimate inbreeding depression (ID). We demonstrate that heterogeneity in linkage disequilibrium (LD) between causal variants and SNPs biases ID estimates, and we develop an approach to correct this bias using LD and minor allele frequency stratified inference (LDMS). We quantified ID in 25 traits measured in ∼140,000 participants of the UK Biobank, using LDMS, and confirmed previously published ID for 4 traits. We find unique evidence of ID for handgrip strength, waist/hip ratio, and visual and auditory acuity (ID between −2.3 and −5.2 phenotypic SDs for complete inbreeding; P<0.001). Our results illustrate that a careful choice of the measure of inbreeding combined with LDMS stratification improves both detection and quantification of ID using SNP data.
AU - Yengo, Loic
AU - Zhu, Zhihong
AU - Wray, Naomi R.
AU - Weir, Bruce S.
AU - Yang, Jian
AU - Robinson, Matthew Richard
AU - Visscher, Peter M.
ID - 7729
IS - 32
JF - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
SN - 0027-8424
TI - Detection and quantification of inbreeding depression for complex traits from SNP data
VL - 114
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Genetic association studies in admixed populations are underrepresented in the genomics literature, with a key concern for researchers being the adequate control of spurious associations due to population structure. Linear mixed models (LMMs) are well suited for genome-wide association studies (GWAS) because they account for both population stratification and cryptic relatedness and achieve increased statistical power by jointly modeling all genotyped markers. Additionally, Bayesian LMMs allow for more flexible assumptions about the underlying distribution of genetic effects, and can concurrently estimate the proportion of phenotypic variance explained by genetic markers. Using three recently published Bayesian LMMs, Bayes R, BSLMM, and BOLT-LMM, we investigate an existing data set on eye (n = 625) and skin (n = 684) color from Cape Verde, an island nation off West Africa that is home to individuals with a broad range of phenotypic values for eye and skin color due to the mix of West African and European ancestry. We use simulations to demonstrate the utility of Bayesian LMMs for mapping loci and studying the genetic architecture of quantitative traits in admixed populations. The Bayesian LMMs provide evidence for two new pigmentation loci: one for eye color (AHRR) and one for skin color (DDB1).
AU - Lloyd-Jones, Luke R.
AU - Robinson, Matthew Richard
AU - Moser, Gerhard
AU - Zeng, Jian
AU - Beleza, Sandra
AU - Barsh, Gregory S.
AU - Tang, Hua
AU - Visscher, Peter M.
ID - 7731
IS - 2
JF - Genetics
SN - 0016-6731
TI - Inference on the genetic basis of eye and skin color in an admixed population via Bayesian linear mixed models
VL - 206
ER -
TY - JOUR
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Abstract
Background: Gene discovery has provided remarkable biological insights into amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). One challenge for clinical application of genetic testing is critical evaluation of the significance of reported variants.
Methods: We use whole exome sequencing (WES) to develop a clinically relevant approach to identify a subset of ALS patients harboring likely pathogenic mutations. In parallel, we assess if DNA methylation can be used to screen for pathogenicity of novel variants since a methylation signature has been shown to associate with the pathogenic C9orf72 expansion, but has not been explored for other ALS mutations. Australian patients identified with ALS‐relevant variants were cross‐checked with population databases and case reports to critically assess whether they were “likely causal,” “uncertain significance,” or “unlikely causal.”
Results: Published ALS variants were identified in >10% of patients; however, in only 3% of patients (4/120) could these be confidently considered pathogenic (in SOD1 and TARDBP). We found no evidence for a differential DNA methylation signature in these mutation carriers.
Conclusions: The use of WES in a typical ALS clinic demonstrates a critical approach to variant assessment with the capability to combine cohorts to enhance the largely unknown genetic basis of ALS.
AU - Garton, Fleur C.
AU - Benyamin, Beben
AU - Zhao, Qiongyi
AU - Liu, Zhijun
AU - Gratten, Jacob
AU - Henders, Anjali K.
AU - Zhang, Zong-Hong
AU - Edson, Janette
AU - Furlong, Sarah
AU - Morgan, Sarah
AU - Heggie, Susan
AU - Thorpe, Kathryn
AU - Pfluger, Casey
AU - Mather, Karen A.
AU - Sachdev, Perminder S.
AU - McRae, Allan F.
AU - Robinson, Matthew Richard
AU - Shah, Sonia
AU - Visscher, Peter M.
AU - Mangelsdorf, Marie
AU - Henderson, Robert D.
AU - Wray, Naomi R.
AU - McCombe, Pamela A.
ID - 7733
IS - 4
JF - Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
SN - 2324-9269
TI - Whole exome sequencing and DNA methylation analysis in a clinical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cohort
VL - 5
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We give a bird's-eye view of the plastic deformation of crystals aimed at the statistical physics community, as well as a broad introduction to the statistical theories of forced rigid systems aimed at the plasticity community. Memory effects in magnets, spin glasses, charge density waves, and dilute colloidal suspensions are discussed in relation to the onset of plastic yielding in crystals. Dislocation avalanches and complex dislocation tangles are discussed via a brief introduction to the renormalization group and scaling. Analogies to emergent scale invariance in fracture, jamming, coarsening, and a variety of depinning transitions are explored. Dislocation dynamics in crystals challenge nonequilibrium statistical physics. Statistical physics provides both cautionary tales of subtle memory effects in nonequilibrium systems and systematic tools designed to address complex scale-invariant behavior on multiple length scales and timescales.
AU - Sethna, James P.
AU - Bierbaum, Matthew K.
AU - Dahmen, Karin A.
AU - Goodrich, Carl Peter
AU - Greer, Julia R.
AU - Hayden, Lorien X.
AU - Kent-Dobias, Jaron P.
AU - Lee, Edward D.
AU - Liarte, Danilo B.
AU - Ni, Xiaoyue
AU - Quinn, Katherine N.
AU - Raju, Archishman
AU - Rocklin, D. Zeb
AU - Shekhawat, Ashivni
AU - Zapperi, Stefano
ID - 7755
JF - Annual Review of Materials Research
SN - 1531-7331
TI - Deformation of crystals: Connections with statistical physics
VL - 47
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We study the shear jamming of athermal frictionless soft spheres, and find that in the thermodynamic limit, a shear-jammed state exists with different elastic properties from the isotropically-jammed state. For example, shear-jammed states can have a non-zero residual shear stress in the thermodynamic limit that arises from long-range stress-stress correlations. As a result, the ratio of the shear and bulk moduli, which in isotropically-jammed systems vanishes as the jamming transition is approached from above, instead approaches a constant. Despite these striking differences, we argue that in a deeper sense, the shear jamming and isotropic jamming transitions actually have the same symmetry, and that the differences can be fully understood by rotating the six-dimensional basis of the elastic modulus tensor.
AU - Baity-Jesi, Marco
AU - Goodrich, Carl Peter
AU - Liu, Andrea J.
AU - Nagel, Sidney R.
AU - Sethna, James P.
ID - 7756
IS - 3-4
JF - Journal of Statistical Physics
SN - 0022-4715
TI - Emergent SO(3) symmetry of the frictionless shear jamming transition
VL - 167
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Recent advances in designing metamaterials have demonstrated that global mechanical properties of disordered spring networks can be tuned by selectively modifying only a small subset of bonds. Here, using a computationally efficient approach, we extend this idea to tune more general properties of networks. With nearly complete success, we are able to produce a strain between any two target nodes in a network in response to an applied source strain on any other pair of nodes by removing only ∼1% of the bonds. We are also able to control multiple pairs of target nodes, each with a different individual response, from a single source, and to tune multiple independent source/target responses simultaneously into a network. We have fabricated physical networks in macroscopic 2D and 3D systems that exhibit these responses. This work is inspired by the long-range coupled conformational changes that constitute allosteric function in proteins. The fact that allostery is a common means for regulation in biological molecules suggests that it is a relatively easy property to develop through evolution. In analogy, our results show that long-range coupled mechanical responses are similarly easy to achieve in disordered networks.
AU - Rocks, Jason W.
AU - Pashine, Nidhi
AU - Bischofberger, Irmgard
AU - Goodrich, Carl Peter
AU - Liu, Andrea J.
AU - Nagel, Sidney R.
ID - 7757
IS - 10
JF - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
SN - 0027-8424
TI - Designing allostery-inspired response in mechanical networks
VL - 114
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Controlling motion at the microscopic scale is a fundamental goal in the development of biologically inspired systems. We show that the motion of active, self-propelled colloids can be sufficiently controlled for use as a tool to assemble complex structures such as braids and weaves out of microscopic filaments. Unlike typical self-assembly paradigms, these structures are held together by geometric constraints rather than adhesive bonds. The out-of-equilibrium assembly that we propose involves precisely controlling the 2D motion of active colloids so that their path has a nontrivial topology. We demonstrate with proof-of-principle Brownian dynamics simulations that, when the colloids are attached to long semiflexible filaments, this motion causes the filaments to braid. The ability of the active particles to provide sufficient force necessary to bend the filaments into a braid depends on a number of factors, including the self-propulsion mechanism, the properties of the filament, and the maximum curvature in the braid. Our work demonstrates that nonequilibrium assembly pathways can be designed using active particles.
AU - Goodrich, Carl Peter
AU - Brenner, Michael P.
ID - 7758
IS - 2
JF - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
SN - 0027-8424
TI - Using active colloids as machines to weave and braid on the micrometer scale
VL - 114
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Population protocols are a popular model of distributed computing, in which randomly-interacting agents with little computational power cooperate to jointly perform computational tasks. Inspired by developments in molecular computation, and in particular DNA computing, recent algorithmic work has focused on the complexity of solving simple yet fundamental tasks in the population model, such as leader election (which requires convergence to a single agent in a special "leader" state), and majority (in which agents must converge to a decision as to which of two possible initial states had higher initial count). Known results point towards an inherent trade-off between the time complexity of such algorithms, and the space complexity, i.e. size of the memory available to each agent. In this paper, we explore this trade-off and provide new upper and lower bounds for majority and leader election. First, we prove a unified lower bound, which relates the space available per node with the time complexity achievable by a protocol: for instance, our result implies that any protocol solving either of these tasks for n agents using O(log log n) states must take (n=polylogn) expected time. This is the first result to characterize time complexity for protocols which employ super-constant number of states per node, and proves that fast, poly-logarithmic running times require protocols to have relatively large space costs. On the positive side, we give algorithms showing that fast, poly-logarithmic convergence time can be achieved using O(log2 n) space per node, in the case of both tasks. Overall, our results highlight a time complexity separation between O(log log n) and (log2 n) state space size for both majority and leader election in population protocols, and introduce new techniques, which should be applicable more broadly.
AU - Alistarh, Dan-Adrian
AU - Aspnes, James
AU - Eisenstat, David
AU - Rivest, Ronald
AU - Gelashvili, Rati
ID - 787
TI - Time-space trade-offs in population protocols
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - In contrast to electronic computation, chemical computation is noisy and susceptible to a variety of sources of error, which has prevented the construction of robust complex systems. To be effective, chemical algorithms must be designed with an appropriate error model in mind. Here we consider the model of chemical reaction networks that preserve molecular count (population protocols), and ask whether computation can be made robust to a natural model of unintended “leak” reactions. Our definition of leak is motivated by both the particular spurious behavior seen when implementing chemical reaction networks with DNA strand displacement cascades, as well as the unavoidable side reactions in any implementation due to the basic laws of chemistry. We develop a new “Robust Detection” algorithm for the problem of fast (logarithmic time) single molecule detection, and prove that it is robust to this general model of leaks. Besides potential applications in single molecule detection, the error-correction ideas developed here might enable a new class of robust-by-design chemical algorithms. Our analysis is based on a non-standard hybrid argument, combining ideas from discrete analysis of population protocols with classic Markov chain techniques.
AU - Alistarh, Dan-Adrian
AU - Dudek, Bartłomiej
AU - Kosowski, Adrian
AU - Soloveichik, David
AU - Uznański, Przemysław
ID - 788
TI - Robust detection in leak-prone population protocols
VL - 10467 LNCS
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - The problem of efficient concurrent memory reclamation in unmanaged languages such as C or C++ is one of the major challenges facing the parallelization of billions of lines of legacy code. Garbage collectors for C/C++ can be inefficient; thus, programmers are often forced to use finely-crafted concurrent memory reclamation techniques. These techniques can provide good performance, but require considerable programming effort to deploy, and have strict requirements, allowing the programmer very little room for error. In this work, we present Forkscan, a new conservative concurrent memory reclamation scheme which is fully automatic and surprisingly scalable. Forkscan's semantics place it between automatic garbage collectors (it requires the programmer to explicitly retire nodes before they can be reclaimed), and concurrent memory reclamation techniques (as it does not assume that nodes are completely unlinked from the data structure for correctness). Forkscan's implementation exploits these new semantics for efficiency: we leverage parallelism and optimized implementations of signaling and copy-on-write in modern operating systems to efficiently obtain and process consistent snapshots of memory that can be scanned concurrently with the normal program operation. Empirical evaluation on a range of classical concurrent data structure microbenchmarks shows that Forkscan can preserve the scalability of the original code, while maintaining an order of magnitude lower latency than automatic garbage collection, and demonstrating competitive performance with finely crafted memory reclamation techniques.
AU - Alistarh, Dan-Adrian
AU - Leiserson, William
AU - Matveev, Alexander
AU - Shavit, Nir
ID - 789
TI - Forkscan: Conservative memory reclamation for modern operating systems
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Stochastic gradient descent (SGD) is a commonly used algorithm for training linear machine learning models. Based on vector algebra, it benefits from the inherent parallelism available in an FPGA. In this paper, we first present a single-precision floating-point SGD implementation on an FPGA that provides similar performance as a 10-core CPU. We then adapt the design to make it capable of processing low-precision data. The low-precision data is obtained from a novel compression scheme - called stochastic quantization, specifically designed for machine learning applications. We test both full-precision and low-precision designs on various regression and classification data sets. We achieve up to an order of magnitude training speedup when using low-precision data compared to a full-precision SGD on the same FPGA and a state-of-the-art multi-core solution, while maintaining the quality of training. We open source the designs presented in this paper.
AU - Kara, Kaan
AU - Alistarh, Dan-Adrian
AU - Alonso, Gustavo
AU - Mutlu, Onur
AU - Zhang, Ce
ID - 790
TI - FPGA-accelerated dense linear machine learning: A precision-convergence trade-off
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Consider the following random process: we are given n queues, into which elements of increasing labels are inserted uniformly at random. To remove an element, we pick two queues at random, and remove the element of lower label (higher priority) among the two. The cost of a removal is the rank of the label removed, among labels still present in any of the queues, that is, the distance from the optimal choice at each step. Variants of this strategy are prevalent in state-of-the-art concurrent priority queue implementations. Nonetheless, it is not known whether such implementations provide any rank guarantees, even in a sequential model. We answer this question, showing that this strategy provides surprisingly strong guarantees: Although the single-choice process, where we always insert and remove from a single randomly chosen queue, has degrading cost, going to infinity as we increase the number of steps, in the two choice process, the expected rank of a removed element is O(n) while the expected worst-case cost is O(n log n). These bounds are tight, and hold irrespective of the number of steps for which we run the process. The argument is based on a new technical connection between "heavily loaded" balls-into-bins processes and priority scheduling. Our analytic results inspire a new concurrent priority queue implementation, which improves upon the state of the art in terms of practical performance.
AU - Alistarh, Dan-Adrian
AU - Kopinsky, Justin
AU - Li, Jerry
AU - Nadiradze, Giorgi
ID - 791
SN - 978-145034992-5
T2 - Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing
TI - The power of choice in priority scheduling
VL - Part F129314
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The chaotic dynamics of low-dimensional systems, such as Lorenz or Rössler flows, is guided by the infinity of periodic orbits embedded in their strange attractors. Whether this is also the case for the infinite-dimensional dynamics of Navier–Stokes equations has long been speculated, and is a topic of ongoing study. Periodic and relative periodic solutions have been shown to be involved in transitions to turbulence. Their relevance to turbulent dynamics – specifically, whether periodic orbits play the same role in high-dimensional nonlinear systems like the Navier–Stokes equations as they do in lower-dimensional systems – is the focus of the present investigation. We perform here a detailed study of pipe flow relative periodic orbits with energies and mean dissipations close to turbulent values. We outline several approaches to reduction of the translational symmetry of the system. We study pipe flow in a minimal computational cell at Re=2500, and report a library of invariant solutions found with the aid of the method of slices. Detailed study of the unstable manifolds of a sample of these solutions is consistent with the picture that relative periodic orbits are embedded in the chaotic saddle and that they guide the turbulent dynamics.
AU - Budanur, Nazmi B
AU - Short, Kimberly
AU - Farazmand, Mohammad
AU - Willis, Ashley
AU - Cvitanović, Predrag
ID - 792
JF - Journal of Fluid Mechanics
SN - 00221120
TI - Relative periodic orbits form the backbone of turbulent pipe flow
VL - 833
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Let P be a finite point set in the plane. A cordinary triangle in P is a subset of P consisting of three non-collinear points such that each of the three lines determined by the three points contains at most c points of P . Motivated by a question of Erdös, and answering a question of de Zeeuw, we prove that there exists a constant c > 0such that P contains a c-ordinary triangle, provided that P is not contained in the union of two lines. Furthermore, the number of c-ordinary triangles in P is Ω(| P |).
AU - Fulek, Radoslav
AU - Mojarrad, Hossein
AU - Naszódi, Márton
AU - Solymosi, József
AU - Stich, Sebastian
AU - Szedlák, May
ID - 793
JF - Computational Geometry: Theory and Applications
SN - 09257721
TI - On the existence of ordinary triangles
VL - 66
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We show that c-planarity is solvable in quadratic time for flat clustered graphs with three clusters if the combinatorial embedding of the underlying graph is fixed. In simpler graph-theoretical terms our result can be viewed as follows. Given a graph G with the vertex set partitioned into three parts embedded on a 2-sphere, our algorithm decides if we can augment G by adding edges without creating an edge-crossing so that in the resulting spherical graph the vertices of each part induce a connected sub-graph. We proceed by a reduction to the problem of testing the existence of a perfect matching in planar bipartite graphs. We formulate our result in a slightly more general setting of cyclic clustered graphs, i.e., the simple graph obtained by contracting each cluster, where we disregard loops and multi-edges, is a cycle.
AU - Fulek, Radoslav
ID - 794
JF - Computational Geometry: Theory and Applications
TI - C-planarity of embedded cyclic c-graphs
VL - 66
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We introduce a common generalization of the strong Hanani–Tutte theorem and the weak Hanani–Tutte theorem: if a graph G has a drawing D in the plane where every pair of independent edges crosses an even number of times, then G has a planar drawing preserving the rotation of each vertex whose incident edges cross each other evenly in D. The theorem is implicit in the proof of the strong Hanani–Tutte theorem by Pelsmajer, Schaefer and Štefankovič. We give a new, somewhat simpler proof.
AU - Fulek, Radoslav
AU - Kynčl, Jan
AU - Pálvölgyi, Dömötör
ID - 795
IS - 3
JF - Electronic Journal of Combinatorics
SN - 10778926
TI - Unified Hanani Tutte theorem
VL - 24
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We investigate transient behaviors induced by magnetic fields on the dynamics of the flow of a ferrofluid in the gap between two concentric, independently rotating cylinders. Without applying any magnetic fields, we uncover emergence of flow states constituted by a combination of a localized spiral state (SPIl) in the top and bottom of the annulus and different multi-cell flow states (SPI2v, SPI3v) with toroidally closed vortices in the interior of the bulk (SPIl+2v = SPIl + SPI2v and SPIl+3v = SPIl + SPI3v). However, when a magnetic field is presented, we observe the transient behaviors between multi-cell states passing through two critical thresholds in a strength of an axial (transverse) magnetic field. Before the first critical threshold of a magnetic field strength, multi-stable states with different number of cells could be observed. After the first critical threshold, we find the transient behavior between the three- and two-cell flow states. For more strength of magnetic field or after the second critical threshold, we discover that multi-cell states are disappeared and a localized spiral state remains to be stimulated. The studied transient behavior could be understood by the investigation of various quantities including a modal kinetic energy, a mode amplitude of the radial velocity, wavenumber, angular momentum, and torque. In addition, the emergence of new flow states and the transient behavior between their states in ferrofluidic flows indicate that richer and potentially controllable dynamics through magnetic fields could be possible in ferrofluic flow.
AU - Altmeyer, Sebastian
AU - Do, Younghae
AU - Ryu, Soorok
ID - 463
IS - 11
JF - Chaos
SN - 10541500
TI - Transient behavior between multi-cell flow states in ferrofluidic Taylor-Couette flow
VL - 27
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The computation of the winning set for parity objectives and for Streett objectives in graphs as well as in game graphs are central problems in computer-aided verification, with application to the verification of closed systems with strong fairness conditions, the verification of open systems, checking interface compatibility, well-formedness of specifications, and the synthesis of reactive systems. We show how to compute the winning set on n vertices for (1) parity-3 (aka one-pair Streett) objectives in game graphs in time O(n5/2) and for (2) k-pair Streett objectives in graphs in time O(n2+nklogn). For both problems this gives faster algorithms for dense graphs and represents the first improvement in asymptotic running time in 15 years.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Henzinger, Monika
AU - Loitzenbauer, Veronika
ID - 464
IS - 3
JF - Logical Methods in Computer Science
SN - 18605974
TI - Improved algorithms for parity and Streett objectives
VL - 13
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The edit distance between two words w 1 , w 2 is the minimal number of word operations (letter insertions, deletions, and substitutions) necessary to transform w 1 to w 2 . The edit distance generalizes to languages L 1 , L 2 , where the edit distance from L 1 to L 2 is the minimal number k such that for every word from L 1 there exists a word in L 2 with edit distance at most k . We study the edit distance computation problem between pushdown automata and their subclasses. The problem of computing edit distance to a pushdown automaton is undecidable, and in practice, the interesting question is to compute the edit distance from a pushdown automaton (the implementation, a standard model for programs with recursion) to a regular language (the specification). In this work, we present a complete picture of decidability and complexity for the following problems: (1) deciding whether, for a given threshold k , the edit distance from a pushdown automaton to a finite automaton is at most k , and (2) deciding whether the edit distance from a pushdown automaton to a finite automaton is finite.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
AU - Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus
AU - Otop, Jan
ID - 465
IS - 3
JF - Logical Methods in Computer Science
SN - 18605974
TI - Edit distance for pushdown automata
VL - 13
ER -