TY - JOUR
AB - For any free oriented Borel–Moore homology theory A, we construct an associative product on the A-theory of the stack of Higgs torsion sheaves over a projective curve C. We show that the resulting algebra AHa0C admits a natural shuffle presentation, and prove it is faithful when A is replaced with usual Borel–Moore homology groups. We also introduce moduli spaces of stable triples, heavily inspired by Nakajima quiver varieties, whose A-theory admits an AHa0C-action. These triples can be interpreted as certain sheaves on PC(ωC⊕OC). In particular, we obtain an action of AHa0C on the cohomology of Hilbert schemes of points on T∗C.
AU - Minets, Sasha
ID - 7683
IS - 2
JF - Selecta Mathematica, New Series
SN - 10221824
TI - Cohomological Hall algebras for Higgs torsion sheaves, moduli of triples and sheaves on surfaces
VL - 26
ER -
TY - JOUR
AU - Gridchyn, Igor
AU - Schönenberger, Philipp
AU - O'Neill, Joseph
AU - Csicsvari, Jozsef L
ID - 7684
IS - 2
JF - Neuron
SN - 08966273
TI - Assembly-specific disruption of hippocampal replay leads to selective memory deficit
VL - 106
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider a gas of interacting bosons trapped in a box of side length one in the Gross–Pitaevskii limit. We review the proof of the validity of Bogoliubov’s prediction for the ground state energy and the low-energy excitation spectrum. This note is based on joint work with C. Brennecke, S. Cenatiempo and B. Schlein.
AU - Boccato, Chiara
ID - 7685
JF - Reviews in Mathematical Physics
SN - 0129055X
TI - The excitation spectrum of the Bose gas in the Gross-Pitaevskii regime
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The agricultural green revolution spectacularly enhanced crop yield and lodging resistance with modified DELLA-mediated gibberellin signaling. However, this was achieved at the expense of reduced nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE). Recently, Wu et al. revealed novel gibberellin signaling that provides a blueprint for improving tillering and NUE in Green Revolution varieties (GRVs).
AU - Xue, Huidan
AU - Zhang, Yuzhou
AU - Xiao, Guanghui
ID - 7686
IS - 6
JF - Trends in Plant Science
SN - 1360-1385
TI - Neo-gibberellin signaling: Guiding the next generation of the green revolution
VL - 25
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - A working group, which was established within the Network of Repository Managers (RepManNet), has dealt with common certifications for repositories. In addition, current requirements of the research funding agencies FWF and EU were also taken into account. The Core Trust Seal was examined in more detail. For this purpose, a questionnaire was sent to those organizations that are already certified with CTS in Austria. The answers were summarized and evaluated anonymously. It is recommended to go for a repository certification. Moreover, the development of a DINI certificate in Austria is strongly suggested.
AU - Ernst, Doris
AU - Novotny, Gertraud
AU - Schönher, Eva Maria
ID - 7687
IS - 1
JF - Mitteilungen der Vereinigung Österreichischer Bibliothekarinnen und Bibliothekare
SN - 1022-2588
TI - (Core Trust) Seal your repository!
VL - 73
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Isomanifolds are the generalization of isosurfaces to arbitrary dimension and codimension, i.e. manifolds defined as the zero set of some multivariate vector-valued smooth function f: ℝ^d → ℝ^(d-n). A natural (and efficient) way to approximate an isomanifold is to consider its Piecewise-Linear (PL) approximation based on a triangulation 𝒯 of the ambient space ℝ^d. In this paper, we give conditions under which the PL-approximation of an isomanifold is topologically equivalent to the isomanifold. The conditions are easy to satisfy in the sense that they can always be met by taking a sufficiently fine triangulation 𝒯. This contrasts with previous results on the triangulation of manifolds where, in arbitrary dimensions, delicate perturbations are needed to guarantee topological correctness, which leads to strong limitations in practice. We further give a bound on the Fréchet distance between the original isomanifold and its PL-approximation. Finally we show analogous results for the PL-approximation of an isomanifold with boundary.
AU - Boissonnat, Jean-Daniel
AU - Wintraecken, Mathijs
ID - 7952
SN - 1868-8969
T2 - 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry
TI - The topological correctness of PL-approximations of isomanifolds
VL - 164
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Simple stochastic games are turn-based 2½-player games with a reachability objective. The basic question asks whether one player can ensure reaching a given target with at least a given probability. A natural extension is games with a conjunction of such conditions as objective. Despite a plethora of recent results on the analysis of systems with multiple objectives, the decidability of this basic problem remains open. In this paper, we present an algorithm approximating the Pareto frontier of the achievable values to a given precision. Moreover, it is an anytime algorithm, meaning it can be stopped at any time returning the current approximation and its error bound.
AU - Ashok, Pranav
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Kretinsky, Jan
AU - Weininger, Maximilian
AU - Winkler, Tobias
ID - 7955
SN - 9781450371049
T2 - Proceedings of the 35th Annual ACM/IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science
TI - Approximating values of generalized-reachability stochastic games
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - When short-range attractions are combined with long-range repulsions in colloidal particle systems, complex microphases can emerge. Here, we study a system of isotropic particles, which can form lamellar structures or a disordered fluid phase when temperature is varied. We show that, at equilibrium, the lamellar structure crystallizes, while out of equilibrium, the system forms a variety of structures at different shear rates and temperatures above melting. The shear-induced ordering is analyzed by means of principal component analysis and artificial neural networks, which are applied to data of reduced dimensionality. Our results reveal the possibility of inducing ordering by shear, potentially providing a feasible route to the fabrication of ordered lamellar structures from isotropic particles.
AU - Pȩkalski, J.
AU - Rzadkowski, Wojciech
AU - Panagiotopoulos, A. Z.
ID - 7956
IS - 20
JF - The Journal of chemical physics
TI - Shear-induced ordering in systems with competing interactions: A machine learning study
VL - 152
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are a class of disorders affecting brain development and function and are characterized by wide genetic and clinical variability. In this review, we discuss the multiple factors that influence the clinical presentation of NDDs, with particular attention to gene vulnerability, mutational load, and the two-hit model. Despite the complex architecture of
mutational events associated with NDDs, the various proteins involved appear to converge on common pathways, such as synaptic plasticity/function, chromatin remodelers and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms behind these pathways will hopefully lead to the identification of candidates that could be targeted for treatment approaches.
AU - Parenti, Ilaria
AU - Garcia Rabaneda, Luis E
AU - Schön, Hanna
AU - Novarino, Gaia
ID - 7957
IS - 8
JF - Trends in Neurosciences
SN - 01662236
TI - Neurodevelopmental disorders: From genetics to functional pathways
VL - 43
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Let A={A1,…,An} be a family of sets in the plane. For 0≤i2b be integers. We prove that if each k-wise or (k+1)-wise intersection of sets from A has at most b path-connected components, which all are open, then fk+1=0 implies fk≤cfk−1 for some positive constant c depending only on b and k. These results also extend to two-dimensional compact surfaces.
AU - Kalai, Gil
AU - Patakova, Zuzana
ID - 7960
JF - Discrete and Computational Geometry
SN - 01795376
TI - Intersection patterns of planar sets
VL - 64
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - A string graph is the intersection graph of a family of continuous arcs in the plane. The intersection graph of a family of plane convex sets is a string graph, but not all string graphs can be obtained in this way. We prove the following structure theorem conjectured by Janson and Uzzell: The vertex set of almost all string graphs on n vertices can be partitioned into five cliques such that some pair of them is not connected by any edge (n→∞). We also show that every graph with the above property is an intersection graph of plane convex sets. As a corollary, we obtain that almost all string graphs on n vertices are intersection graphs of plane convex sets.
AU - Pach, János
AU - Reed, Bruce
AU - Yuditsky, Yelena
ID - 7962
IS - 4
JF - Discrete and Computational Geometry
SN - 01795376
TI - Almost all string graphs are intersection graphs of plane convex sets
VL - 63
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - For 1≤m≤n, we consider a natural m-out-of-n multi-instance scenario for a public-key encryption (PKE) scheme. An adversary, given n independent instances of PKE, wins if he breaks at least m out of the n instances. In this work, we are interested in the scaling factor of PKE schemes, SF, which measures how well the difficulty of breaking m out of the n instances scales in m. That is, a scaling factor SF=ℓ indicates that breaking m out of n instances is at least ℓ times more difficult than breaking one single instance. A PKE scheme with small scaling factor hence provides an ideal target for mass surveillance. In fact, the Logjam attack (CCS 2015) implicitly exploited, among other things, an almost constant scaling factor of ElGamal over finite fields (with shared group parameters).
For Hashed ElGamal over elliptic curves, we use the generic group model to argue that the scaling factor depends on the scheme's granularity. In low granularity, meaning each public key contains its independent group parameter, the scheme has optimal scaling factor SF=m; In medium and high granularity, meaning all public keys share the same group parameter, the scheme still has a reasonable scaling factor SF=√m. Our findings underline that instantiating ElGamal over elliptic curves should be preferred to finite fields in a multi-instance scenario.
As our main technical contribution, we derive new generic-group lower bounds of Ω(√(mp)) on the difficulty of solving both the m-out-of-n Gap Discrete Logarithm and the m-out-of-n Gap Computational Diffie-Hellman problem over groups of prime order p, extending a recent result by Yun (EUROCRYPT 2015). We establish the lower bound by studying the hardness of a related computational problem which we call the search-by-hypersurface problem.
AU - Auerbach, Benedikt
AU - Giacon, Federico
AU - Kiltz, Eike
ID - 7966
SN - 0302-9743
T2 - Advances in Cryptology – EUROCRYPT 2020
TI - Everybody’s a target: Scalability in public-key encryption
VL - 12107
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Organic materials are known to feature long spin-diffusion times, originating in a generally small spin–orbit coupling observed in these systems. From that perspective, chiral molecules acting as efficient spin selectors pose a puzzle that attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Here, we revisit the physical origins of chiral-induced spin selectivity (CISS) and propose a simple analytic minimal model to describe it. The model treats a chiral molecule as an anisotropic wire with molecular dipole moments aligned arbitrarily with respect to the wire’s axes and is therefore quite general. Importantly, it shows that the helical structure of the molecule is not necessary to observe CISS and other chiral nonhelical molecules can also be considered as potential candidates for the CISS effect. We also show that the suggested simple model captures the main characteristics of CISS observed in the experiment, without the need for additional constraints employed in the previous studies. The results pave the way for understanding other related physical phenomena where the CISS effect plays an essential role.
AU - Ghazaryan, Areg
AU - Paltiel, Yossi
AU - Lemeshko, Mikhail
ID - 7968
IS - 21
JF - The Journal of Physical Chemistry C
SN - 1932-7447
TI - Analytic model of chiral-induced spin selectivity
VL - 124
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Multilayer graphene lattices allow for an additional tunability of the band structure by the strong perpendicular electric field. In particular, the emergence of the new multiple Dirac points in ABA stacked trilayer graphene subject to strong transverse electric fields was proposed theoretically and confirmed experimentally. These new Dirac points dubbed “gullies” emerge from the interplay between strong electric field and trigonal warping. In this work, we first characterize the properties of new emergent Dirac points and show that the electric field can be used to tune the distance between gullies in the momentum space. We demonstrate that the band structure has multiple Lifshitz transitions and higher-order singularity of “monkey saddle” type. Following the characterization of the band structure, we consider the spectrum of Landau levels and structure of their wave functions. In the limit of strong electric fields when gullies are well separated in momentum space, they give rise to triply degenerate Landau levels. In the second part of this work, we investigate how degeneracy between three gully Landau levels is lifted in the presence of interactions. Within the Hartree-Fock approximation we show that the symmetry breaking state interpolates between the fully gully polarized state that breaks C3 symmetry at high displacement field and the gully symmetric state when the electric field is decreased. The discontinuous transition between these two states is driven by enhanced intergully tunneling and exchange. We conclude by outlining specific experimental predictions for the existence of such a symmetry-breaking state.
AU - Rao, Peng
AU - Serbyn, Maksym
ID - 7971
IS - 24
JF - Physical Review B
SN - 2469-9950
TI - Gully quantum Hall ferromagnetism in biased trilayer graphene
VL - 101
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The goal of limiting global warming to 1.5 °C requires a drastic reduction in CO2 emissions across many sectors of the world economy. Batteries are vital to this endeavor, whether used in electric vehicles, to store renewable electricity, or in aviation. Present lithium-ion technologies are preparing the public for this inevitable change, but their maximum theoretical specific capacity presents a limitation. Their high cost is another concern for commercial viability. Metal–air batteries have the highest theoretical energy density of all possible secondary battery technologies and could yield step changes in energy storage, if their practical difficulties could be overcome. The scope of this review is to provide an objective, comprehensive, and authoritative assessment of the intensive work invested in nonaqueous rechargeable metal–air batteries over the past few years, which identified the key problems and guides directions to solve them. We focus primarily on the challenges and outlook for Li–O2 cells but include Na–O2, K–O2, and Mg–O2 cells for comparison. Our review highlights the interdisciplinary nature of this field that involves a combination of materials chemistry, electrochemistry, computation, microscopy, spectroscopy, and surface science. The mechanisms of O2 reduction and evolution are considered in the light of recent findings, along with developments in positive and negative electrodes, electrolytes, electrocatalysis on surfaces and in solution, and the degradative effect of singlet oxygen, which is typically formed in Li–O2 cells.
AU - Kwak, WJ
AU - Sharon, D
AU - Xia, C
AU - Kim, H
AU - Johnson, LR
AU - Bruce, PG
AU - Nazar, LF
AU - Sun, YK
AU - Frimer, AA
AU - Noked, M
AU - Freunberger, Stefan Alexander
AU - Aurbach, D
ID - 7985
IS - 14
JF - Chemical Reviews
SN - 0009-2665
TI - Lithium-oxygen batteries and related systems: Potential, status, and future
VL - 120
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We prove general topological Radon-type theorems for sets in ℝ^d, smooth real manifolds or finite dimensional simplicial complexes. Combined with a recent result of Holmsen and Lee, it gives fractional Helly theorem, and consequently the existence of weak ε-nets as well as a (p,q)-theorem. More precisely: Let X be either ℝ^d, smooth real d-manifold, or a finite d-dimensional simplicial complex. Then if F is a finite, intersection-closed family of sets in X such that the ith reduced Betti number (with ℤ₂ coefficients) of any set in F is at most b for every non-negative integer i less or equal to k, then the Radon number of F is bounded in terms of b and X. Here k is the smallest integer larger or equal to d/2 - 1 if X = ℝ^d; k=d-1 if X is a smooth real d-manifold and not a surface, k=0 if X is a surface and k=d if X is a d-dimensional simplicial complex. Using the recent result of the author and Kalai, we manage to prove the following optimal bound on fractional Helly number for families of open sets in a surface: Let F be a finite family of open sets in a surface S such that the intersection of any subfamily of F is either empty, or path-connected. Then the fractional Helly number of F is at most three. This also settles a conjecture of Holmsen, Kim, and Lee about an existence of a (p,q)-theorem for open subsets of a surface.
AU - Patakova, Zuzana
ID - 7989
SN - 18688969
T2 - 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry
TI - Bounding radon number via Betti numbers
VL - 164
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Given a finite point set P in general position in the plane, a full triangulation is a maximal straight-line embedded plane graph on P. A partial triangulation on P is a full triangulation of some subset P' of P containing all extreme points in P. A bistellar flip on a partial triangulation either flips an edge, removes a non-extreme point of degree 3, or adds a point in P ⧵ P' as vertex of degree 3. The bistellar flip graph has all partial triangulations as vertices, and a pair of partial triangulations is adjacent if they can be obtained from one another by a bistellar flip. The goal of this paper is to investigate the structure of this graph, with emphasis on its connectivity. For sets P of n points in general position, we show that the bistellar flip graph is (n-3)-connected, thereby answering, for sets in general position, an open questions raised in a book (by De Loera, Rambau, and Santos) and a survey (by Lee and Santos) on triangulations. This matches the situation for the subfamily of regular triangulations (i.e., partial triangulations obtained by lifting the points and projecting the lower convex hull), where (n-3)-connectivity has been known since the late 1980s through the secondary polytope (Gelfand, Kapranov, Zelevinsky) and Balinski’s Theorem. Our methods also yield the following results (see the full version [Wagner and Welzl, 2020]): (i) The bistellar flip graph can be covered by graphs of polytopes of dimension n-3 (products of secondary polytopes). (ii) A partial triangulation is regular, if it has distance n-3 in the Hasse diagram of the partial order of partial subdivisions from the trivial subdivision. (iii) All partial triangulations are regular iff the trivial subdivision has height n-3 in the partial order of partial subdivisions. (iv) There are arbitrarily large sets P with non-regular partial triangulations, while every proper subset has only regular triangulations, i.e., there are no small certificates for the existence of non-regular partial triangulations (answering a question by F. Santos in the unexpected direction).
AU - Wagner, Uli
AU - Welzl, Emo
ID - 7990
SN - 18688969
T2 - 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry
TI - Connectivity of triangulation flip graphs in the plane (Part II: Bistellar flips)
VL - 164
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We define and study a discrete process that generalizes the convex-layer decomposition of a planar point set. Our process, which we call homotopic curve shortening (HCS), starts with a closed curve (which might self-intersect) in the presence of a set P⊂ ℝ² of point obstacles, and evolves in discrete steps, where each step consists of (1) taking shortcuts around the obstacles, and (2) reducing the curve to its shortest homotopic equivalent. We find experimentally that, if the initial curve is held fixed and P is chosen to be either a very fine regular grid or a uniformly random point set, then HCS behaves at the limit like the affine curve-shortening flow (ACSF). This connection between HCS and ACSF generalizes the link between "grid peeling" and the ACSF observed by Eppstein et al. (2017), which applied only to convex curves, and which was studied only for regular grids. We prove that HCS satisfies some properties analogous to those of ACSF: HCS is invariant under affine transformations, preserves convexity, and does not increase the total absolute curvature. Furthermore, the number of self-intersections of a curve, or intersections between two curves (appropriately defined), does not increase. Finally, if the initial curve is simple, then the number of inflection points (appropriately defined) does not increase.
AU - Avvakumov, Sergey
AU - Nivasch, Gabriel
ID - 7991
SN - 18688969
T2 - 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry
TI - Homotopic curve shortening and the affine curve-shortening flow
VL - 164
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Let K be a convex body in ℝⁿ (i.e., a compact convex set with nonempty interior). Given a point p in the interior of K, a hyperplane h passing through p is called barycentric if p is the barycenter of K ∩ h. In 1961, Grünbaum raised the question whether, for every K, there exists an interior point p through which there are at least n+1 distinct barycentric hyperplanes. Two years later, this was seemingly resolved affirmatively by showing that this is the case if p=p₀ is the point of maximal depth in K. However, while working on a related question, we noticed that one of the auxiliary claims in the proof is incorrect. Here, we provide a counterexample; this re-opens Grünbaum’s question. It follows from known results that for n ≥ 2, there are always at least three distinct barycentric cuts through the point p₀ ∈ K of maximal depth. Using tools related to Morse theory we are able to improve this bound: four distinct barycentric cuts through p₀ are guaranteed if n ≥ 3.
AU - Patakova, Zuzana
AU - Tancer, Martin
AU - Wagner, Uli
ID - 7992
SN - 18688969
T2 - 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry
TI - Barycentric cuts through a convex body
VL - 164
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - In the recent study of crossing numbers, drawings of graphs that can be extended to an arrangement of pseudolines (pseudolinear drawings) have played an important role as they are a natural combinatorial extension of rectilinear (or straight-line) drawings. A characterization of the pseudolinear drawings of K_n was found recently. We extend this characterization to all graphs, by describing the set of minimal forbidden subdrawings for pseudolinear drawings. Our characterization also leads to a polynomial-time algorithm to recognize pseudolinear drawings and construct the pseudolines when it is possible.
AU - Arroyo Guevara, Alan M
AU - Bensmail, Julien
AU - Bruce Richter, R.
ID - 7994
SN - 18688969
T2 - 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry
TI - Extending drawings of graphs to arrangements of pseudolines
VL - 164
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We prove that the Yangian associated to an untwisted symmetric affine Kac–Moody Lie algebra is isomorphic to the Drinfeld double of a shuffle algebra. The latter is constructed in [YZ14] as an algebraic formalism of cohomological Hall algebras. As a consequence, we obtain the Poincare–Birkhoff–Witt (PBW) theorem for this class of affine Yangians. Another independent proof of the PBW theorem is given recently by Guay, Regelskis, and Wendlandt [GRW18].
AU - Yang, Yaping
AU - Zhao, Gufang
ID - 7940
JF - Transformation Groups
SN - 10834362
TI - The PBW theorem for affine Yangians
VL - 25
ER -
TY - CHAP
AB - Expansion microscopy is a recently developed super-resolution imaging technique, which provides an alternative to optics-based methods such as deterministic approaches (e.g. STED) or stochastic approaches (e.g. PALM/STORM). The idea behind expansion microscopy is to embed the biological sample in a swellable gel, and then to expand it isotropically, thereby increasing the distance between the fluorophores. This approach breaks the diffraction barrier by simply separating the emission point-spread-functions of the fluorophores. The resolution attainable in expansion microscopy is thus directly dependent on the separation that can be achieved, i.e. on the expansion factor. The original implementation of the technique achieved an expansion factor of fourfold, for a resolution of 70–80 nm. The subsequently developed X10 method achieves an expansion factor of 10-fold, for a resolution of 25–30 nm. This technique can be implemented with minimal technical requirements on any standard fluorescence microscope, and is more easily applied for multi-color imaging than either deterministic or stochastic super-resolution approaches. This renders X10 expansion microscopy a highly promising tool for new biological discoveries, as discussed here, and as demonstrated by several recent applications.
AU - Truckenbrodt, Sven M
AU - Rizzoli, Silvio O.
ID - 7941
SN - 0091679X
T2 - Methods in Cell Biology
TI - Simple multi-color super-resolution by X10 microscopy
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - An understanding of the missing antinodal electronic excitations in the pseudogap state is essential for uncovering the physics of the underdoped cuprate high-temperature superconductors1,2,3,4,5,6. The majority of high-temperature experiments performed thus far, however, have been unable to discern whether the antinodal states are rendered unobservable due to their damping or whether they vanish due to their gapping7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18. Here, we distinguish between these two scenarios by using quantum oscillations to examine whether the small Fermi surface pocket, found to occupy only 2% of the Brillouin zone in the underdoped cuprates19,20,21,22,23,24, exists in isolation against a majority of completely gapped density of states spanning the antinodes, or whether it is thermodynamically coupled to a background of ungapped antinodal states. We find that quantum oscillations associated with the small Fermi surface pocket exhibit a signature sawtooth waveform characteristic of an isolated two-dimensional Fermi surface pocket25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32. This finding reveals that the antinodal states are destroyed by a hard gap that extends over the majority of the Brillouin zone, placing strong constraints on a drastic underlying origin of quasiparticle disappearance over almost the entire Brillouin zone in the pseudogap regime7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18.
AU - Hartstein, Máté
AU - Hsu, Yu Te
AU - Modic, Kimberly A
AU - Porras, Juan
AU - Loew, Toshinao
AU - Tacon, Matthieu Le
AU - Zuo, Huakun
AU - Wang, Jinhua
AU - Zhu, Zengwei
AU - Chan, Mun K.
AU - Mcdonald, Ross D.
AU - Lonzarich, Gilbert G.
AU - Keimer, Bernhard
AU - Sebastian, Suchitra E.
AU - Harrison, Neil
ID - 7942
JF - Nature Physics
SN - 17452473
TI - Hard antinodal gap revealed by quantum oscillations in the pseudogap regime of underdoped high-Tc superconductors
VL - 16
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In agricultural systems, nitrate is the main source of nitrogen available for plants. Besides its role as a nutrient, nitrate has been shown to act as a signal molecule for plant growth, development and stress responses. In Arabidopsis, the NRT1.1 nitrate transceptor represses lateral root (LR) development at low nitrate availability by promoting auxin basipetal transport out of the LR primordia (LRPs). In addition, our present study shows that NRT1.1 acts as a negative regulator of the TAR2 auxin biosynthetic gene expression in the root stele. This is expected to repress local auxin biosynthesis and thus to reduce acropetal auxin supply to the LRPs. Moreover, NRT1.1 also negatively affects expression of the LAX3 auxin influx carrier, thus preventing cell wall remodeling required for overlying tissues separation during LRP emergence. Both NRT1.1-mediated repression of TAR2 and LAX3 are suppressed at high nitrate availability, resulting in the nitrate induction of TAR2 and LAX3 expression that is required for optimal stimulation of LR development by nitrate. Altogether, our results indicate that the NRT1.1 transceptor coordinately controls several crucial auxin-associated processes required for LRP development, and as a consequence that NRT1.1 plays a much more integrated role than previously anticipated in regulating the nitrate response of root system architecture.
AU - Maghiaoui, A
AU - Bouguyon, E
AU - Cuesta, Candela
AU - Perrine-Walker, F
AU - Alcon, C
AU - Krouk, G
AU - Benková, Eva
AU - Nacry, P
AU - Gojon, A
AU - Bach, L
ID - 7948
IS - 15
JF - Journal of Experimental Botany
SN - 0022-0957
TI - The Arabidopsis NRT1.1 transceptor coordinately controls auxin biosynthesis and transport to regulate root branching in response to nitrate
VL - 71
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Peptides derived from non-functional precursors play important roles in various developmental processes, but also in (a)biotic stress signaling. Our (phospho)proteome-wide analyses of C-terminally encoded peptide 5 (CEP5)-mediated changes revealed an impact on abiotic stress-related processes. Drought has a dramatic impact on plant growth, development and reproduction, and the plant hormone auxin plays a role in drought responses. Our genetic, physiological, biochemical and pharmacological results demonstrated that CEP5-mediated signaling is relevant for osmotic and drought stress tolerance in Arabidopsis, and that CEP5 specifically counteracts auxin effects. Specifically, we found that CEP5 signaling stabilizes AUX/IAA transcriptional repressors, suggesting the existence of a novel peptide-dependent control mechanism that tunes auxin signaling. These observations align with the recently described role of AUX/IAAs in stress tolerance and provide a novel role for CEP5 in osmotic and drought stress tolerance.
AU - Smith, S
AU - Zhu, S
AU - Joos, L
AU - Roberts, I
AU - Nikonorova, N
AU - Vu, LD
AU - Stes, E
AU - Cho, H
AU - Larrieu, A
AU - Xuan, W
AU - Goodall, B
AU - van de Cotte, B
AU - Waite, JM
AU - Rigal, A
AU - R Harborough, SR
AU - Persiau, G
AU - Vanneste, S
AU - Kirschner, GK
AU - Vandermarliere, E
AU - Martens, L
AU - Stahl, Y
AU - Audenaert, D
AU - Friml, Jiří
AU - Felix, G
AU - Simon, R
AU - Bennett, M
AU - Bishopp, A
AU - De Jaeger, G
AU - Ljung, K
AU - Kepinski, S
AU - Robert, S
AU - Nemhauser, J
AU - Hwang, I
AU - Gevaert, K
AU - Beeckman, T
AU - De Smet, I
ID - 7949
IS - 8
JF - Molecular & Cellular Proteomics
SN - 1535-9476
TI - The CEP5 peptide promotes abiotic stress tolerance, as revealed by quantitative proteomics, and attenuates the AUX/IAA equilibrium in Arabidopsis
VL - 19
ER -
TY - THES
AB - This thesis considers two examples of reconfiguration problems: flipping edges in edge-labelled triangulations of planar point sets and swapping labelled tokens placed on vertices of a graph. In both cases the studied structures – all the triangulations of a given point set or all token placements on a given graph – can be thought of as vertices of the so-called reconfiguration graph, in which two vertices are adjacent if the corresponding structures differ by a single elementary operation – by a flip of a diagonal in a triangulation or by a swap of tokens on adjacent vertices, respectively. We study the reconfiguration of one instance of a structure into another via (shortest) paths in the reconfiguration graph.
For triangulations of point sets in which each edge has a unique label and a flip transfers the label from the removed edge to the new edge, we prove a polynomial-time testable condition, called the Orbit Theorem, that characterizes when two triangulations of the same point set lie in the same connected component of the reconfiguration graph. The condition was first conjectured by Bose, Lubiw, Pathak and Verdonschot. We additionally provide a polynomial time algorithm that computes a reconfiguring flip sequence, if it exists. Our proof of the Orbit Theorem uses topological properties of a certain high-dimensional cell complex that has the usual reconfiguration graph as its 1-skeleton.
In the context of token swapping on a tree graph, we make partial progress on the problem of finding shortest reconfiguration sequences. We disprove the so-called Happy Leaf Conjecture and demonstrate the importance of swapping tokens that are already placed at the correct vertices. We also prove that a generalization of the problem to weighted coloured token swapping is NP-hard on trees but solvable in polynomial time on paths and stars.
AU - Masárová, Zuzana
ID - 7944
KW - reconfiguration
KW - reconfiguration graph
KW - triangulations
KW - flip
KW - constrained triangulations
KW - shellability
KW - piecewise-linear balls
KW - token swapping
KW - trees
KW - coloured weighted token swapping
SN - 978-3-99078-005-3
TI - Reconfiguration problems
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We design fast deterministic algorithms for distance computation in the Congested Clique model. Our key contributions include:
A (2+ϵ)-approximation for all-pairs shortest paths in O(log2n/ϵ) rounds on unweighted undirected graphs. With a small additional additive factor, this also applies for weighted graphs. This is the first sub-polynomial constant-factor approximation for APSP in this model.
A (1+ϵ)-approximation for multi-source shortest paths from O(n−−√) sources in O(log2n/ϵ) rounds on weighted undirected graphs. This is the first sub-polynomial algorithm obtaining this approximation for a set of sources of polynomial size.
Our main techniques are new distance tools that are obtained via improved algorithms for sparse matrix multiplication, which we leverage to construct efficient hopsets and shortest paths. Furthermore, our techniques extend to additional distance problems for which we improve upon the state-of-the-art, including diameter approximation, and an exact single-source shortest paths algorithm for weighted undirected graphs in O~(n1/6) rounds.
AU - Censor-Hillel, Keren
AU - Dory, Michal
AU - Korhonen, Janne
AU - Leitersdorf, Dean
ID - 7939
JF - Distributed Computing
SN - 01782770
TI - Fast approximate shortest paths in the congested clique
ER -
TY - THES
AB - Algorithms in computational 3-manifold topology typically take a triangulation as an input and return topological information about the underlying 3-manifold. However, extracting the desired information from a triangulation (e.g., evaluating an invariant) is often computationally very expensive. In recent years this complexity barrier has been successfully tackled in some cases by importing ideas from the theory of parameterized algorithms into the realm of 3-manifolds. Various computationally hard problems were shown to be efficiently solvable for input triangulations that are sufficiently “tree-like.”
In this thesis we focus on the key combinatorial parameter in the above context: we consider the treewidth of a compact, orientable 3-manifold, i.e., the smallest treewidth of the dual graph of any triangulation thereof. By building on the work of Scharlemann–Thompson and Scharlemann–Schultens–Saito on generalized Heegaard splittings, and on the work of Jaco–Rubinstein on layered triangulations, we establish quantitative relations between the treewidth and classical topological invariants of a 3-manifold. In particular, among other results, we show that the treewidth of a closed, orientable, irreducible, non-Haken 3-manifold is always within a constant factor of its Heegaard genus.
AU - Huszár, Kristóf
ID - 8032
SN - 2663-337X
TI - Combinatorial width parameters for 3-dimensional manifolds
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - When tiny soft ferromagnetic particles are placed along a liquid interface and exposed to a vertical magnetic field, the balance between capillary attraction and magnetic repulsion leads to self-organization into well-defined patterns. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that precessing magnetic fields induce metachronal waves on the periphery of these assemblies, similar to the ones observed in ciliates and some arthropods. The outermost layer of particles behaves like an array of cilia or legs whose sequential movement causes a net and controllable locomotion. This bioinspired many-particle swimming strategy is effective even at low Reynolds number, using only spatially uniform fields to generate the waves.
AU - Collard, Ylona
AU - Grosjean, Galien M
AU - Vandewalle, Nicolas
ID - 8036
JF - Communications Physics
TI - Magnetically powered metachronal waves induce locomotion in self-assemblies
VL - 3
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Genetic perturbations that affect bacterial resistance to antibiotics have been characterized genome-wide, but how do such perturbations interact with subsequent evolutionary adaptation to the drug? Here, we show that strong epistasis between resistance mutations and systematically identified genes can be exploited to control spontaneous resistance evolution. We evolved hundreds of Escherichia coli K-12 mutant populations in parallel, using a robotic platform that tightly controls population size and selection pressure. We find a global diminishing-returns epistasis pattern: strains that are initially more sensitive generally undergo larger resistance gains. However, some gene deletion strains deviate from this general trend and curtail the evolvability of resistance, including deletions of genes for membrane transport, LPS biosynthesis, and chaperones. Deletions of efflux pump genes force evolution on inferior mutational paths, not explored in the wild type, and some of these essentially block resistance evolution. This effect is due to strong negative epistasis with resistance mutations. The identified genes and cellular functions provide potential targets for development of adjuvants that may block spontaneous resistance evolution when combined with antibiotics.
AU - Lukacisinova, Marta
AU - Fernando, Booshini
AU - Bollenbach, Mark Tobias
ID - 8037
JF - Nature Communications
TI - Highly parallel lab evolution reveals that epistasis can curb the evolution of antibiotic resistance
VL - 11
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Microelectromechanical systems and integrated photonics provide the basis for many reliable and compact circuit elements in modern communication systems. Electro-opto-mechanical devices are currently one of the leading approaches to realize ultra-sensitive, low-loss transducers for an emerging quantum information technology. Here we present an on-chip microwave frequency converter based on a planar aluminum on silicon nitride platform that is compatible with slot-mode coupled photonic crystal cavities. We show efficient frequency conversion between two propagating microwave modes mediated by the radiation pressure interaction with a metalized dielectric nanobeam oscillator. We achieve bidirectional coherent conversion with a total device efficiency of up to ~60%, a dynamic range of 2 × 10^9 photons/s and an instantaneous bandwidth of up to 1.7 kHz. A high fidelity quantum state transfer would be possible if the drive dependent output noise of currently ~14 photons s^−1 Hz^−1 is further reduced. Such a silicon nitride based transducer is in situ reconfigurable and could be used for on-chip classical and quantum signal routing and filtering, both for microwave and hybrid microwave-optical applications.
AU - Fink, Johannes M
AU - Kalaee, M.
AU - Norte, R.
AU - Pitanti, A.
AU - Painter, O.
ID - 8038
IS - 3
JF - Quantum Science and Technology
TI - Efficient microwave frequency conversion mediated by a photonics compatible silicon nitride nanobeam oscillator
VL - 5
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In the present work, we report a solution-based strategy to produce crystallographically textured SnSe bulk nanomaterials and printed layers with optimized thermoelectric performance in the direction normal to the substrate. Our strategy is based on the formulation of a molecular precursor that can be continuously decomposed to produce a SnSe powder or printed into predefined patterns. The precursor formulation and decomposition conditions are optimized to produce pure phase 2D SnSe nanoplates. The printed layer and the bulk material obtained after hot press displays a clear preferential orientation of the crystallographic domains, resulting in an ultralow thermal conductivity of 0.55 W m–1 K–1 in the direction normal to the substrate. Such textured nanomaterials present highly anisotropic properties with the best thermoelectric performance in plane, i.e., in the directions parallel to the substrate, which coincide with the crystallographic bc plane of SnSe. This is an unfortunate characteristic because thermoelectric devices are designed to create/harvest temperature gradients in the direction normal to the substrate. We further demonstrate that this limitation can be overcome with the introduction of small amounts of tellurium in the precursor. The presence of tellurium allows one to reduce the band gap and increase both the charge carrier concentration and the mobility, especially the cross plane, with a minimal decrease of the Seebeck coefficient. These effects translate into record out of plane ZT values at 800 K.
AU - Zhang, Yu
AU - Liu, Yu
AU - Xing, Congcong
AU - Zhang, Ting
AU - Li, Mengyao
AU - Pacios, Mercè
AU - Yu, Xiaoting
AU - Arbiol, Jordi
AU - Llorca, Jordi
AU - Cadavid, Doris
AU - Ibáñez, Maria
AU - Cabot, Andreu
ID - 8039
IS - 24
JF - ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
TI - Tin selenide molecular precursor for the solution processing of thermoelectric materials and devices
VL - 12
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The mitochondrial respiratory chain, formed by five protein complexes, utilizes energy from catabolic processes to synthesize ATP. Complex I, the first and the largest protein complex of the chain, harvests electrons from NADH to reduce quinone, while pumping protons across the mitochondrial membrane. Detailed knowledge of the working principle of such coupled charge-transfer processes remains, however, fragmentary due to bottlenecks in understanding redox-driven conformational transitions and their interplay with the hydrated proton pathways. Complex I from Thermus thermophilus encases 16 subunits with nine iron–sulfur clusters, reduced by electrons from NADH. Here, employing the latest crystal structure of T. thermophilus complex I, we have used microsecond-scale molecular dynamics simulations to study the chemo-mechanical coupling between redox changes of the iron–sulfur clusters and conformational transitions across complex I. First, we identify the redox switches within complex I, which allosterically couple the dynamics of the quinone binding pocket to the site of NADH reduction. Second, our free-energy calculations reveal that the affinity of the quinone, specifically menaquinone, for the binding-site is higher than that of its reduced, menaquinol form—a design essential for menaquinol release. Remarkably, the barriers to diffusive menaquinone dynamics are lesser than that of the more ubiquitous ubiquinone, and the naphthoquinone headgroup of the former furnishes stronger binding interactions with the pocket, favoring menaquinone for charge transport in T. thermophilus. Our computations are consistent with experimentally validated mutations and hierarchize the key residues into three functional classes, identifying new mutation targets. Third, long-range hydrogen-bond networks connecting the quinone-binding site to the transmembrane subunits are found to be responsible for proton pumping. Put together, the simulations reveal the molecular design principles linking redox reactions to quinone turnover to proton translocation in complex I.
AU - Gupta, Chitrak
AU - Khaniya, Umesh
AU - Chan, Chun Kit
AU - Dehez, Francois
AU - Shekhar, Mrinal
AU - Gunner, M. R.
AU - Sazanov, Leonid A
AU - Chipot, Christophe
AU - Singharoy, Abhishek
ID - 8040
IS - 20
JF - Journal of the American Chemical Society
SN - 00027863
TI - Charge transfer and chemo-mechanical coupling in respiratory complex I
VL - 142
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider systems of N bosons in a box of volume one, interacting through a repulsive two-body potential of the form κN3β−1V(Nβx). For all 0<β<1, and for sufficiently small coupling constant κ>0, we establish the validity of Bogolyubov theory, identifying the ground state energy and the low-lying excitation spectrum up to errors that vanish in the limit of large N.
AU - Boccato, Chiara
AU - Brennecke, Christian
AU - Cenatiempo, Serena
AU - Schlein, Benjamin
ID - 8042
IS - 7
JF - Journal of the European Mathematical Society
SN - 14359855
TI - The excitation spectrum of Bose gases interacting through singular potentials
VL - 22
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - With decreasing Reynolds number, Re, turbulence in channel flow becomes spatio-temporally intermittent and self-organises into solitary stripes oblique to the mean flow direction. We report here the existence of localised nonlinear travelling wave solutions of the Navier–Stokes equations possessing this obliqueness property. Such solutions are identified numerically using edge tracking coupled with arclength continuation. All solutions emerge in saddle-node bifurcations at values of Re lower than the non-localised solutions. Relative periodic orbit solutions bifurcating from branches of travelling waves have also been computed. A complete parametric study is performed, including their stability, the investigation of their large-scale flow, and the robustness to changes of the numerical domain.
AU - Paranjape, Chaitanya S
AU - Duguet, Yohann
AU - Hof, Björn
ID - 8043
JF - Journal of Fluid Mechanics
SN - 00221120
TI - Oblique stripe solutions of channel flow
VL - 897
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Water-in-salt electrolytes based on highly concentrated bis(trifluoromethyl)sulfonimide (TFSI) promise aqueous electrolytes with stabilities approaching 3 V. However, especially with an electrode approaching the cathodic (reductive) stability, cycling stability is insufficient. While stability critically relies on a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), the mechanism behind the cathodic stability limit remains unclear. Here, we reveal two distinct reduction potentials for the chemical environments of ‘free’ and ‘bound’ water and that both contribute to SEI formation. Free-water is reduced ~1V above bound water in a hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and responsible for SEI formation via reactive intermediates of the HER; concurrent LiTFSI precipitation/dissolution establishes a dynamic interface. The free-water population emerges, therefore, as the handle to extend the cathodic limit of aqueous electrolytes and the battery cycling stability.
AU - Bouchal, Roza
AU - Li, Zhujie
AU - Bongu, Chandra
AU - Le Vot, Steven
AU - Berthelot, Romain
AU - Rotenberg, Benjamin
AU - Favier, Frederic
AU - Freunberger, Stefan Alexander
AU - Salanne, Mathieu
AU - Fontaine, Olivier
ID - 8057
IS - 37
JF - Angewandte Chemie
SN - 0044-8249
TI - Competitive salt precipitation/dissolution during free‐water reduction in water‐in‐salt electrolyte
VL - 132
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The projection methods with vanilla inertial extrapolation step for variational inequalities have been of interest to many authors recently due to the improved convergence speed contributed by the presence of inertial extrapolation step. However, it is discovered that these projection methods with inertial steps lose the Fejér monotonicity of the iterates with respect to the solution, which is being enjoyed by their corresponding non-inertial projection methods for variational inequalities. This lack of Fejér monotonicity makes projection methods with vanilla inertial extrapolation step for variational inequalities not to converge faster than their corresponding non-inertial projection methods at times. Also, it has recently been proved that the projection methods with vanilla inertial extrapolation step may provide convergence rates that are worse than the classical projected gradient methods for strongly convex functions. In this paper, we introduce projection methods with alternated inertial extrapolation step for solving variational inequalities. We show that the sequence of iterates generated by our methods converges weakly to a solution of the variational inequality under some appropriate conditions. The Fejér monotonicity of even subsequence is recovered in these methods and linear rate of convergence is obtained. The numerical implementations of our methods compared with some other inertial projection methods show that our method is more efficient and outperforms some of these inertial projection methods.
AU - Shehu, Yekini
AU - Iyiola, Olaniyi S.
ID - 8077
JF - Applied Numerical Mathematics
SN - 0168-9274
TI - Projection methods with alternating inertial steps for variational inequalities: Weak and linear convergence
VL - 157
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - Here, we employ micro- and nanosized cellulose particles, namely paper fines and cellulose
nanocrystals, to induce hierarchical organization over a wide length scale. After processing
them into carbonaceous materials, we demonstrate that these hierarchically organized materials
outperform the best materials for supercapacitors operating with organic electrolytes reported
in literature in terms of specific energy/power (Ragone plot) while showing hardly any capacity
fade over 4,000 cycles. The highly porous materials feature a specific surface area as high as
2500 m2ˑg-1 and exhibit pore sizes in the range of 0.5 to 200 nm as proven by scanning electron
microscopy and N2 physisorption. The carbonaceous materials have been further investigated
by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and RAMAN spectroscopy. Since paper fines are an
underutilized side stream in any paper production process, they are a cheap and highly available
feedstock to prepare carbonaceous materials with outstanding performance in electrochemical
applications.
AU - Hobisch, Mathias A.
AU - Mourad, Eléonore
AU - Fischer, Wolfgang J.
AU - Prehal, Christian
AU - Eyley, Samuel
AU - Childress, Anthony
AU - Zankel, Armin
AU - Mautner, Andreas
AU - Breitenbach, Stefan
AU - Rao, Apparao M.
AU - Thielemans, Wim
AU - Freunberger, Stefan Alexander
AU - Eckhart, Rene
AU - Bauer, Wolfgang
AU - Spirk, Stefan
ID - 8081
TI - High specific capacitance supercapacitors from hierarchically organized all-cellulose composites
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Origin and functions of intermittent transitions among sleep stages, including brief awakenings and arousals, constitute a challenge to the current homeostatic framework for sleep regulation, focusing on factors modulating sleep over large time scales. Here we propose that the complex micro-architecture characterizing sleep on scales of seconds and minutes results from intrinsic non-equilibrium critical dynamics. We investigate θ- and δ-wave dynamics in control rats and in rats where the sleep-promoting ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) is lesioned (male Sprague-Dawley rats). We demonstrate that bursts in θ and δ cortical rhythms exhibit complex temporal organization, with long-range correlations and robust duality of power-law (θ-bursts, active phase) and exponential-like (δ-bursts, quiescent phase) duration distributions, features typical of non-equilibrium systems self-organizing at criticality. We show that such non-equilibrium behavior relates to anti-correlated coupling between θ- and δ-bursts, persists across a range of time scales, and is independent of the dominant physiologic state; indications of a basic principle in sleep regulation. Further, we find that VLPO lesions lead to a modulation of cortical dynamics resulting in altered dynamical parameters of θ- and δ-bursts and significant reduction in θ–δ coupling. Our empirical findings and model simulations demonstrate that θ–δ coupling is essential for the emerging non-equilibrium critical dynamics observed across the sleep–wake cycle, and indicate that VLPO neurons may have dual role for both sleep and arousal/brief wake activation. The uncovered critical behavior in sleep- and wake-related cortical rhythms indicates a mechanism essential for the micro-architecture of spontaneous sleep-stage and arousal transitions within a novel, non-homeostatic paradigm of sleep regulation.
AU - Lombardi, Fabrizio
AU - Gómez-Extremera, Manuel
AU - Bernaola-Galván, Pedro
AU - Vetrivelan, Ramalingam
AU - Saper, Clifford B.
AU - Scammell, Thomas E.
AU - Ivanov, Plamen Ch.
ID - 8084
IS - 1
JF - Journal of Neuroscience
SN - 0270-6474
TI - Critical dynamics and coupling in bursts of cortical rhythms indicate non-homeostatic mechanism for sleep-stage transitions and dual role of VLPO neurons in both sleep and wake
VL - 40
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In the setting of the fractional quantum Hall effect we study the effects of strong, repulsive two-body interaction potentials of short range. We prove that Haldane’s pseudo-potential operators, including their pre-factors, emerge as mathematically rigorous limits of such interactions when the range of the potential tends to zero while its strength tends to infinity. In a common approach the interaction potential is expanded in angular momentum eigenstates in the lowest Landau level, which amounts to taking the pre-factors to be the moments of the potential. Such a procedure is not appropriate for very strong interactions, however, in particular not in the case of hard spheres. We derive the formulas valid in the short-range case, which involve the scattering lengths of the interaction potential in different angular momentum channels rather than its moments. Our results hold for bosons and fermions alike and generalize previous results in [6], which apply to bosons in the lowest angular momentum channel. Our main theorem asserts the convergence in a norm-resolvent sense of the Hamiltonian on the whole Hilbert space, after appropriate energy scalings, to Hamiltonians with contact interactions in the lowest Landau level.
AU - Seiringer, Robert
AU - Yngvason, Jakob
ID - 8091
JF - Journal of Statistical Physics
SN - 00224715
TI - Emergence of Haldane pseudo-potentials in systems with short-range interactions
VL - 181
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - We present a generative model of images that explicitly reasons over the set
of objects they show. Our model learns a structured latent representation that
separates objects from each other and from the background; unlike prior works,
it explicitly represents the 2D position and depth of each object, as well as
an embedding of its segmentation mask and appearance. The model can be trained
from images alone in a purely unsupervised fashion without the need for object
masks or depth information. Moreover, it always generates complete objects,
even though a significant fraction of training images contain occlusions.
Finally, we show that our model can infer decompositions of novel images into
their constituent objects, including accurate prediction of depth ordering and
segmentation of occluded parts.
AU - Anciukevicius, Titas
AU - Lampert, Christoph
AU - Henderson, Paul M
ID - 8063
T2 - arXiv
TI - Object-centric image generation with factored depths, locations, and appearances
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In mammalian genomes, a subset of genes is regulated by genomic imprinting, resulting in silencing of one parental allele. Imprinting is essential for cerebral cortex development, but prevalence and functional impact in individual cells is unclear. Here, we determined allelic expression in cortical cell types and established a quantitative platform to interrogate imprinting in single cells. We created cells with uniparental chromosome disomy (UPD) containing two copies of either the maternal or the paternal chromosome; hence, imprinted genes will be 2-fold overexpressed or not expressed. By genetic labeling of UPD, we determined cellular phenotypes and transcriptional responses to deregulated imprinted gene expression at unprecedented single-cell resolution. We discovered an unexpected degree of cell-type specificity and a novel function of imprinting in the regulation of cortical astrocyte survival. More generally, our results suggest functional relevance of imprinted gene expression in glial astrocyte lineage and thus for generating cortical cell-type diversity.
AU - Laukoter, Susanne
AU - Pauler, Florian
AU - Beattie, Robert J
AU - Amberg, Nicole
AU - Hansen, Andi H
AU - Streicher, Carmen
AU - Penz, Thomas
AU - Bock, Christoph
AU - Hippenmeyer, Simon
ID - 8162
IS - 6
JF - Neuron
SN - 0896-6273
TI - Cell-type specificity of genomic imprinting in cerebral cortex
VL - 107
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Fejes Tóth [3] studied approximations of smooth surfaces in three-space by piecewise flat triangular meshes with a given number of vertices on the surface that are optimal with respect to Hausdorff distance. He proves that this Hausdorff distance decreases inversely proportional with the number of vertices of the approximating mesh if the surface is convex. He also claims that this Hausdorff distance is inversely proportional to the square of the number of vertices for a specific non-convex surface, namely a one-sheeted hyperboloid of revolution bounded by two congruent circles. We refute this claim, and show that the asymptotic behavior of the Hausdorff distance is linear, that is the same as for convex surfaces.
AU - Vegter, Gert
AU - Wintraecken, Mathijs
ID - 8163
IS - 2
JF - Studia Scientiarum Mathematicarum Hungarica
SN - 0081-6906
TI - Refutation of a claim made by Fejes Tóth on the accuracy of surface meshes
VL - 57
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The evolution of strong reproductive isolation (RI) is fundamental to the origins and maintenance of biological diversity, especially in situations where geographical distributions of taxa broadly overlap. But what is the history behind strong barriers currently acting in sympatry? Using whole-genome sequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping, we inferred (i) the evolutionary relationships, (ii) the strength of RI, and (iii) the demographic history of divergence between two broadly sympatric taxa of intertidal snail. Despite being cryptic, based on external morphology, Littorina arcana and Littorina saxatilis differ in their mode of female reproduction (egg-laying versus brooding), which may generate a strong post-zygotic barrier. We show that egg-laying and brooding snails are closely related, but genetically distinct. Genotyping of 3092 snails from three locations failed to recover any recent hybrid or backcrossed individuals, confirming that RI is strong. There was, however, evidence for a very low level of asymmetrical introgression, suggesting that isolation remains incomplete. The presence of strong, asymmetrical RI was further supported by demographic analysis of these populations. Although the taxa are currently broadly sympatric, demographic modelling suggests that they initially diverged during a short period of geographical separation involving very low gene flow. Our study suggests that some geographical separation may kick-start the evolution of strong RI, facilitating subsequent coexistence of taxa in sympatry. The strength of RI needed to achieve sympatry and the subsequent effect of sympatry on RI remain open questions.
AU - Stankowski, Sean
AU - Westram, Anja M
AU - Zagrodzka, Zuzanna B.
AU - Eyres, Isobel
AU - Broquet, Thomas
AU - Johannesson, Kerstin
AU - Butlin, Roger K.
ID - 8167
IS - 1806
JF - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. Series B: Biological Sciences
TI - The evolution of strong reproductive isolation between sympatric intertidal snails
VL - 375
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Speciation, that is, the evolution of reproductive barriers eventually leading to complete isolation, is a crucial process generating biodiversity. Recent work has contributed much to our understanding of how reproductive barriers begin to evolve, and how they are maintained in the face of gene flow. However, little is known about the transition from partial to strong reproductive isolation (RI) and the completion of speciation. We argue that the evolution of strong RI is likely to involve different processes, or new interactions among processes, compared with the evolution of the first reproductive barriers. Transition to strong RI may be brought about by changing external conditions, for example, following secondary contact. However, the increasing levels of RI themselves create opportunities for new barriers to evolve and, and interaction or coupling among barriers. These changing processes may depend on genomic architecture and leave detectable signals in the genome. We outline outstanding questions and suggest more theoretical and empirical work, considering both patterns and processes associated with strong RI, is needed to understand how speciation is completed.
AU - Kulmuni, Jonna
AU - Butlin, Roger K.
AU - Lucek, Kay
AU - Savolainen, Vincent
AU - Westram, Anja M
ID - 8168
IS - 1806
JF - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. Series B: Biological sciences
SN - 0962-8436
TI - Towards the completion of speciation: The evolution of reproductive isolation beyond the first barriers
VL - 375
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Many recent studies have addressed the mechanisms operating during the early stages of speciation, but surprisingly few studies have tested theoretical predictions on the evolution of strong reproductive isolation (RI). To help address this gap, we first undertook a quantitative review of the hybrid zone literature for flowering plants in relation to reproductive barriers. Then, using Populus as an exemplary model group, we analysed genome-wide variation for phylogenetic tree topologies in both early- and late-stage speciation taxa to determine how these patterns may be related to the genomic architecture of RI. Our plant literature survey revealed variation in barrier complexity and an association between barrier number and introgressive gene flow. Focusing on Populus, our genome-wide analysis of tree topologies in speciating poplar taxa points to unusually complex genomic architectures of RI, consistent with earlier genome-wide association studies. These architectures appear to facilitate the ‘escape’ of introgressed genome segments from polygenic barriers even with strong RI, thus affecting their relationships with recombination rates. Placed within the context of the broader literature, our data illustrate how phylogenomic approaches hold great promise for addressing the evolution and temporary breakdown of RI during late stages of speciation.
AU - Shang, Huiying
AU - Hess, Jaqueline
AU - Pickup, Melinda
AU - Field, David
AU - Ingvarsson, Pär K.
AU - Liu, Jianquan
AU - Lexer, Christian
ID - 8169
IS - 1806
JF - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. Series B: Biological Sciences
TI - Evolution of strong reproductive isolation in plants: Broad-scale patterns and lessons from a perennial model group
VL - 375
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Alignment of OCS, CS2, and I2 molecules embedded in helium nanodroplets is measured as a function
of time following rotational excitation by a nonresonant, comparatively weak ps laser pulse. The distinct
peaks in the power spectra, obtained by Fourier analysis, are used to determine the rotational, B, and
centrifugal distortion, D, constants. For OCS, B and D match the values known from IR spectroscopy. For
CS2 and I2, they are the first experimental results reported. The alignment dynamics calculated from the
gas-phase rotational Schrödinger equation, using the experimental in-droplet B and D values, agree in
detail with the measurement for all three molecules. The rotational spectroscopy technique for molecules in
helium droplets introduced here should apply to a range of molecules and complexes.
AU - Chatterley, Adam S.
AU - Christiansen, Lars
AU - Schouder, Constant A.
AU - Jørgensen, Anders V.
AU - Shepperson, Benjamin
AU - Cherepanov, Igor
AU - Bighin, Giacomo
AU - Zillich, Robert E.
AU - Lemeshko, Mikhail
AU - Stapelfeldt, Henrik
ID - 8170
IS - 1
JF - Physical Review Letters
SN - 00319007
TI - Rotational coherence spectroscopy of molecules in Helium nanodroplets: Reconciling the time and the frequency domains
VL - 125
ER -
TY - CHAP
AB - Understanding how the activity of membrane receptors and cellular signaling pathways shapes cell behavior is of fundamental interest in basic and applied research. Reengineering receptors to react to light instead of their cognate ligands allows for generating defined signaling inputs with high spatial and temporal precision and facilitates the dissection of complex signaling networks. Here, we describe fundamental considerations in the design of light-regulated receptor tyrosine kinases (Opto-RTKs) and appropriate control experiments. We also introduce methods for transient receptor expression in HEK293 cells, quantitative assessment of signaling activity in reporter gene assays, semiquantitative assessment of (in)activation time courses through Western blot (WB) analysis, and easy to implement light stimulation hardware.
AU - Kainrath, Stephanie
AU - Janovjak, Harald L
ED - Niopek, Dominik
ID - 8173
T2 - Photoswitching Proteins
TI - Design and application of light-regulated receptor tyrosine kinases
VL - 2173
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Numerous methods have been proposed for probabilistic generative modelling of
3D objects. However, none of these is able to produce textured objects, which
renders them of limited use for practical tasks. In this work, we present the
first generative model of textured 3D meshes. Training such a model would
traditionally require a large dataset of textured meshes, but unfortunately,
existing datasets of meshes lack detailed textures. We instead propose a new
training methodology that allows learning from collections of 2D images without
any 3D information. To do so, we train our model to explain a distribution of
images by modelling each image as a 3D foreground object placed in front of a
2D background. Thus, it learns to generate meshes that when rendered, produce
images similar to those in its training set.
A well-known problem when generating meshes with deep networks is the
emergence of self-intersections, which are problematic for many use-cases. As a
second contribution we therefore introduce a new generation process for 3D
meshes that guarantees no self-intersections arise, based on the physical
intuition that faces should push one another out of the way as they move.
We conduct extensive experiments on our approach, reporting quantitative and
qualitative results on both synthetic data and natural images. These show our
method successfully learns to generate plausible and diverse textured 3D
samples for five challenging object classes.
AU - Henderson, Paul M
AU - Tsiminaki, Vagia
AU - Lampert, Christoph
ID - 8186
T2 - Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
TI - Leveraging 2D data to learn textured 3D mesh generation
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - A natural approach to generative modeling of videos is to represent them as a composition of moving objects. Recent works model a set of 2D sprites over a slowly-varying background, but without considering the underlying 3D scene that
gives rise to them. We instead propose to model a video as the view seen while moving through a scene with multiple 3D objects and a 3D background. Our model is trained from monocular videos without any supervision, yet learns to
generate coherent 3D scenes containing several moving objects. We conduct detailed experiments on two datasets, going beyond the visual complexity supported by state-of-the-art generative approaches. We evaluate our method on
depth-prediction and 3D object detection---tasks which cannot be addressed by those earlier works---and show it out-performs them even on 2D instance segmentation and tracking.
AU - Henderson, Paul M
AU - Lampert, Christoph
ID - 8188
T2 - arXiv
TI - Unsupervised object-centric video generation and decomposition in 3D
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) show a huge potential to power future electric vehicles and portable electronics, but their deployment is currently limited by the unavailability of proper electrocatalysis for the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). In this work, we engineer a new electrocatalyst by incorporating phosphorous into a palladium-tin alloy and demonstrate a significant performance improvement toward EOR. We first detail a synthetic method to produce Pd2Sn:P nanocrystals that incorporate 35% of phosphorus. These nanoparticles are supported on carbon black and tested for EOR. Pd2Sn:P/C catalysts exhibit mass current densities up to 5.03 A mgPd−1, well above those of Pd2Sn/C, PdP2/C and Pd/C reference catalysts. Furthermore, a twofold lower Tafel slope and a much longer durability are revealed for the Pd2Sn:P/C catalyst compared with Pd/C. The performance improvement is rationalized with the aid of density functional theory (DFT) calculations considering different phosphorous chemical environments. Depending on its oxidation state, surface phosphorus introduces sites with low energy OH− adsorption and/or strongly influences the electronic structure of palladium and tin to facilitate the oxidation of the acetyl to acetic acid, which is considered the EOR rate limiting step. DFT calculations also points out that the durability improvement of Pd2Sn:P/C catalyst is associated to the promotion of OH adsorption that accelerates the oxidation of intermediate poisoning COads, reactivating the catalyst surface.
AU - Yu, Xiaoting
AU - Liu, Junfeng
AU - Li, Junshan
AU - Luo, Zhishan
AU - Zuo, Yong
AU - Xing, Congcong
AU - Llorca, Jordi
AU - Nasiou, Déspina
AU - Arbiol, Jordi
AU - Pan, Kai
AU - Kleinhanns, Tobias
AU - Xie, Ying
AU - Cabot, Andreu
ID - 8189
IS - 11
JF - Nano Energy
SN - 2211-2855
TI - Phosphorous incorporation in Pd2Sn alloys for electrocatalytic ethanol oxidation
VL - 77
ER -
TY - COMP
AU - Hauschild, Robert
ID - 8181
TI - Amplified centrosomes in dendritic cells promote immune cell effector functions
ER -
TY - THES
AB - We present solutions to several problems originating from geometry and discrete mathematics: existence of equipartitions, maps without Tverberg multiple points, and inscribing quadrilaterals. Equivariant obstruction theory is the natural topological approach to these type of questions. However, for the specific problems we consider it had yielded only partial or no results. We get our results by complementing equivariant obstruction theory with other techniques from topology and geometry.
AU - Avvakumov, Sergey
ID - 8156
TI - Topological methods in geometry and discrete mathematics
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Understanding to what extent stem cell potential is a cell-intrinsic property or an emergent behavior coming from global tissue dynamics and geometry is a key outstanding question of systems and stem cell biology. Here, we propose a theory of stem cell dynamics as a stochastic competition for access to a spatially localized niche, giving rise to a stochastic conveyor-belt model. Cell divisions produce a steady cellular stream which advects cells away from the niche, while random rearrangements enable cells away from the niche to be favorably repositioned. Importantly, even when assuming that all cells in a tissue are molecularly equivalent, we predict a common (“universal”) functional dependence of the long-term clonal survival probability on distance from the niche, as well as the emergence of a well-defined number of functional stem cells, dependent only on the rate of random movements vs. mitosis-driven advection. We test the predictions of this theory on datasets of pubertal mammary gland tips and embryonic kidney tips, as well as homeostatic intestinal crypts. Importantly, we find good agreement for the predicted functional dependency of the competition as a function of position, and thus functional stem cell number in each organ. This argues for a key role of positional fluctuations in dictating stem cell number and dynamics, and we discuss the applicability of this theory to other settings.
AU - Corominas-Murtra, Bernat
AU - Scheele, Colinda L.G.J.
AU - Kishi, Kasumi
AU - Ellenbroek, Saskia I.J.
AU - Simons, Benjamin D.
AU - Van Rheenen, Jacco
AU - Hannezo, Edouard B
ID - 8220
IS - 29
JF - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
TI - Stem cell lineage survival as a noisy competition for niche access
VL - 117
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Birch pollen allergy is among the most prevalent pollen allergies in Northern and Central Europe. This IgE-mediated disease can be treated with allergen immunotherapy (AIT), which typically gives rise to IgG antibodies inducing tolerance. Although the main mechanisms of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) are known, questions regarding possible Fc-mediated effects of IgG antibodies remain unanswered. This can mainly be attributed to the unavailability of appropriate tools, i.e., well-characterised recombinant antibodies (rAbs). We hereby aimed at providing human rAbs of several classes for mechanistic studies and as possible candidates for passive immunotherapy. We engineered IgE, IgG1, and IgG4 sharing the same variable region against the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 using Polymerase Incomplete Primer Extension (PIPE) cloning. We tested IgE functionality and IgG blocking capabilities using appropriate model cell lines. In vitro studies showed IgE engagement with FcεRI and CD23 and Bet v 1-dependent degranulation. Overall, we hereby present fully functional, human IgE, IgG1, and IgG4 sharing the same variable region against Bet v 1 and showcase possible applications in first mechanistic studies. Furthermore, our IgG antibodies might be useful candidates for passive immunotherapy of birch pollen allergy.
AU - Köhler, Verena K.
AU - Crescioli, Silvia
AU - Fazekas-Singer, Judit
AU - Bax, Heather J.
AU - Hofer, Gerhard
AU - Pranger, Christina L.
AU - Hufnagl, Karin
AU - Bianchini, Rodolfo
AU - Flicker, Sabine
AU - Keller, Walter
AU - Karagiannis, Sophia N.
AU - Jensen-Jarolim, Erika
ID - 8225
IS - 16
JF - International Journal of Molecular Sciences
SN - 1422-0067
TI - Filling the antibody pipeline in allergy: PIPE cloning of IgE, IgG1 and IgG4 against the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1
VL - 21
ER -
TY - JOUR
AU - Gotovina, Jelena
AU - Bianchini, Rodolfo
AU - Fazekas-Singer, Judit
AU - Herrmann, Ina
AU - Pellizzari, Giulia
AU - Haidl, Ian D.
AU - Hufnagl, Karin
AU - Karagiannis, Sophia N.
AU - Marshall, Jean S.
AU - Jensen‐Jarolim, Erika
ID - 8226
JF - Allergy
SN - 0105-4538
TI - Epinephrine drives human M2a allergic macrophages to a regulatory phenotype reducing mast cell degranulation in vitro
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider the following setting: suppose that we are given a manifold M in Rd with positive reach. Moreover assume that we have an embedded simplical complex A without boundary, whose vertex set lies on the manifold, is sufficiently dense and such that all simplices in A have sufficient quality. We prove that if, locally, interiors of the projection of the simplices onto the tangent space do not intersect, then A is a triangulation of the manifold, that is, they are homeomorphic.
AU - Boissonnat, Jean-Daniel
AU - Dyer, Ramsay
AU - Ghosh, Arijit
AU - Lieutier, Andre
AU - Wintraecken, Mathijs
ID - 8248
JF - Discrete and Computational Geometry
SN - 0179-5376
TI - Local conditions for triangulating submanifolds of Euclidean space
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Using inelastic cotunneling spectroscopy we observe a zero field splitting within the spin triplet manifold of Ge hut wire quantum dots. The states with spin ±1 in the confinement direction are energetically favored by up to 55 μeV compared to the spin 0 triplet state because of the strong spin–orbit coupling. The reported effect should be observable in a broad class of strongly confined hole quantum-dot systems and might need to be considered when operating hole spin qubits.
AU - Katsaros, Georgios
AU - Kukucka, Josip
AU - Vukušić, Lada
AU - Watzinger, Hannes
AU - Gao, Fei
AU - Wang, Ting
AU - Zhang, Jian-Jun
AU - Held, Karsten
ID - 8203
IS - 7
JF - Nano Letters
SN - 1530-6984
TI - Zero field splitting of heavy-hole states in quantum dots
VL - 20
ER -
TY - DATA
AB - These are the supplementary research data to the publication "Zero field splitting of heavy-hole states in quantum dots". All matrix files have the same format. Within each column the bias voltage is changed. Each column corresponds to either a different gate voltage or magnetic field. The voltage values are given in mV, the current values in pA. Find a specific description in the included Readme file.
AU - Katsaros, Georgios
ID - 7689
TI - Supplementary data for "Zero field splitting of heavy-hole states in quantum dots"
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - Classic Byzantine fault-tolerant consensus protocols forfeit liveness in the face of asynchrony in order to preserve safety, whereas most deployed blockchain protocols forfeit safety in order to remain live. In this work, we achieve the best of both worlds by proposing a novel abstractions called the finality gadget. A finality gadget allows for transactions to always optimistically commit but informs the clients that these transactions might be unsafe. As a result, a blockchain can execute transactions optimistically and only commit them after they have been sufficiently and provably audited. In
this work, we formally model the finality gadget abstraction, prove that it is impossible to solve it deterministically in full asynchrony (even though it is stronger than consensus) and provide a partially synchronous protocol which is currently securing a major blockchain. This way we show that the protocol designer can decouple safety and liveness in order to speed up recovery from failures. We believe that there can be other types of finality gadgets that provide weaker safety (e.g., probabilistic) in order to gain more efficiency and this can depend on the probability that the network is not in synchrony.
AU - Stewart, Alistair
AU - Kokoris Kogias, Eleftherios
ID - 8307
T2 - arXiv
TI - GRANDPA: A Byzantine finality gadget
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Many-body localization provides a mechanism to avoid thermalization in isolated interacting quantum systems. The breakdown of thermalization may be complete, when all eigenstates in the many-body spectrum become localized, or partial, when the so-called many-body mobility edge separates localized and delocalized parts of the spectrum. Previously, De Roeck et al. [Phys. Rev. B 93, 014203 (2016)] suggested a possible instability of the many-body mobility edge in energy density. The local ergodic regions—so-called “bubbles”—resonantly spread throughout the system, leading to delocalization. In order to study such instability mechanism, in this work we design a model featuring many-body mobility edge in particle density: the states at small particle density are localized, while increasing the density of particles leads to delocalization. Using numerical simulations with matrix product states, we demonstrate the stability of many-body localization with respect to small bubbles in large dilute systems for experimentally relevant timescales. In addition, we demonstrate that processes where the bubble spreads are favored over processes that lead to resonant tunneling, suggesting a possible mechanism behind the observed stability of many-body mobility edge. We conclude by proposing experiments to probe particle density mobility edge in the Bose-Hubbard model.
AU - Brighi, Pietro
AU - Abanin, Dmitry A.
AU - Serbyn, Maksym
ID - 8308
IS - 6
JF - Physical Review B
SN - 2469-9950
TI - Stability of mobility edges in disordered interacting systems
VL - 102
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - When can a polyomino piece of paper be folded into a unit cube? Prior work studied tree-like polyominoes, but polyominoes with holes remain an intriguing open problem. We present sufficient conditions for a polyomino with one or several holes to fold into a cube, and conditions under which cube folding is impossible. In particular, we show that all but five special “basic” holes guarantee foldability.
AU - Aichholzer, Oswin
AU - Akitaya, Hugo A.
AU - Cheung, Kenneth C.
AU - Demaine, Erik D.
AU - Demaine, Martin L.
AU - Fekete, Sándor P.
AU - Kleist, Linda
AU - Kostitsyna, Irina
AU - Löffler, Maarten
AU - Masárová, Zuzana
AU - Mundilova, Klara
AU - Schmidt, Christiane
ID - 8317
JF - Computational Geometry: Theory and Applications
SN - 09257721
TI - Folding polyominoes with holes into a cube
VL - 93
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Complex I is the first and the largest enzyme of respiratory chains in bacteria and mitochondria. The mechanism which couples spatially separated transfer of electrons to proton translocation in complex I is not known. Here we report five crystal structures of T. thermophilus enzyme in complex with NADH or quinone-like compounds. We also determined cryo-EM structures of major and minor native states of the complex, differing in the position of the peripheral arm. Crystal structures show that binding of quinone-like compounds (but not of NADH) leads to a related global conformational change, accompanied by local re-arrangements propagating from the quinone site to the nearest proton channel. Normal mode and molecular dynamics analyses indicate that these are likely to represent the first steps in the proton translocation mechanism. Our results suggest that quinone binding and chemistry play a key role in the coupling mechanism of complex I.
AU - Gutierrez-Fernandez, Javier
AU - Kaszuba, Karol
AU - Minhas, Gurdeep S.
AU - Baradaran, Rozbeh
AU - Tambalo, Margherita
AU - Gallagher, David T.
AU - Sazanov, Leonid A
ID - 8318
IS - 1
JF - Nature Communications
TI - Key role of quinone in the mechanism of respiratory complex I
VL - 11
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We demonstrate that releasing atoms into free space from an optical lattice does not deteriorate cavity-generated spin squeezing for metrological purposes. In this work, an ensemble of 500000 spin-squeezed atoms in a high-finesse optical cavity with near-uniform atom-cavity coupling is prepared, released into free space, recaptured in the cavity, and probed. Up to ∼10 dB of metrologically relevant squeezing is retrieved for 700μs free-fall times, and decaying levels of squeezing are realized for up to 3 ms free-fall times. The degradation of squeezing results from loss of atom-cavity coupling homogeneity between the initial squeezed state generation and final collective state readout. A theoretical model is developed to quantify this degradation and this model is experimentally validated.
AU - Wu, Yunfan
AU - Krishnakumar, Rajiv
AU - Martínez-Rincón, Julián
AU - Malia, Benjamin K.
AU - Hosten, Onur
AU - Kasevich, Mark A.
ID - 8319
IS - 1
JF - Physical Review A
SN - 24699926
TI - Retrieval of cavity-generated atomic spin squeezing after free-space release
VL - 102
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Multiple resistance and pH adaptation (Mrp) antiporters are multi-subunit Na+ (or K+)/H+ exchangers representing an ancestor of many essential redox-driven proton pumps, such as respiratory complex I. The mechanism of coupling between ion or electron transfer and proton translocation in this large protein family is unknown. Here, we present the structure of the Mrp complex from Anoxybacillus flavithermus solved by cryo-EM at 3.0 Å resolution. It is a dimer of seven-subunit protomers with 50 trans-membrane helices each. Surface charge distribution within each monomer is remarkably asymmetric, revealing probable proton and sodium translocation pathways. On the basis of the structure we propose a mechanism where the coupling between sodium and proton translocation is facilitated by a series of electrostatic interactions between a cation and key charged residues. This mechanism is likely to be applicable to the entire family of redox proton pumps, where electron transfer to substrates replaces cation movements.
AU - Steiner, Julia
AU - Sazanov, Leonid A
ID - 8284
JF - eLife
TI - Structure and mechanism of the Mrp complex, an ancient cation/proton antiporter
VL - 9
ER -
TY - THES
AB - Mrp (Multi resistance and pH adaptation) are broadly distributed secondary active antiporters that catalyze the transport of monovalent ions such as sodium and potassium outside of the cell coupled to the inward translocation of protons. Mrp antiporters are unique in a way that they are composed of seven subunits (MrpABCDEFG) encoded in a single operon, whereas other antiporters catalyzing the same reaction are mostly encoded by a single gene. Mrp exchangers are crucial for intracellular pH homeostasis and Na+ efflux, essential mechanisms for H+ uptake under alkaline environments and for reduction of the intracellular concentration of toxic cations. Mrp displays no homology to any other monovalent Na+(K+)/H+ antiporters but Mrp subunits have primary sequence similarity to essential redox-driven proton pumps, such as respiratory complex I and membrane-bound hydrogenases. This similarity reinforces the hypothesis that these present day redox-driven proton pumps are descended from the Mrp antiporter. The Mrp structure serves as a model to understand the yet obscure coupling mechanism between ion or electron transfer and proton translocation in this large group of proteins. In the thesis, I am presenting the purification, biochemical analysis, cryo-EM analysis and molecular structure of the Mrp complex from Anoxybacillus flavithermus solved by cryo-EM at 3.0 Å resolution. Numerous conditions were screened to purify Mrp to high homogeneity and to obtain an appropriate distribution of single particles on cryo-EM grids covered with a continuous layer of ultrathin carbon. A preferred particle orientation problem was solved by performing a tilted data collection. The activity assays showed the specific pH-dependent
profile of secondary active antiporters. The molecular structure shows that Mrp is a dimer of seven-subunit protomers with 50 trans-membrane helices each. The dimer interface is built by many short and tilted transmembrane helices, probably causing a thinning of the bacterial membrane. The surface charge distribution shows an extraordinary asymmetry within each monomer, revealing presumable proton and sodium translocation pathways. The two largest
and homologous Mrp subunits MrpA and MrpD probably translocate one proton each into the cell. The sodium ion is likely being translocated in the opposite direction within the small subunits along a ladder of charged and conserved residues. Based on the structure, we propose a mechanism were the antiport activity is accomplished via electrostatic interactions between the charged cations and key charged residues. The flexible key TM helices coordinate these
electrostatic interactions, while the membrane thinning between the monomers enables the translocation of sodium across the charged membrane. The entire family of redox-driven proton pumps is likely to perform their mechanism in a likewise manner.
AU - Steiner, Julia
ID - 8353
TI - Biochemical and structural investigation of the Mrp antiporter, an ancestor of complex I
ER -
TY - THES
AB - Cytoplasm is a gel-like crowded environment composed of tens of thousands of macromolecules, organelles, cytoskeletal networks and cytosol. The structure of the cytoplasm is thought to be highly organized and heterogeneous due to the crowding of its constituents and their effective compartmentalization. In such an environment, the diffusive dynamics of the molecules is very restricted, an effect that is further amplified by clustering and anchoring of molecules. Despite the jammed nature of the cytoplasm at the microscopic scale, large-scale reorganization of cytoplasm is essential for important cellular functions, such as nuclear positioning and cell division. How such mesoscale reorganization of the cytoplasm is achieved, especially for very large cells such as oocytes or syncytial tissues that can span hundreds of micrometers in size, has only begun to be understood.
In this thesis, I focus on the recent advances in elucidating the molecular, cellular and biophysical principles underlying cytoplasmic organization across different scales, structures and species. First, I outline which of these principles have been identified by reductionist approaches, such as in vitro reconstitution assays, where boundary conditions and components can be modulated at ease. I then describe how the theoretical and experimental framework established in these reduced systems have been applied to their more complex in vivo counterparts, in particular oocytes and embryonic syncytial structures, and discuss how such complex biological systems can initiate symmetry breaking and establish patterning.
Specifically, I examine an example of large-scale reorganizations taking place in zebrafish embryos, where extensive cytoplasmic streaming leads to the segregation of cytoplasm from yolk granules along the animal-vegetal axis of the embryo. Using biophysical experimentation and theory, I investigate the forces underlying this process, to show that this process does not rely on cortical actin reorganization, as previously thought, but instead on a cell-cycle-dependent bulk actin polymerization wave traveling from the animal to the vegetal pole of the embryo. This wave functions in segregation by both pulling cytoplasm animally and pushing yolk granules vegetally. Cytoplasm pulling is mediated by bulk actin network flows exerting friction forces on the cytoplasm, while yolk granule pushing is achieved by a mechanism closely resembling actin comet formation on yolk granules. This study defines a novel role of bulk actin polymerization waves in embryo polarization via cytoplasmic segregation. Lastly, I describe the cytoplasmic reorganizations taking place during zebrafish oocyte maturation, where the initial segregation of the cytoplasm and yolk granules occurs. Here, I demonstrate a previously uncharacterized wave of microtubule aster formation, traveling the oocyte along the animal-vegetal axis. Further research is required to determine the role of such microtubule structures in cytoplasmic reorganizations therein.
Collectively, these studies provide further evidence for the coupling between cell cytoskeleton and cell cycle machinery, which can underlie a core self-organizing mechanism for orchestrating large-scale reorganizations in a cell-cycle-tunable manner, where the modulations of the force-generating machinery and cytoplasmic mechanics can be harbored to fulfill cellular functions.
AU - Shamipour, Shayan
ID - 8350
TI - Bulk actin dynamics drive phase segregation in zebrafish oocytes
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We present the first deterministic wait-free long-lived snapshot algorithm, using only read and write operations, that guarantees polylogarithmic amortized step complexity in all executions. This is the first non-blocking snapshot algorithm, using reads and writes only, that has sub-linear amortized step complexity in executions of arbitrary length. The key to our construction is a novel implementation of a 2-component max array object which may be of independent interest.
AU - Baig, Mirza Ahad
AU - Hendler, Danny
AU - Milani, Alessia
AU - Travers, Corentin
ID - 8382
SN - 9781450375825
T2 - Proceedings of the 39th Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing
TI - Long-lived snapshots with polylogarithmic amortized step complexity
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We introduce extension-based proofs, a class of impossibility proofs that includes valency arguments. They are modelled as an interaction between a prover and a protocol. Using proofs based on combinatorial topology, it has been shown that it is impossible to deterministically solve k-set agreement among n > k ≥ 2 processes in a wait-free manner. However, it was unknown whether proofs based on simpler techniques were possible. We explain why this impossibility result cannot be obtained by an extension-based proof and, hence, extension-based proofs are limited in power.
AU - Alistarh, Dan-Adrian
AU - Aspnes, James
AU - Ellen, Faith
AU - Gelashvili, Rati
AU - Zhu, Leqi
ID - 8383
SN - 9781450375825
T2 - Proceedings of the 39th Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing
TI - Brief Announcement: Why Extension-Based Proofs Fail
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Previous research on animations of soap bubbles, films, and foams largely focuses on the motion and geometric shape of the bubble surface. These works neglect the evolution of the bubble’s thickness, which is normally responsible for visual phenomena like surface vortices, Newton’s interference patterns, capillary waves, and deformation-dependent rupturing of films in a foam. In this paper, we model these natural phenomena by introducing the film thickness as a reduced degree of freedom in the Navier-Stokes equations and deriving their equations of motion. We discretize the equations on a nonmanifold triangle mesh surface and couple it to an existing bubble solver. In doing so, we also introduce an incompressible fluid solver for 2.5D films and a novel advection algorithm for convecting fields across non-manifold surface junctions. Our simulations enhance state-of-the-art bubble solvers with additional effects caused by convection, rippling, draining, and evaporation of the thin film.
AU - Ishida, Sadashige
AU - Synak, Peter
AU - Narita, Fumiya
AU - Hachisuka, Toshiya
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
ID - 8384
IS - 4
JF - ACM Transactions on Graphics
SN - 07300301
TI - A model for soap film dynamics with evolving thickness
VL - 39
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We present a method for animating yarn-level cloth effects using a thin-shell solver. We accomplish this through numerical homogenization: we first use a large number of yarn-level simulations to build a model of the potential energy density of the cloth, and then use this energy density function to compute forces in a thin shell simulator. We model several yarn-based materials, including both woven and knitted fabrics. Our model faithfully reproduces expected effects like the stiffness of woven fabrics, and the highly deformable nature and anisotropy of knitted fabrics. Our approach does not require any real-world experiments nor measurements; because the method is based entirely on simulations, it can generate entirely new material models quickly, without the need for testing apparatuses or human intervention. We provide data-driven models of several woven and knitted fabrics, which can be used for efficient simulation with an off-the-shelf cloth solver.
AU - Sperl, Georg
AU - Narain, Rahul
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
ID - 8385
IS - 4
JF - ACM Transactions on Graphics
SN - 07300301
TI - Homogenized yarn-level cloth
VL - 39
ER -
TY - DATA
AB - Supplementary movies showing the following sequences for spatio-temporarily programmed shells: input geometry and actuation time landscape; comparison of morphing processes from a camera recording and a simulation; final actuated shape.
AU - Guseinov, Ruslan
ID - 8375
TI - Supplementary data for "Computational design of curved thin shells: from glass façades to programmable matter"
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Practical quantum networks require low-loss and noise-resilient optical interconnects as well as non-Gaussian resources for entanglement distillation and distributed quantum computation. The latter could be provided by superconducting circuits but existing solutions to interface the microwave and optical domains lack either scalability or efficiency, and in most cases the conversion noise is not known. In this work we utilize the unique opportunities of silicon photonics, cavity optomechanics and superconducting circuits to demonstrate a fully integrated, coherent transducer interfacing the microwave X and the telecom S bands with a total (internal) bidirectional transduction efficiency of 1.2% (135%) at millikelvin temperatures. The coupling relies solely on the radiation pressure interaction mediated by the femtometer-scale motion of two silicon nanobeams reaching a Vπ as low as 16 μV for sub-nanowatt pump powers. Without the associated optomechanical gain, we achieve a total (internal) pure conversion efficiency of up to 0.019% (1.6%), relevant for future noise-free operation on this qubit-compatible platform.
AU - Arnold, Georg M
AU - Wulf, Matthias
AU - Barzanjeh, Shabir
AU - Redchenko, Elena
AU - Rueda Sanchez, Alfredo R
AU - Hease, William J
AU - Hassani, Farid
AU - Fink, Johannes M
ID - 8529
JF - Nature Communications
KW - General Biochemistry
KW - Genetics and Molecular Biology
KW - General Physics and Astronomy
KW - General Chemistry
SN - 2041-1723
TI - Converting microwave and telecom photons with a silicon photonic nanomechanical interface
VL - 11
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The molecular anatomy of synapses defines their characteristics in transmission and plasticity. Precise measurements of the number and distribution of synaptic proteins are important for our understanding of synapse heterogeneity within and between brain regions. Freeze–fracture replica immunogold electron microscopy enables us to analyze them quantitatively on a two-dimensional membrane surface. Here, we introduce Darea software, which utilizes deep learning for analysis of replica images and demonstrate its usefulness for quick measurements of the pre- and postsynaptic areas, density and distribution of gold particles at synapses in a reproducible manner. We used Darea for comparing glutamate receptor and calcium channel distributions between hippocampal CA3-CA1 spine synapses on apical and basal dendrites, which differ in signaling pathways involved in synaptic plasticity. We found that apical synapses express a higher density of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors and a stronger increase of AMPA receptors with synaptic size, while basal synapses show a larger increase in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors with size. Interestingly, AMPA and NMDA receptors are segregated within postsynaptic sites and negatively correlated in density among both apical and basal synapses. In the presynaptic sites, Cav2.1 voltage-gated calcium channels show similar densities in apical and basal synapses with distributions consistent with an exclusion zone model of calcium channel-release site topography.
AU - Kleindienst, David
AU - Montanaro-Punzengruber, Jacqueline-Claire
AU - Bhandari, Pradeep
AU - Case, Matthew J
AU - Fukazawa, Yugo
AU - Shigemoto, Ryuichi
ID - 8532
IS - 18
JF - International Journal of Molecular Sciences
SN - 16616596
TI - Deep learning-assisted high-throughput analysis of freeze-fracture replica images applied to glutamate receptors and calcium channels at hippocampal synapses
VL - 21
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Game of Life is a simple and elegant model to study dynamical system over networks. The model consists of a graph where every vertex has one of two types, namely, dead or alive. A configuration is a mapping of the vertices to the types. An update rule describes how the type of a vertex is updated given the types of its neighbors. In every round, all vertices are updated synchronously, which leads to a configuration update. While in general, Game of Life allows a broad range of update rules, we focus on two simple families of update rules, namely, underpopulation and overpopulation, that model several interesting dynamics studied in the literature. In both settings, a dead vertex requires at least a desired number of live neighbors to become alive. For underpopulation (resp., overpopulation), a live vertex requires at least (resp. at most) a desired number of live neighbors to remain alive. We study the basic computation problems, e.g., configuration reachability, for these two families of rules. For underpopulation rules, we show that these problems can be solved in polynomial time, whereas for overpopulation rules they are PSPACE-complete.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus
AU - Jecker, Ismael R
AU - Svoboda, Jakub
ID - 8533
SN - 18688969
T2 - 45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science
TI - Simplified game of life: Algorithms and complexity
VL - 170
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - A regular language L of finite words is composite if there are regular languages L₁,L₂,…,L_t such that L = ⋂_{i = 1}^t L_i and the index (number of states in a minimal DFA) of every language L_i is strictly smaller than the index of L. Otherwise, L is prime. Primality of regular languages was introduced and studied in [O. Kupferman and J. Mosheiff, 2015], where the complexity of deciding the primality of the language of a given DFA was left open, with a doubly-exponential gap between the upper and lower bounds. We study primality for unary regular languages, namely regular languages with a singleton alphabet. A unary language corresponds to a subset of ℕ, making the study of unary prime languages closer to that of primality in number theory. We show that the setting of languages is richer. In particular, while every composite number is the product of two smaller numbers, the number t of languages necessary to decompose a composite unary language induces a strict hierarchy. In addition, a primality witness for a unary language L, namely a word that is not in L but is in all products of languages that contain L and have an index smaller than L’s, may be of exponential length. Still, we are able to characterize compositionality by structural properties of a DFA for L, leading to a LogSpace algorithm for primality checking of unary DFAs.
AU - Jecker, Ismael R
AU - Kupferman, Orna
AU - Mazzocchi, Nicolas
ID - 8534
SN - 18688969
T2 - 45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science
TI - Unary prime languages
VL - 170
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We propose a method to enhance the visual detail of a water surface simulation. Our method works as a post-processing step which takes a simulation as input and increases its apparent resolution by simulating many detailed Lagrangian water waves on top of it. We extend linear water wave theory to work in non-planar domains which deform over time, and we discretize the theory using Lagrangian wave packets attached to spline curves. The method is numerically stable and trivially parallelizable, and it produces high frequency ripples with dispersive wave-like behaviors customized to the underlying fluid simulation.
AU - Skrivan, Tomas
AU - Soderstrom, Andreas
AU - Johansson, John
AU - Sprenger, Christoph
AU - Museth, Ken
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
ID - 8535
IS - 4
JF - ACM Transactions on Graphics
SN - 07300301
TI - Wave curves: Simulating Lagrangian water waves on dynamically deforming surfaces
VL - 39
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - This work analyzes the latency of the simplified successive cancellation (SSC) decoding scheme for polar codes proposed by Alamdar-Yazdi and Kschischang. It is shown that, unlike conventional successive cancellation decoding, where latency is linear in the block length, the latency of SSC decoding is sublinear. More specifically, the latency of SSC decoding is O(N 1−1/µ ), where N is the block length and µ is the scaling exponent of the channel, which captures the speed of convergence of the rate to capacity. Numerical results demonstrate the tightness of the bound and show that most of the latency reduction arises from the parallel decoding of subcodes of rate 0 and 1.
AU - Mondelli, Marco
AU - Hashemi, Seyyed Ali
AU - Cioffi, John
AU - Goldsmith, Andrea
ID - 8536
SN - 21578095
T2 - IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory - Proceedings
TI - Simplified successive cancellation decoding of polar codes has sublinear latency
VL - 2020-June
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We prove some recent experimental observations of Dan Reznik concerning periodic billiard orbits in ellipses. For example, the sum of cosines of the angles of a periodic billiard polygon remains constant in the 1-parameter family of such polygons (that exist due to the Poncelet porism). In our proofs, we use geometric and complex analytic methods.
AU - Akopyan, Arseniy
AU - Schwartz, Richard
AU - Tabachnikov, Serge
ID - 8538
JF - European Journal of Mathematics
SN - 2199675X
TI - Billiards in ellipses revisited
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Cohomological and K-theoretic stable bases originated from the study of quantum cohomology and quantum K-theory. Restriction formula for cohomological stable bases played an important role in computing the quantum connection of cotangent bundle of partial flag varieties. In this paper we study the K-theoretic stable bases of cotangent bundles of flag varieties. We describe these bases in terms of the action of the affine Hecke algebra and the twisted group algebra of KostantKumar. Using this algebraic description and the method of root polynomials, we give a restriction formula of the stable bases. We apply it to obtain the restriction formula for partial flag varieties. We also build a relation between the stable basis and the Casselman basis in the principal series representations of the Langlands dual group. As an application, we give a closed formula for the transition matrix between Casselman basis and the characteristic functions.
AU - Su, C.
AU - Zhao, Gufang
AU - Zhong, C.
ID - 8539
IS - 3
JF - Annales Scientifiques de l'Ecole Normale Superieure
SN - 0012-9593
TI - On the K-theory stable bases of the springer resolution
VL - 53
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - Mosaic Analysis with Double Markers (MADM) offers a unique approach to visualize and concomitantly manipulate genetically-defined cells in mice with single-cell resolution. MADM applications include the analysis of lineage; single-cell morphology and physiology; genomic imprinting phenotypes; and dissection of cell-autonomous gene functions in vivo in health and disease. Yet, MADM could only be applied to <25% of all mouse genes on select chromosomes thus far. To overcome this limitation, we generated transgenic mice with knocked-in MADM cassettes near the centromeres of all 19 autosomes and validated their use across organs. With this resource, >96% of the entire mouse genome can now be subjected to single-cell genetic mosaic analysis. Beyond proof-of-principle, we applied our MADM library to systematically trace sister chromatid segregation in distinct mitotic cell lineages. We found striking chromosome-specific biases in segregation patterns, reflecting a putative mechanism for the asymmetric segregation of genetic determinants in somatic stem cell division.
AU - Contreras, Ximena
AU - Davaatseren, Amarbayasgalan
AU - Amberg, Nicole
AU - Hansen, Andi H
AU - Sonntag, Johanna
AU - Andersen, Lill
AU - Bernthaler, Tina
AU - Heger, Anna-Magdalena
AU - Johnson, Randy
AU - Schwarz, Lindsay A.
AU - Luo, Liqun
AU - Rülicke, Thomas
AU - Hippenmeyer, Simon
ID - 8545
T2 - bioRxiv
TI - A genome-wide library of MADM mice for single-cell genetic mosaic analysis
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - The bewildering diversity of brain neurons arises from relatively few pluripotent progenitors through poorly understood mechanisms. The cerebellum is an attractive model to investigate mechanisms of neuronal diversification because the different subtypes of excitatory and inhibitory neurons are well described1,2. The cerebellum is a hub for control of motor function and contributes to a number of higher brain functions such as reward-related cognitive processes3. Deficits in cerebellar development lead to severe neurological disorders such as cerebellar ataxias4 and medulloblastomas5, a heterogeneous and severe groups of childhood brain tumors, thus underlying the importance of understanding the cellular and molecular control of cerebellar development. In contrast to text book models, we report that excitatory and inhibitory cerebellar neurons derive from the same pluripotent embryonic cerebellar stem cells (eCSC). We find that the excitatory versus inhibitory fate decision of a progenitor is regulated by Notch signaling, whereby the cell with lower Notch activity adopts the excitatory fate, while the cell with higher Notch activity adopts the inhibitory fate. Thus, Notch-mediated binary cell fate choice is a conserved strategy for generating neuronal diversity from common progenitors that is deployed at different developmental time points in a context specific manner.
AU - Zhang, Tingting
AU - Liu, Tengyuan
AU - Mora, Natalia
AU - Guegan, Justine
AU - Bertrand, Mathilde
AU - Contreras, Ximena
AU - Hansen, Andi H
AU - Streicher, Carmen
AU - Anderle, Marica
AU - Tiberi, Luca
AU - Hippenmeyer, Simon
AU - Hassan, Bassem A.
ID - 8546
T2 - bioRxiv
TI - Generation of neuronal diversity from common progenitors via Notch signaling in the cerebellum
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Aqueous iodine based electrochemical energy storage is considered a potential candidate to improve sustainability and performance of current battery and supercapacitor technology. It harnesses the redox activity of iodide, iodine, and polyiodide species in the confined geometry of nanoporous carbon electrodes. However, current descriptions of the electrochemical reaction mechanism to interconvert these species are elusive. Here we show that electrochemical oxidation of iodide in nanoporous carbons forms persistent solid iodine deposits. Confinement slows down dissolution into triiodide and pentaiodide, responsible for otherwise significant self-discharge via shuttling. The main tools for these insights are in situ Raman spectroscopy and in situ small and wide-angle X-ray scattering (in situ SAXS/WAXS). In situ Raman confirms the reversible formation of triiodide and pentaiodide. In situ SAXS/WAXS indicates remarkable amounts of solid iodine deposited in the carbon nanopores. Combined with stochastic modeling, in situ SAXS allows quantifying the solid iodine volume fraction and visualizing the iodine structure on 3D lattice models at the sub-nanometer scale. Based on the derived mechanism, we demonstrate strategies for improved iodine pore filling capacity and prevention of self-discharge, applicable to hybrid supercapacitors and batteries.
AU - Prehal, Christian
AU - Fitzek, Harald
AU - Kothleitner, Gerald
AU - Presser, Volker
AU - Gollas, Bernhard
AU - Freunberger, Stefan Alexander
AU - Abbas, Qamar
ID - 8568
JF - Nature Communications
KW - General Biochemistry
KW - Genetics and Molecular Biology
KW - General Physics and Astronomy
KW - General Chemistry
SN - 2041-1723
TI - Persistent and reversible solid iodine electrodeposition in nanoporous carbons
VL - 11
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Concerted radial migration of newly born cortical projection neurons, from their birthplace to their final target lamina, is a key step in the assembly of the cerebral cortex. The cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating the specific sequential steps of radial neuronal migration in vivo are however still unclear, let alone the effects and interactions with the extracellular environment. In any in vivo context, cells will always be exposed to a complex extracellular environment consisting of (1) secreted factors acting as potential signaling cues, (2) the extracellular matrix, and (3) other cells providing cell–cell interaction through receptors and/or direct physical stimuli. Most studies so far have described and focused mainly on intrinsic cell-autonomous gene functions in neuronal migration but there is accumulating evidence that non-cell-autonomous-, local-, systemic-, and/or whole tissue-wide effects substantially contribute to the regulation of radial neuronal migration. These non-cell-autonomous effects may differentially affect cortical neuron migration in distinct cellular environments. However, the cellular and molecular natures of such non-cell-autonomous mechanisms are mostly unknown. Furthermore, physical forces due to collective migration and/or community effects (i.e., interactions with surrounding cells) may play important roles in neocortical projection neuron migration. In this concise review, we first outline distinct models of non-cell-autonomous interactions of cortical projection neurons along their radial migration trajectory during development. We then summarize experimental assays and platforms that can be utilized to visualize and potentially probe non-cell-autonomous mechanisms. Lastly, we define key questions to address in the future.
AU - Hansen, Andi H
AU - Hippenmeyer, Simon
ID - 8569
IS - 9
JF - Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
SN - 2296-634X
TI - Non-cell-autonomous mechanisms in radial projection neuron migration in the developing cerebral cortex
VL - 8
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We present the results of a friendly competition for formal verification of continuous and hybrid systems with nonlinear continuous dynamics. The friendly competition took place as part of the workshop Applied Verification for Continuous and Hybrid Systems (ARCH) in 2020. This year, 6 tools Ariadne, CORA, DynIbex, Flow*, Isabelle/HOL, and JuliaReach (in alphabetic order) participated. These tools are applied to solve reachability analysis problems on six benchmark problems, two of them featuring hybrid dynamics. We do not rank the tools based on the results, but show the current status and discover the potential advantages of different tools.
AU - Geretti, Luca
AU - Alexandre Dit Sandretto, Julien
AU - Althoff, Matthias
AU - Benet, Luis
AU - Chapoutot, Alexandre
AU - Chen, Xin
AU - Collins, Pieter
AU - Forets, Marcelo
AU - Freire, Daniel
AU - Immler, Fabian
AU - Kochdumper, Niklas
AU - Sanders, David
AU - Schilling, Christian
ID - 8571
T2 - EPiC Series in Computing
TI - ARCH-COMP20 Category Report: Continuous and hybrid systems with nonlinear dynamics
VL - 74
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We present the results of the ARCH 2020 friendly competition for formal verification of continuous and hybrid systems with linear continuous dynamics. In its fourth edition, eight tools have been applied to solve eight different benchmark problems in the category for linear continuous dynamics (in alphabetical order): CORA, C2E2, HyDRA, Hylaa, Hylaa-Continuous, JuliaReach, SpaceEx, and XSpeed. This report is a snapshot of the current landscape of tools and the types of benchmarks they are particularly suited for. Due to the diversity of problems, we are not ranking tools, yet the presented results provide one of the most complete assessments of tools for the safety verification of continuous and hybrid systems with linear continuous dynamics up to this date.
AU - Althoff, Matthias
AU - Bak, Stanley
AU - Bao, Zongnan
AU - Forets, Marcelo
AU - Frehse, Goran
AU - Freire, Daniel
AU - Kochdumper, Niklas
AU - Li, Yangge
AU - Mitra, Sayan
AU - Ray, Rajarshi
AU - Schilling, Christian
AU - Schupp, Stefan
AU - Wetzlinger, Mark
ID - 8572
T2 - EPiC Series in Computing
TI - ARCH-COMP20 Category Report: Continuous and hybrid systems with linear dynamics
VL - 74
ER -
TY - THES
AB - This thesis concerns itself with the interactions of evolutionary and ecological forces and the consequences on genetic diversity and the ultimate survival of populations. It is important to understand what signals processes
leave on the genome and what we can infer from such data, which is usually abundant but noisy. Furthermore, understanding how and when populations adapt or go extinct is important for practical purposes, such as the genetic management of populations, as well as for theoretical questions, since local adaptation can be the first step toward speciation.
In Chapter 2, we introduce the method of maximum entropy to approximate the demographic changes of a population in a simple setting, namely the logistic growth model with immigration. We show that this method is not only a powerful
tool in physics but can be gainfully applied in an ecological framework. We investigate how well it approximates the real
behavior of the system, and find that is does so, even in unexpected situations. Finally, we illustrate how it can model changing environments.
In Chapter 3, we analyze the co-evolution of allele frequencies and population sizes in an infinite island model.
We give conditions under which polygenic adaptation to a rare habitat is possible. The model we use is based on the diffusion approximation, considers eco-evolutionary feedback mechanisms (hard selection), and treats both
drift and environmental fluctuations explicitly. We also look at limiting scenarios, for which we derive analytical expressions.
In Chapter 4, we present a coalescent based simulation tool to obtain patterns of diversity in a spatially explicit subdivided population, in which the demographic history of each subpopulation can be specified. We compare
the results to existing predictions, and explore the relative importance of time and space under a variety of spatial arrangements and demographic histories, such as expansion and extinction.
In the last chapter, we give a brief outlook to further research.
AU - Szep, Eniko
ID - 8574
TI - Local adaptation in metapopulations
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element for all living organisms and used as cofactor in key enzymes of important biological processes, such as aerobic respiration or superoxide dismutation. However, due to its toxicity, cells have developed elaborate mechanisms for Cu homeostasis, which balance Cu supply for cuproprotein biogenesis with the need to remove excess Cu. This review summarizes our current knowledge on bacterial Cu homeostasis with a focus on Gram-negative bacteria and describes the multiple strategies that bacteria use for uptake, storage and export of Cu. We furthermore describe general mechanistic principles that aid the bacterial response to toxic Cu concentrations and illustrate dedicated Cu relay systems that facilitate Cu delivery for cuproenzyme biogenesis. Progress in understanding how bacteria avoid Cu poisoning while maintaining a certain Cu quota for cell proliferation is of particular importance for microbial pathogens because Cu is utilized by the host immune system for attenuating pathogen survival in host cells.
AU - Andrei, Andreea
AU - Öztürk, Yavuz
AU - Khalfaoui-Hassani, Bahia
AU - Rauch, Juna
AU - Marckmann, Dorian
AU - Trasnea, Petru Iulian
AU - Daldal, Fevzi
AU - Koch, Hans-Georg
ID - 8579
IS - 9
JF - Membranes
TI - Cu homeostasis in bacteria: The ins and outs
VL - 10
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We evaluate the usefulness of persistent homology in the analysis of heart rate variability. In our approach we extract several topological descriptors characterising datasets of RR-intervals, which are later used in classical machine learning algorithms. By this method we are able to differentiate the group of patients with the history of transient ischemic attack and the group of hypertensive patients.
AU - Graff, Grzegorz
AU - Graff, Beata
AU - Jablonski, Grzegorz
AU - Narkiewicz, Krzysztof
ID - 8580
SN - 9781728157511
T2 - 11th Conference of the European Study Group on Cardiovascular Oscillations: Computation and Modelling in Physiology: New Challenges and Opportunities,
TI - The application of persistent homology in the analysis of heart rate variability
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The majority of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) powering cellular processes in eukaryotes is produced by the mitochondrial F1Fo ATP synthase. Here, we present the atomic models of the membrane Fo domain and the entire mammalian (ovine) F1Fo, determined by cryo-electron microscopy. Subunits in the membrane domain are arranged in the ‘proton translocation cluster’ attached to the c-ring and a more distant ‘hook apparatus’ holding subunit e. Unexpectedly, this subunit is anchored to a lipid ‘plug’ capping the c-ring. We present a detailed proton translocation pathway in mammalian Fo and key inter-monomer contacts in F1Fo multimers. Cryo-EM maps of F1Fo exposed to calcium reveal a retracted subunit e and a disassembled c-ring, suggesting permeability transition pore opening. We propose a model for the permeability transition pore opening, whereby subunit e pulls the lipid plug out of the c-ring. Our structure will allow the design of drugs for many emerging applications in medicine.
AU - Pinke, Gergely
AU - Zhou, Long
AU - Sazanov, Leonid A
ID - 8581
JF - Nature Structural and Molecular Biology
SN - 15459993
TI - Cryo-EM structure of the entire mammalian F-type ATP synthase
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Cell and tissue polarization is fundamental for plant growth and morphogenesis. The polar, cellular localization of Arabidopsis PIN‐FORMED (PIN) proteins is crucial for their function in directional auxin transport. The clustering of PIN polar cargoes within the plasma membrane has been proposed to be important for the maintenance of their polar distribution. However, the more detailed features of PIN clusters and the cellular requirements of cargo clustering remain unclear.
Here, we characterized PIN clusters in detail by means of multiple advanced microscopy and quantification methods, such as 3D quantitative imaging or freeze‐fracture replica labeling. The size and aggregation types of PIN clusters were determined by electron microscopy at the nanometer level at different polar domains and at different developmental stages, revealing a strong preference for clustering at the polar domains.
Pharmacological and genetic studies revealed that PIN clusters depend on phosphoinositol pathways, cytoskeletal structures and specific cell‐wall components as well as connections between the cell wall and the plasma membrane.
This study identifies the role of different cellular processes and structures in polar cargo clustering and provides initial mechanistic insight into the maintenance of polarity in plants and other systems.
AU - Li, Hongjiang
AU - von Wangenheim, Daniel
AU - Zhang, Xixi
AU - Tan, Shutang
AU - Darwish-Miranda, Nasser
AU - Naramoto, Satoshi
AU - Wabnik, Krzysztof T
AU - de Rycke, Riet
AU - Kaufmann, Walter
AU - Gütl, Daniel J
AU - Tejos, Ricardo
AU - Grones, Peter
AU - Ke, Meiyu
AU - Chen, Xu
AU - Dettmer, Jan
AU - Friml, Jiří
ID - 8582
JF - New Phytologist
SN - 0028646X
TI - Cellular requirements for PIN polar cargo clustering in Arabidopsis thaliana
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) of cellular specimens provides insights into biological processes and structures within a native context. However, a major challenge still lies in the efficient and reproducible preparation of adherent cells for subsequent cryo-EM analysis. This is due to the sensitivity of many cellular specimens to the varying seeding and culturing conditions required for EM experiments, the often limited amount of cellular material and also the fragility of EM grids and their substrate. Here, we present low-cost and reusable 3D printed grid holders, designed to improve specimen preparation when culturing challenging cellular samples directly on grids. The described grid holders increase cell culture reproducibility and throughput, and reduce the resources required for cell culturing. We show that grid holders can be integrated into various cryo-EM workflows, including micro-patterning approaches to control cell seeding on grids, and for generating samples for cryo-focused ion beam milling and cryo-electron tomography experiments. Their adaptable design allows for the generation of specialized grid holders customized to a large variety of applications.
AU - Fäßler, Florian
AU - Zens, Bettina
AU - Hauschild, Robert
AU - Schur, Florian KM
ID - 8586
IS - 3
JF - Journal of Structural Biology
KW - electron microscopy
KW - cryo-EM
KW - EM sample preparation
KW - 3D printing
KW - cell culture
SN - 1047-8477
TI - 3D printed cell culture grid holders for improved cellular specimen preparation in cryo-electron microscopy
VL - 212
ER -
TY - THES
AB - Fabrication of curved shells plays an important role in modern design, industry, and science. Among their remarkable properties are, for example, aesthetics of organic shapes, ability to evenly distribute loads, or efficient flow separation. They find applications across vast length scales ranging from sky-scraper architecture to microscopic devices. But, at
the same time, the design of curved shells and their manufacturing process pose a variety of challenges. In this thesis, they are addressed from several perspectives. In particular, this thesis presents approaches based on the transformation of initially flat sheets into the target curved surfaces. This involves problems of interactive design of shells with nontrivial mechanical constraints, inverse design of complex structural materials, and data-driven modeling of delicate and time-dependent physical properties. At the same time, two newly-developed self-morphing mechanisms targeting flat-to-curved transformation are presented.
In architecture, doubly curved surfaces can be realized as cold bent glass panelizations. Originally flat glass panels are bent into frames and remain stressed. This is a cost-efficient fabrication approach compared to hot bending, when glass panels are shaped plastically. However such constructions are prone to breaking during bending, and it is highly
nontrivial to navigate the design space, keeping the panels fabricable and aesthetically pleasing at the same time. We introduce an interactive design system for cold bent glass façades, while previously even offline optimization for such scenarios has not been sufficiently developed. Our method is based on a deep learning approach providing quick
and high precision estimation of glass panel shape and stress while handling the shape
multimodality.
Fabrication of smaller objects of scales below 1 m, can also greatly benefit from shaping originally flat sheets. In this respect, we designed new self-morphing shell mechanisms transforming from an initial flat state to a doubly curved state with high precision and detail. Our so-called CurveUps demonstrate the encodement of the geometric information
into the shell. Furthermore, we explored the frontiers of programmable materials and showed how temporal information can additionally be encoded into a flat shell. This allows prescribing deformation sequences for doubly curved surfaces and, thus, facilitates self-collision avoidance enabling complex shapes and functionalities otherwise impossible.
Both of these methods include inverse design tools keeping the user in the design loop.
AU - Guseinov, Ruslan
ID - 8366
KW - computer-aided design
KW - shape modeling
KW - self-morphing
KW - mechanical engineering
SN - 2663-337X
TI - Computational design of curved thin shells: From glass façades to programmable matter
ER -
TY - DATA
AU - Guseinov, Ruslan
ID - 8761
TI - Supplementary data for "Computational design of cold bent glass façades"
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - This paper introduces a simple method for simulating highly anisotropic elastoplastic material behaviors like the dissolution of fibrous phenomena (splintering wood, shredding bales of hay) and materials composed of large numbers of irregularly‐shaped bodies (piles of twigs, pencils, or cards). We introduce a simple transformation of the anisotropic problem into an equivalent isotropic one, and we solve this new “fictitious” isotropic problem using an existing simulator based on the material point method. Our approach results in minimal changes to existing simulators, and it allows us to re‐use popular isotropic plasticity models like the Drucker‐Prager yield criterion instead of inventing new anisotropic plasticity models for every phenomenon we wish to simulate.
AU - Schreck, Camille
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
ID - 8765
IS - 2
JF - Computer Graphics Forum
KW - Computer Networks and Communications
SN - 0167-7055
TI - A practical method for animating anisotropic elastoplastic materials
VL - 39
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The “procedural” approach to animating ocean waves is the dominant algorithm for animating larger bodies of water in
interactive applications as well as in off-line productions — it provides high visual quality with a low computational demand. In this paper, we widen the applicability of procedural water wave animation with an extension that guarantees the satisfaction of boundary conditions imposed by terrain while still approximating physical wave behavior. In combination with a particle system that models wave breaking, foam, and spray, this allows us to naturally model waves interacting with beaches and rocks. Our system is able to animate waves at large scales at interactive frame rates on a commodity PC.
AU - Jeschke, Stefan
AU - Hafner, Christian
AU - Chentanez, Nuttapong
AU - Macklin, Miles
AU - Müller-Fischer, Matthias
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
ID - 8766
IS - 8
JF - Computer Graphics forum
TI - Making procedural water waves boundary-aware
VL - 39
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Resources are rarely distributed uniformly within a population. Heterogeneity in the concentration of a drug, the quality of breeding sites, or wealth can all affect evolutionary dynamics. In this study, we represent a collection of properties affecting the fitness at a given location using a color. A green node is rich in resources while a red node is poorer. More colors can represent a broader spectrum of resource qualities. For a population evolving according to the birth-death Moran model, the first question we address is which structures, identified by graph connectivity and graph coloring, are evolutionarily equivalent. We prove that all properly two-colored, undirected, regular graphs are evolutionarily equivalent (where “properly colored” means that no two neighbors have the same color). We then compare the effects of background heterogeneity on properly two-colored graphs to those with alternative schemes in which the colors are permuted. Finally, we discuss dynamic coloring as a model for spatiotemporal resource fluctuations, and we illustrate that random dynamic colorings often diminish the effects of background heterogeneity relative to a proper two-coloring.
AU - Kaveh, Kamran
AU - McAvoy, Alex
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Nowak, Martin A.
ID - 8767
IS - 11
JF - PLOS Computational Biology
KW - Ecology
KW - Modelling and Simulation
KW - Computational Theory and Mathematics
KW - Genetics
KW - Ecology
KW - Evolution
KW - Behavior and Systematics
KW - Molecular Biology
KW - Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
SN - 1553-734X
TI - The Moran process on 2-chromatic graphs
VL - 16
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - One of the hallmarks of quantum statistics, tightly entwined with the concept of topological phases of matter, is the prediction of anyons. Although anyons are predicted to be realized in certain fractional quantum Hall systems, they have not yet been unambiguously detected in experiment. Here we introduce a simple quantum impurity model, where bosonic or fermionic impurities turn into anyons as a consequence of their interaction with the surrounding many-particle bath. A cloud of phonons dresses each impurity in such a way that it effectively attaches fluxes or vortices to it and thereby converts it into an Abelian anyon. The corresponding quantum impurity model, first, provides a different approach to the numerical solution of the many-anyon problem, along with a concrete perspective of anyons as emergent quasiparticles built from composite bosons or fermions. More importantly, the model paves the way toward realizing anyons using impurities in crystal lattices as well as ultracold gases. In particular, we consider two heavy electrons interacting with a two-dimensional lattice crystal in a magnetic field, and show that when the impurity-bath system is rotated at the cyclotron frequency, impurities behave as anyons as a consequence of the angular momentum exchange between the impurities and the bath. A possible experimental realization is proposed by identifying the statistics parameter in terms of the mean-square distance of the impurities and the magnetization of the impurity-bath system, both of which are accessible to experiment. Another proposed application is impurities immersed in a two-dimensional weakly interacting Bose gas.
AU - Yakaboylu, Enderalp
AU - Ghazaryan, Areg
AU - Lundholm, D.
AU - Rougerie, N.
AU - Lemeshko, Mikhail
AU - Seiringer, Robert
ID - 8769
IS - 14
JF - Physical Review B
SN - 2469-9950
TI - Quantum impurity model for anyons
VL - 102
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Let g be a complex semisimple Lie algebra. We give a classification of contravariant forms on the nondegenerate Whittaker g-modules Y(χ,η) introduced by Kostant. We prove that the set of all contravariant forms on Y(χ,η) forms a vector space whose dimension is given by the cardinality of the Weyl group of g. We also describe a procedure for parabolically inducing contravariant forms. As a corollary, we deduce the existence of the Shapovalov form on a Verma module, and provide a formula for the dimension of the space of contravariant forms on the degenerate Whittaker modules M(χ,η) introduced by McDowell.
AU - Brown, Adam
AU - Romanov, Anna
ID - 8773
JF - Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society
KW - Applied Mathematics
KW - General Mathematics
SN - 0002-9939
TI - Contravariant forms on Whittaker modules
VL - 149
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Breakdown of vascular barriers is a major complication of inflammatory diseases. Anucleate platelets form blood-clots during thrombosis, but also play a crucial role in inflammation. While spatio-temporal dynamics of clot formation are well characterized, the cell-biological mechanisms of platelet recruitment to inflammatory micro-environments remain incompletely understood. Here we identify Arp2/3-dependent lamellipodia formation as a prominent morphological feature of immune-responsive platelets. Platelets use lamellipodia to scan for fibrin(ogen) deposited on the inflamed vasculature and to directionally spread, to polarize and to govern haptotactic migration along gradients of the adhesive ligand. Platelet-specific abrogation of Arp2/3 interferes with haptotactic repositioning of platelets to microlesions, thus impairing vascular sealing and provoking inflammatory microbleeding. During infection, haptotaxis promotes capture of bacteria and prevents hematogenic dissemination, rendering platelets gate-keepers of the inflamed microvasculature. Consequently, these findings identify haptotaxis as a key effector function of immune-responsive platelets.
AU - Nicolai, Leo
AU - Schiefelbein, Karin
AU - Lipsky, Silvia
AU - Leunig, Alexander
AU - Hoffknecht, Marie
AU - Pekayvaz, Kami
AU - Raude, Ben
AU - Marx, Charlotte
AU - Ehrlich, Andreas
AU - Pircher, Joachim
AU - Zhang, Zhe
AU - Saleh, Inas
AU - Marel, Anna-Kristina
AU - Löf, Achim
AU - Petzold, Tobias
AU - Lorenz, Michael
AU - Stark, Konstantin
AU - Pick, Robert
AU - Rosenberger, Gerhild
AU - Weckbach, Ludwig
AU - Uhl, Bernd
AU - Xia, Sheng
AU - Reichel, Christoph Andreas
AU - Walzog, Barbara
AU - Schulz, Christian
AU - Zheden, Vanessa
AU - Bender, Markus
AU - Li, Rong
AU - Massberg, Steffen
AU - Gärtner, Florian R
ID - 8787
JF - Nature Communications
TI - Vascular surveillance by haptotactic blood platelets in inflammation and infection
VL - 11
ER -