TY - JOUR
AB - The recent outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19), caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus‐2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) has resulted in a world‐wide pandemic. Disseminated lung injury with the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the main cause of mortality in COVID‐19. Although liver failure does not seem to occur in the absence of pre‐existing liver disease, hepatic involvement in COVID‐19 may correlate with overall disease severity and serve as a prognostic factor for the development of ARDS. The spectrum of liver injury in COVID‐19 may range from direct infection by SARS‐CoV‐2, indirect involvement by systemic inflammation, hypoxic changes, iatrogenic causes such as drugs and ventilation to exacerbation of underlying liver disease. This concise review discusses the potential pathophysiological mechanisms for SARS‐CoV‐2 hepatic tropism as well as acute and possibly long‐term liver injury in COVID‐19.
AU - Nardo, Alexander D.
AU - Schneeweiss-Gleixner, Mathias
AU - Bakail, May M
AU - Dixon, Emmanuel D.
AU - Lax, Sigurd F.
AU - Trauner, Michael
ID - 8927
IS - 1
JF - Liver International
SN - 14783223
TI - Pathophysiological mechanisms of liver injury in COVID-19
VL - 41
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Auxin is a major plant growth regulator, but current models on auxin perception and signaling cannot explain the whole plethora of auxin effects, in particular those associated with rapid responses. A possible candidate for a component of additional auxin perception mechanisms is the AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN 1 (ABP1), whose function in planta remains unclear.
Here we combined expression analysis with gain- and loss-of-function approaches to analyze the role of ABP1 in plant development. ABP1 shows a broad expression largely overlapping with, but not regulated by, transcriptional auxin response activity. Furthermore, ABP1 activity is not essential for the transcriptional auxin signaling. Genetic in planta analysis revealed that abp1 loss-of-function mutants show largely normal development with minor defects in bolting. On the other hand, ABP1 gain-of-function alleles show a broad range of growth and developmental defects, including root and hypocotyl growth and bending, lateral root and leaf development, bolting, as well as response to heat stress. At the cellular level, ABP1 gain-of-function leads to impaired auxin effect on PIN polar distribution and affects BFA-sensitive PIN intracellular aggregation.
The gain-of-function analysis suggests a broad, but still mechanistically unclear involvement of ABP1 in plant development, possibly masked in abp1 loss-of-function mutants by a functional redundancy.
AU - Gelová, Zuzana
AU - Gallei, Michelle C
AU - Pernisová, Markéta
AU - Brunoud, Géraldine
AU - Zhang, Xixi
AU - Glanc, Matous
AU - Li, Lanxin
AU - Michalko, Jaroslav
AU - Pavlovicova, Zlata
AU - Verstraeten, Inge
AU - Han, Huibin
AU - Hajny, Jakub
AU - Hauschild, Robert
AU - Čovanová, Milada
AU - Zwiewka, Marta
AU - Hörmayer, Lukas
AU - Fendrych, Matyas
AU - Xu, Tongda
AU - Vernoux, Teva
AU - Friml, Jiří
ID - 8931
JF - Plant Science
KW - Agronomy and Crop Science
KW - Plant Science
KW - Genetics
KW - General Medicine
SN - 0168-9452
TI - Developmental roles of auxin binding protein 1 in Arabidopsis thaliana
VL - 303
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The differentiation of cells depends on a precise control of their internal organization, which is the result of a complex dynamic interplay between the cytoskeleton, molecular motors, signaling molecules, and membranes. For example, in the developing neuron, the protein ADAP1 (ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-activating protein [ArfGAP] with dual pleckstrin homology [PH] domains 1) has been suggested to control dendrite branching by regulating the small GTPase ARF6. Together with the motor protein KIF13B, ADAP1 is also thought to mediate delivery of the second messenger phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) to the axon tip, thus contributing to PIP3 polarity. However, what defines the function of ADAP1 and how its different roles are coordinated are still not clear. Here, we studied ADAP1’s functions using in vitro reconstitutions. We found that KIF13B transports ADAP1 along microtubules, but that PIP3 as well as PI(3,4)P2 act as stop signals for this transport instead of being transported. We also demonstrate that these phosphoinositides activate ADAP1’s enzymatic activity to catalyze GTP hydrolysis by ARF6. Together, our results support a model for the cellular function of ADAP1, where KIF13B transports ADAP1 until it encounters high PIP3/PI(3,4)P2 concentrations in the plasma membrane. Here, ADAP1 disassociates from the motor to inactivate ARF6, promoting dendrite branching.
AU - Düllberg, Christian F
AU - Auer, Albert
AU - Canigova, Nikola
AU - Loibl, Katrin
AU - Loose, Martin
ID - 8988
IS - 1
JF - PNAS
SN - 00278424
TI - In vitro reconstitution reveals phosphoinositides as cargo-release factors and activators of the ARF6 GAP ADAP1
VL - 118
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The phytohormone auxin plays a central role in shaping plant growth and development. With decades of genetic and biochemical studies, numerous core molecular components and their networks, underlying auxin biosynthesis, transport, and signaling, have been identified. Notably, protein phosphorylation, catalyzed by kinases and oppositely hydrolyzed by phosphatases, has been emerging to be a crucial type of post-translational modification, regulating physiological and developmental auxin output at all levels. In this review, we comprehensively discuss earlier and recent advances in our understanding of genetics, biochemistry, and cell biology of the kinases and phosphatases participating in auxin action. We provide insights into the mechanisms by which reversible protein phosphorylation defines developmental auxin responses, discuss current challenges, and provide our perspectives on future directions involving the integration of the control of protein phosphorylation into the molecular auxin network.
AU - Tan, Shutang
AU - Luschnig, Christian
AU - Friml, Jiří
ID - 8992
IS - 1
JF - Molecular Plant
SN - 16742052
TI - Pho-view of auxin: Reversible protein phosphorylation in auxin biosynthesis, transport and signaling
VL - 14
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) is a key inhibitor of directional (polar) transport of the hormone auxin in plants. For decades, it has been a pivotal tool in elucidating the unique polar auxin transport-based processes underlying plant growth and development. Its exact mode of action has long been sought after and is still being debated, with prevailing mechanistic schemes describing only indirect connections between NPA and the main transporters responsible for directional transport, namely PIN auxin exporters. Here we present data supporting a model in which NPA associates with PINs in a more direct manner than hitherto postulated. We show that NPA inhibits PIN activity in a heterologous oocyte system and that expression of NPA-sensitive PINs in plant, yeast, and oocyte membranes leads to specific saturable NPA binding. We thus propose that PINs are a bona fide NPA target. This offers a straightforward molecular basis for NPA inhibition of PIN-dependent auxin transport and a logical parsimonious explanation for the known physiological effects of NPA on plant growth, as well as an alternative hypothesis to interpret past and future results. We also introduce PIN dimerization and describe an effect of NPA on this, suggesting that NPA binding could be exploited to gain insights into structural aspects of PINs related to their transport mechanism.
AU - Abas, Lindy
AU - Kolb, Martina
AU - Stadlmann, Johannes
AU - Janacek, Dorina P.
AU - Lukic, Kristina
AU - Schwechheimer, Claus
AU - Sazanov, Leonid A
AU - Mach, Lukas
AU - Friml, Jiří
AU - Hammes, Ulrich Z.
ID - 8993
IS - 1
JF - PNAS
SN - 00278424
TI - Naphthylphthalamic acid associates with and inhibits PIN auxin transporters
VL - 118
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Phenomenological relations such as Ohm’s or Fourier’s law have a venerable history in physics but are still scarce in biology. This situation restrains predictive theory. Here, we build on bacterial “growth laws,” which capture physiological feedback between translation and cell growth, to construct a minimal biophysical model for the combined action of ribosome-targeting antibiotics. Our model predicts drug interactions like antagonism or synergy solely from responses to individual drugs. We provide analytical results for limiting cases, which agree well with numerical results. We systematically refine the model by including direct physical interactions of different antibiotics on the ribosome. In a limiting case, our model provides a mechanistic underpinning for recent predictions of higher-order interactions that were derived using entropy maximization. We further refine the model to include the effects of antibiotics that mimic starvation and the presence of resistance genes. We describe the impact of a starvation-mimicking antibiotic on drug interactions analytically and verify it experimentally. Our extended model suggests a change in the type of drug interaction that depends on the strength of resistance, which challenges established rescaling paradigms. We experimentally show that the presence of unregulated resistance genes can lead to altered drug interaction, which agrees with the prediction of the model. While minimal, the model is readily adaptable and opens the door to predicting interactions of second and higher-order in a broad range of biological systems.
AU - Kavcic, Bor
AU - Tkačik, Gašper
AU - Bollenbach, Tobias
ID - 8997
JF - PLOS Computational Biology
KW - Modelling and Simulation
KW - Genetics
KW - Molecular Biology
KW - Antibiotics
KW - Drug interactions
SN - 1553-7358
TI - Minimal biophysical model of combined antibiotic action
VL - 17
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In many basic shear flows, such as pipe, Couette, and channel flow, turbulence does not
arise from an instability of the laminar state, and both dynamical states co-exist. With decreasing flow speed (i.e., decreasing Reynolds number) the fraction of fluid in laminar motion increases while turbulence recedes and eventually the entire flow relaminarizes. The first step towards understanding the nature of this transition is to determine if the phase change is of either first or second order. In the former case, the turbulent fraction would drop discontinuously to zero as the Reynolds number decreases while in the latter the process would be continuous. For Couette flow, the flow between two parallel plates, earlier studies suggest a discontinuous scenario. In the present study we realize a Couette flow between two concentric cylinders which allows studies to be carried out in large aspect ratios and for extensive observation times. The presented measurements show that the transition in this circular Couette geometry is continuous suggesting that former studies were limited by finite size effects. A further characterization of this transition, in particular its relation to the directed percolation universality class, requires even larger system sizes than presently available.
AU - Avila, Kerstin
AU - Hof, Björn
ID - 8999
IS - 1
JF - Entropy
TI - Second-order phase transition in counter-rotating taylor-couette flow experiment
VL - 23
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Studies on the experimental realization of two-dimensional anyons in terms of quasiparticles have been restricted, so far, to only anyons on the plane. It is known, however, that the geometry and topology of space can have significant effects on quantum statistics for particles moving on it. Here, we have undertaken the first step toward realizing the emerging fractional statistics for particles restricted to move on the sphere instead of on the plane. We show that such a model arises naturally in the context of quantum impurity problems. In particular, we demonstrate a setup in which the lowest-energy spectrum of two linear bosonic or fermionic molecules immersed in a quantum many-particle environment can coincide with the anyonic spectrum on the sphere. This paves the way toward the experimental realization of anyons on the sphere using molecular impurities. Furthermore, since a change in the alignment of the molecules corresponds to the exchange of the particles on the sphere, such a realization reveals a novel type of exclusion principle for molecular impurities, which could also be of use as a powerful technique to measure the statistics parameter. Finally, our approach opens up a simple numerical route to investigate the spectra of many anyons on the sphere. Accordingly, we present the spectrum of two anyons on the sphere in the presence of a Dirac monopole field.
AU - Brooks, Morris
AU - Lemeshko, Mikhail
AU - Lundholm, D.
AU - Yakaboylu, Enderalp
ID - 9005
IS - 1
JF - Physical Review Letters
SN - 00319007
TI - Molecular impurities as a realization of anyons on the two-sphere
VL - 126
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Recent advancements in live cell imaging technologies have identified the phenomenon of intracellular propagation of late apoptotic events, such as cytochrome c release and caspase activation. The mechanism, prevalence, and speed of apoptosis propagation remain unclear. Additionally, no studies have demonstrated propagation of the pro-apoptotic protein, BAX. To evaluate the role of BAX in intracellular apoptotic propagation, we used high speed live-cell imaging to visualize fluorescently tagged-BAX recruitment to mitochondria in four immortalized cell lines. We show that propagation of mitochondrial BAX recruitment occurs in parallel to cytochrome c and SMAC/Diablo release and is affected by cellular morphology, such that cells with processes are more likely to exhibit propagation. The initiation of propagation events is most prevalent in the distal tips of processes, while the rate of propagation is influenced by the 2-dimensional width of the process. Propagation was rarely observed in the cell soma, which exhibited near synchronous recruitment of BAX. Propagation velocity is not affected by mitochondrial volume in segments of processes, but is negatively affected by mitochondrial density. There was no evidence of a propagating wave of increased levels of intracellular calcium ions. Alternatively, we did observe a uniform increase in superoxide build-up in cellular mitochondria, which was released as a propagating wave simultaneously with the propagating recruitment of BAX to the mitochondrial outer membrane.
AU - Grosser, Joshua A.
AU - Maes, Margaret E
AU - Nickells, Robert W.
ID - 9009
JF - Apoptosis
SN - 1360-8185
TI - Characteristics of intracellular propagation of mitochondrial BAX recruitment during apoptosis
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Availability of the essential macronutrient nitrogen in soil plays a critical role in plant growth, development, and impacts agricultural productivity. Plants have evolved different strategies for sensing and responding to heterogeneous nitrogen distribution. Modulation of root system architecture, including primary root growth and branching, is among the most essential plant adaptions to ensure adequate nitrogen acquisition. However, the immediate molecular pathways coordinating the adjustment of root growth in response to distinct nitrogen sources, such as nitrate or ammonium, are poorly understood. Here, we show that growth as manifested by cell division and elongation is synchronized by coordinated auxin flux between two adjacent outer tissue layers of the root. This coordination is achieved by nitrate‐dependent dephosphorylation of the PIN2 auxin efflux carrier at a previously uncharacterized phosphorylation site, leading to subsequent PIN2 lateralization and thereby regulating auxin flow between adjacent tissues. A dynamic computer model based on our experimental data successfully recapitulates experimental observations. Our study provides mechanistic insights broadening our understanding of root growth mechanisms in dynamic environments.
AU - Ötvös, Krisztina
AU - Marconi, Marco
AU - Vega, Andrea
AU - O’Brien, Jose
AU - Johnson, Alexander J
AU - Abualia, Rashed
AU - Antonielli, Livio
AU - Montesinos López, Juan C
AU - Zhang, Yuzhou
AU - Tan, Shutang
AU - Cuesta, Candela
AU - Artner, Christina
AU - Bouguyon, Eleonore
AU - Gojon, Alain
AU - Friml, Jiří
AU - Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A.
AU - Wabnik, Krzysztof T
AU - Benková, Eva
ID - 9010
IS - 3
JF - EMBO Journal
SN - 02614189
TI - Modulation of plant root growth by nitrogen source-defined regulation of polar auxin transport
VL - 40
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We study dynamics and thermodynamics of ion transport in narrow, water-filled channels, considered as effective 1D Coulomb systems. The long range nature of the inter-ion interactions comes about due to the dielectric constants mismatch between the water and the surrounding medium, confining the electric filed to stay mostly within the water-filled channel. Statistical mechanics of such Coulomb systems is dominated by entropic effects which may be accurately accounted for by mapping onto an effective quantum mechanics. In presence of multivalent ions the corresponding quantum mechanics appears to be non-Hermitian. In this review we discuss a framework for semiclassical calculations for the effective non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. Non-Hermiticity elevates WKB action integrals from the real line to closed cycles on a complex Riemann surfaces where direct calculations are not attainable. We circumvent this issue by applying tools from algebraic topology, such as the Picard-Fuchs equation. We discuss how its solutions relate to the thermodynamics and correlation functions of multivalent solutions within narrow, water-filled channels.
AU - Gulden, Tobias
AU - Kamenev, Alex
ID - 9020
IS - 1
JF - Entropy
TI - Dynamics of ion channels via non-hermitian quantum mechanics
VL - 23
ER -
TY - THES
AB - In the first part of the thesis we consider Hermitian random matrices. Firstly, we consider sample covariance matrices XX∗ with X having independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) centred entries. We prove a Central Limit Theorem for differences of linear statistics of XX∗ and its minor after removing the first column of X. Secondly, we consider Wigner-type matrices and prove that the eigenvalue statistics near cusp singularities of the limiting density of states are universal and that they form a Pearcey process. Since the limiting eigenvalue distribution admits only square root (edge) and cubic root (cusp) singularities, this concludes the third and last remaining case of the Wigner-Dyson-Mehta universality conjecture. The main technical ingredients are an optimal local law at the cusp, and the proof of the fast relaxation to equilibrium of the Dyson Brownian motion in the cusp regime.
In the second part we consider non-Hermitian matrices X with centred i.i.d. entries. We normalise the entries of X to have variance N −1. It is well known that the empirical eigenvalue density converges to the uniform distribution on the unit disk (circular law). In the first project, we prove universality of the local eigenvalue statistics close to the edge of the spectrum. This is the non-Hermitian analogue of the TracyWidom universality at the Hermitian edge. Technically we analyse the evolution of the spectral distribution of X along the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck flow for very long time
(up to t = +∞). In the second project, we consider linear statistics of eigenvalues for macroscopic test functions f in the Sobolev space H2+ϵ and prove their convergence to the projection of the Gaussian Free Field on the unit disk. We prove this result for non-Hermitian matrices with real or complex entries. The main technical ingredients are: (i) local law for products of two resolvents at different spectral parameters, (ii) analysis of correlated Dyson Brownian motions.
In the third and final part we discuss the mathematically rigorous application of supersymmetric techniques (SUSY ) to give a lower tail estimate of the lowest singular value of X − z, with z ∈ C. More precisely, we use superbosonisation formula to give an integral representation of the resolvent of (X − z)(X − z)∗ which reduces to two and three contour integrals in the complex and real case, respectively. The rigorous analysis of these integrals is quite challenging since simple saddle point analysis cannot be applied (the main contribution comes from a non-trivial manifold). Our result
improves classical smoothing inequalities in the regime |z| ≈ 1; this result is essential to prove edge universality for i.i.d. non-Hermitian matrices.
AU - Cipolloni, Giorgio
ID - 9022
TI - Fluctuations in the spectrum of random matrices
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - We determine an asymptotic formula for the number of integral points of bounded height on a blow-up of $\mathbb{P}^3$ outside certain planes using universal torsors.
AU - Wilsch, Florian Alexander
ID - 9034
T2 - arXiv
TI - Integral points of bounded height on a log Fano threefold
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In this short note, we prove that the square root of the quantum Jensen-Shannon divergence is a true metric on the cone of positive matrices, and hence in particular on the quantum state space.
AU - Virosztek, Daniel
ID - 9036
IS - 3
JF - Advances in Mathematics
KW - General Mathematics
SN - 0001-8708
TI - The metric property of the quantum Jensen-Shannon divergence
VL - 380
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We continue our study of ‘no‐dimension’ analogues of basic theorems in combinatorial and convex geometry in Banach spaces. We generalize some results of the paper (Adiprasito, Bárány and Mustafa, ‘Theorems of Carathéodory, Helly, and Tverberg without dimension’, Proceedings of the Thirtieth Annual ACM‐SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, San Diego, California, 2019) 2350–2360) and prove no‐dimension versions of the colored Tverberg theorem, the selection lemma and the weak 𝜀 ‐net theorem in Banach spaces of type 𝑝>1 . To prove these results, we use the original ideas of Adiprasito, Bárány and Mustafa for the Euclidean case, our no‐dimension version of the Radon theorem and slightly modified version of the celebrated Maurey lemma.
AU - Ivanov, Grigory
ID - 9037
JF - Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society
SN - 00246093
TI - No-dimension Tverberg's theorem and its corollaries in Banach spaces of type p
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Layered materials in which individual atomic layers are bonded by weak van der Waals forces (vdW materials) constitute one of the most prominent platforms for materials research. Particularly, polar vdW crystals, such as hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), alpha-molybdenum trioxide (α-MoO3) or alpha-vanadium pentoxide (α-V2O5), have received significant attention in nano-optics, since they support phonon polaritons (PhPs)―light coupled to lattice vibrations― with strong electromagnetic confinement and low optical losses. Recently, correlative far- and near-field studies of α-MoO3 have been demonstrated as an effective strategy to accurately extract the permittivity of this material. Here, we use this accurately characterized and low-loss polaritonic material to sense its local dielectric environment, namely silica (SiO2), one of the most widespread substrates in nanotechnology. By studying the propagation of PhPs on α-MoO3 flakes with different thicknesses laying on SiO2 substrates via near-field microscopy (s-SNOM), we extract locally the infrared permittivity of SiO2. Our work reveals PhPs nanoimaging as a versatile method for the quantitative characterization of the local optical properties of dielectric substrates, crucial for understanding and predicting the response of nanomaterials and for the future scalability of integrated nanophotonic devices.
AU - Aguilar-Merino, Patricia
AU - Álvarez-Pérez, Gonzalo
AU - Taboada-Gutiérrez, Javier
AU - Duan, Jiahua
AU - Prieto Gonzalez, Ivan
AU - Álvarez-Prado, Luis Manuel
AU - Nikitin, Alexey Y.
AU - Martín-Sánchez, Javier
AU - Alonso-González, Pablo
ID - 9038
IS - 1
JF - Nanomaterials
TI - Extracting the infrared permittivity of SiO2 substrates locally by near-field imaging of phonon polaritons in a van der Waals crystal
VL - 11
ER -
TY - JOUR
AU - Römhild, Roderich
AU - Andersson, Dan I.
ID - 9046
IS - 1
JF - PLoS Pathogens
SN - 15537366
TI - Mechanisms and therapeutic potential of collateral sensitivity to antibiotics
VL - 17
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - This work analyzes the latency of the simplified successive cancellation (SSC) decoding scheme for polar codes proposed by Alamdar-Yazdi and Kschischang. It is shown that, unlike conventional successive cancellation decoding, where latency is linear in the block length, the latency of SSC decoding is sublinear. More specifically, the latency of SSC decoding is O(N1−1/μ) , where N is the block length and μ is the scaling exponent of the channel, which captures the speed of convergence of the rate to capacity. Numerical results demonstrate the tightness of the bound and show that most of the latency reduction arises from the parallel decoding of subcodes of rate 0 or 1.
AU - Mondelli, Marco
AU - Hashemi, Seyyed Ali
AU - Cioffi, John M.
AU - Goldsmith, Andrea
ID - 9047
IS - 1
JF - IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
SN - 15361276
TI - Sublinear latency for simplified successive cancellation decoding of polar codes
VL - 20
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The analogy between an equilibrium partition function and the return probability in many-body unitary dynamics has led to the concept of dynamical quantum phase transition (DQPT). DQPTs are defined by nonanalyticities in the return amplitude and are present in many models. In some cases, DQPTs can be related to equilibrium concepts, such as order parameters, yet their universal description is an open question. In this Letter, we provide first steps toward a classification of DQPTs by using a matrix product state description of unitary dynamics in the thermodynamic limit. This allows us to distinguish the two limiting cases of “precession” and “entanglement” DQPTs, which are illustrated using an analytical description in the quantum Ising model. While precession DQPTs are characterized by a large entanglement gap and are semiclassical in their nature, entanglement DQPTs occur near avoided crossings in the entanglement spectrum and can be distinguished by a complex pattern of nonlocal correlations. We demonstrate the existence of precession and entanglement DQPTs beyond Ising models, discuss observables that can distinguish them, and relate their interplay to complex DQPT phenomenology.
AU - De Nicola, Stefano
AU - Michailidis, Alexios
AU - Serbyn, Maksym
ID - 9048
IS - 4
JF - Physical Review Letters
KW - General Physics and Astronomy
SN - 0031-9007
TI - Entanglement view of dynamical quantum phase transitions
VL - 126
ER -
TY - THES
AB - In this thesis we study persistence of multi-covers of Euclidean balls and the geometric structures underlying their computation, in particular Delaunay mosaics and Voronoi tessellations.
The k-fold cover for some discrete input point set consists of the space where at least k balls of radius r around the input points overlap. Persistence is a notion that captures, in some sense, the topology of the shape underlying the input. While persistence is usually computed for the union of balls, the k-fold cover is of interest as it captures local density,
and thus might approximate the shape of the input better if the input data is noisy. To compute persistence of these k-fold covers, we need a discretization that is provided by higher-order Delaunay mosaics.
We present and implement a simple and efficient algorithm for the computation of higher-order Delaunay mosaics, and use it to give experimental results for their combinatorial properties. The algorithm makes use of a new geometric structure, the rhomboid tiling. It contains the higher-order Delaunay mosaics as slices, and by introducing a filtration
function on the tiling, we also obtain higher-order α-shapes as slices. These allow us to compute persistence of the multi-covers for varying radius r; the computation for varying k is less straight-foward and involves the rhomboid tiling directly. We apply our algorithms to experimental sphere packings to shed light on their structural properties. Finally, inspired by periodic structures in packings and materials, we propose and implement an algorithm for periodic Delaunay triangulations to be integrated into the Computational Geometry Algorithms Library (CGAL), and discuss
the implications on persistence for periodic data sets.
AU - Osang, Georg F
ID - 9056
SN - 2663-337X
TI - Multi-cover persistence and Delaunay mosaics
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The sensory and cognitive abilities of the mammalian neocortex are underpinned by intricate columnar and laminar circuits formed from an array of diverse neuronal populations. One approach to determining how interactions between these circuit components give rise to complex behavior is to investigate the rules by which cortical circuits are formed and acquire functionality during development. This review summarizes recent research on the development of the neocortex, from genetic determination in neural stem cells through to the dynamic role that specific neuronal populations play in the earliest circuits of neocortex, and how they contribute to emergent function and cognition. While many of these endeavors take advantage of model systems, consideration will also be given to advances in our understanding of activity in nascent human circuits. Such cross-species perspective is imperative when investigating the mechanisms underlying the dysfunction of early neocortical circuits in neurodevelopmental disorders, so that one can identify targets amenable to therapeutic intervention.
AU - Hanganu-Opatz, Ileana L.
AU - Butt, Simon J. B.
AU - Hippenmeyer, Simon
AU - De Marco García, Natalia V.
AU - Cardin, Jessica A.
AU - Voytek, Bradley
AU - Muotri, Alysson R.
ID - 9073
IS - 5
JF - The Journal of Neuroscience
KW - General Neuroscience
SN - 0270-6474
TI - The logic of developing neocortical circuits in health and disease
VL - 41
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - Acquired mutations are sufficiently frequent such that the genome of a single cell offers a record of its history of cell divisions. Among more common somatic genomic alterations are loss of heterozygosity (LOH). Large LOH events are potentially detectable in single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) datasets as tracts of monoallelic expression for constitutionally heterozygous single nucleotide variants (SNVs) located among contiguous genes. We identified runs of monoallelic expression, consistent with LOH, uniquely distributed throughout the genome in single cell brain cortex transcriptomes of F1 hybrids involving different inbred mouse strains. We then phylogenetically reconstructed single cell lineages and simultaneously identified cell types by corresponding gene expression patterns. Our results are consistent with progenitor cells giving rise to multiple cortical cell types through stereotyped expansion and distinct waves of neurogenesis. Compared to engineered recording systems, LOH events accumulate throughout the genome and across the lifetime of an organism, affording tremendous capacity for encoding lineage information and increasing resolution for later cell divisions. This approach can conceivably be computationally incorporated into scRNA-seq analysis and may be useful for organisms where genetic engineering is prohibitive, such as humans.
AU - Anderson, Donovan J.
AU - Pauler, Florian
AU - McKenna, Aaron
AU - Shendure, Jay
AU - Hippenmeyer, Simon
AU - Horwitz, Marshall S.
ID - 9082
T2 - bioRxiv
TI - Simultaneous identification of brain cell type and lineage via single cell RNA sequencing
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We employ the Gross-Pitaevskii equation to study acoustic emission generated in a uniform Bose gas by a static impurity. The impurity excites a sound-wave packet, which propagates through the gas. We calculate the shape of this wave packet in the limit of long wave lengths, and argue that it is possible to extract properties of the impurity by observing this shape. We illustrate here this possibility for a Bose gas with a trapped impurity atom -- an example of a relevant experimental setup. Presented results are general for all one-dimensional systems described by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation and can also be used in nonatomic systems, e.g., to analyze light propagation in nonlinear optical media. Finally, we calculate the shape of the sound-wave packet for a three-dimensional Bose gas assuming a spherically symmetric perturbation.
AU - Marchukov, Oleksandr
AU - Volosniev, Artem
ID - 9093
IS - 2
JF - SciPost Physics
SN - 2542-4653
TI - Shape of a sound wave in a weakly-perturbed Bose gas
VL - 10
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial for the priming of naive T cells and the initiation of adaptive immunity. Priming is initiated at a heterologous cell–cell contact, the immunological synapse (IS). While it is established that F-actin dynamics regulates signaling at the T cell side of the contact, little is known about the cytoskeletal contribution on the DC side. Here, we show that the DC actin cytoskeleton is decisive for the formation of a multifocal synaptic structure, which correlates with T cell priming efficiency. DC actin at the IS appears in transient foci that are dynamized by the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC). The absence of the WRC in DCs leads to stabilized contacts with T cells, caused by an increase in ICAM1-integrin–mediated cell–cell adhesion. This results in lower numbers of activated and proliferating T cells, demonstrating an important role for DC actin in the regulation of immune synapse functionality.
AU - Leithner, Alexander F
AU - Altenburger, LM
AU - Hauschild, R
AU - Assen, Frank P
AU - Rottner, K
AU - TEB, Stradal
AU - Diz-Muñoz, A
AU - Stein, JV
AU - Sixt, Michael K
ID - 9094
IS - 4
JF - Journal of Cell Biology
SN - 0021-9525
TI - Dendritic cell actin dynamics control contact duration and priming efficiency at the immunological synapse
VL - 220
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease clinically characterized by the appearance of red colored, well-demarcated plaques with thickened skin and with silvery scales. Recent studies have established the involvement of a complex signalling network of interactions between cytokines, immune cells and skin cells called keratinocytes. Keratinocytes form the cells of the outermost layer of the skin (epidermis). Visible plaques in psoriasis are developed due to the fast proliferation and unusual differentiation of keratinocyte cells. Despite that, the exact mechanism of the appearance of these plaques in the cytokine-immune cell network is not clear. A mathematical model embodying interactions between key immune cells believed to be involved in psoriasis, keratinocytes and relevant cytokines has been developed. The complex network formed of these interactions poses several challenges. Here, we choose to study subnetworks of this complex network and initially focus on interactions involving TNFα, IL-23/IL-17, and IL-15. These are chosen based on known evidence of their therapeutic efficacy. In addition, we explore the role of IL-15 in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and its potential as a future drug target for a novel treatment option. We perform steady state analyses for these subnetworks and demonstrate that the interactions between cells, driven by cytokines could cause the emergence of a psoriasis state (hyper-proliferation of keratinocytes) when levels of TNFα, IL-23/IL-17 or IL-15 are increased. The model results explain and support the clinical potentiality of anti-cytokine treatments. Interestingly, our results suggest different dynamic scenarios underpin the pathogenesis of psoriasis, depending upon the dominant cytokines of subnetworks. We observed that the increase in the level of IL-23/IL-17 and IL-15 could lead to psoriasis via a bistable route, whereas an increase in the level of TNFα would lead to a monotonic and gradual disease progression. Further, we demonstrate how this insight, bistability, could be exploited to improve the current therapies and develop novel treatment strategies for psoriasis.
AU - Pandey, Rakesh
AU - Al-Nuaimi, Yusur
AU - Mishra, Rajiv Kumar
AU - Spurgeon, Sarah K.
AU - Goodfellow, Marc
ID - 9097
JF - Scientific Reports
TI - Role of subnetworks mediated by TNF α, IL-23/IL-17 and IL-15 in a network involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis
VL - 11
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We study properties of the volume of projections of the n-dimensional
cross-polytope $\crosp^n = \{ x \in \R^n \mid |x_1| + \dots + |x_n| \leqslant 1\}.$ We prove that the projection of $\crosp^n$ onto a k-dimensional coordinate subspace has the maximum possible volume for k=2 and for k=3.
We obtain the exact lower bound on the volume of such a projection onto a two-dimensional plane. Also, we show that there exist local maxima which are not global ones for the volume of a projection of $\crosp^n$ onto a k-dimensional subspace for any n>k⩾2.
AU - Ivanov, Grigory
ID - 9098
IS - 5
JF - Discrete Mathematics
SN - 0012365X
TI - On the volume of projections of the cross-polytope
VL - 344
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We show that on an Abelian variety over an algebraically closed field of positive characteristic, the obstruction to lifting an automorphism to a field of characteristic zero as a morphism vanishes if and only if it vanishes for lifting it as a derived autoequivalence. We also compare the deformation space of these two types of deformations.
AU - Srivastava, Tanya K
ID - 9099
JF - Archiv der Mathematik
SN - 0003889X
TI - Lifting automorphisms on Abelian varieties as derived autoequivalences
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Marine environments are inhabited by a broad representation of the tree of life, yet our understanding of speciation in marine ecosystems is extremely limited compared with terrestrial and freshwater environments. Developing a more comprehensive picture of speciation in marine environments requires that we 'dive under the surface' by studying a wider range of taxa and ecosystems is necessary for a more comprehensive picture of speciation. Although studying marine evolutionary processes is often challenging, recent technological advances in different fields, from maritime engineering to genomics, are making it increasingly possible to study speciation of marine life forms across diverse ecosystems and taxa. Motivated by recent research in the field, including the 14 contributions in this issue, we highlight and discuss six axes of research that we think will deepen our understanding of speciation in the marine realm: (a) study a broader range of marine environments and organisms; (b) identify the reproductive barriers driving speciation between marine taxa; (c) understand the role of different genomic architectures underlying reproductive isolation; (d) infer the evolutionary history of divergence using model‐based approaches; (e) study patterns of hybridization and introgression between marine taxa; and (f) implement highly interdisciplinary, collaborative research programmes. In outlining these goals, we hope to inspire researchers to continue filling this critical knowledge gap surrounding the origins of marine biodiversity.
AU - Faria, Rui
AU - Johannesson, Kerstin
AU - Stankowski, Sean
ID - 9100
IS - 1
JF - Journal of Evolutionary Biology
SN - 1010061X
TI - Speciation in marine environments: Diving under the surface
VL - 34
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Behavioral predispositions are innate tendencies of animals to behave in a given way without the input of learning. They increase survival chances and, due to environmental and ecological challenges, may vary substantially even between closely related taxa. These differences are likely to be especially pronounced in long-lived species like crocodilians. This order is particularly relevant for comparative cognition due to its phylogenetic proximity to birds. Here we compared early life behavioral predispositions in two Alligatoridae species. We exposed American alligator and spectacled caiman hatchlings to three different novel situations: a novel object, a novel environment that was open and a novel environment with a shelter. This was then repeated a week later. During exposure to the novel environments, alligators moved around more and explored a larger range of the arena than the caimans. When exposed to the novel object, the alligators reduced the mean distance to the novel object in the second phase, while the caimans further increased it, indicating diametrically opposite ontogenetic development in behavioral predispositions. Although all crocodilian hatchlings face comparable challenges, e.g., high predation pressure, the effectiveness of parental protection might explain the observed pattern. American alligators are apex predators capable of protecting their offspring against most dangers, whereas adult spectacled caimans are frequently predated themselves. Their distancing behavior might be related to increased predator avoidance and also explain the success of invasive spectacled caimans in the natural habitats of other crocodilians.
AU - Reber, Stephan A.
AU - Oh, Jinook
AU - Janisch, Judith
AU - Stevenson, Colin
AU - Foggett, Shaun
AU - Wilkinson, Anna
ID - 9101
JF - Animal Cognition
SN - 14359448
TI - Early life differences in behavioral predispositions in two Alligatoridae species
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - “Hydrogen economy” could enable a carbon-neutral sustainable energy chain. However, issues with safety, storage, and transport of molecular hydrogen impede its realization. Alcohols as liquid H2 carriers could be enablers, but state-of-the-art reforming is difficult, requiring high temperatures >200 °C and pressures >25 bar, and the resulting H2 is carbonized beyond tolerance levels for direct use in fuel cells. Here, we demonstrate ambient temperature and pressure alcohol reforming in a fuel cell (ARFC) with a simultaneous electrical power output. The alcohol is oxidized at the alkaline anode, where the resulting CO2 is sequestrated as carbonate. Carbon-free H2 is liberated at the acidic cathode. The neutralization energy between the alkaline anode and the acidic cathode drives the process, particularly the unusually high entropy gain (1.27-fold ΔH). The significantly positive temperature coefficient of the resulting electromotive force allows us to harvest a large fraction of the output energy from the surrounding, achieving a thermodynamic efficiency as high as 2.27. MoS2 as the cathode catalyst allows alcohol reforming even under open-air conditions, a challenge that state-of-the-art alcohol reforming failed to overcome. We further show reforming of a wide range of alcohols. The ARFC offers an unprecedented route toward hydrogen economy as CO2 is simultaneously captured and pure H2 produced at mild conditions.
AU - Manzoor Bhat, Zahid Manzoor
AU - Thimmappa, Ravikumar
AU - Dargily, Neethu Christudas
AU - Raafik, Abdul
AU - Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja
AU - Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli
AU - Itagi, Mahesh
AU - Makri Nimbegondi Kotresh, Harish
AU - Freunberger, Stefan Alexander
AU - Ottakam Thotiyl, Musthafa
ID - 9113
JF - ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering
TI - Ambient condition alcohol reforming to hydrogen with electricity output
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Cesium lead halides have intrinsically unstable crystal lattices and easily transform within perovskite and nonperovskite structures. In this work, we explore the conversion of the perovskite CsPbBr3 into Cs4PbBr6 in the presence of PbS at 450 °C to produce doped nanocrystal-based composites with embedded Cs4PbBr6 nanoprecipitates. We show that PbBr2 is extracted from CsPbBr3 and diffuses into the PbS lattice with a consequent increase in the concentration of free charge carriers. This new doping strategy enables the adjustment of the density of charge carriers between 1019 and 1020 cm–3, and it may serve as a general strategy for doping other nanocrystal-based semiconductors.
AU - Calcabrini, Mariano
AU - Genc, Aziz
AU - Liu, Yu
AU - Kleinhanns, Tobias
AU - Lee, Seungho
AU - Dirin, Dmitry N.
AU - Akkerman, Quinten A.
AU - Kovalenko, Maksym V.
AU - Arbiol, Jordi
AU - Ibáñez, Maria
ID - 9118
IS - 2
JF - ACS Energy Letters
TI - Exploiting the lability of metal halide perovskites for doping semiconductor nanocomposites
VL - 6
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We present DILS, a deployable statistical analysis platform for conducting demographic inferences with linked selection from population genomic data using an Approximate Bayesian Computation framework. DILS takes as input single‐population or two‐population data sets (multilocus fasta sequences) and performs three types of analyses in a hierarchical manner, identifying: (a) the best demographic model to study the importance of gene flow and population size change on the genetic patterns of polymorphism and divergence, (b) the best genomic model to determine whether the effective size Ne and migration rate N, m are heterogeneously distributed along the genome (implying linked selection) and (c) loci in genomic regions most associated with barriers to gene flow. Also available via a Web interface, an objective of DILS is to facilitate collaborative research in speciation genomics. Here, we show the performance and limitations of DILS by using simulations and finally apply the method to published data on a divergence continuum composed by 28 pairs of Mytilus mussel populations/species.
AU - Fraisse, Christelle
AU - Popovic, Iva
AU - Mazoyer, Clément
AU - Spataro, Bruno
AU - Delmotte, Stéphane
AU - Romiguier, Jonathan
AU - Loire, Étienne
AU - Simon, Alexis
AU - Galtier, Nicolas
AU - Duret, Laurent
AU - Bierne, Nicolas
AU - Vekemans, Xavier
AU - Roux, Camille
ID - 9119
JF - Molecular Ecology Resources
SN - 1755098X
TI - DILS: Demographic inferences with linked selection by using ABC
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We show that the energy gap for the BCS gap equation is
Ξ=μ(8e−2+o(1))exp(π2μ−−√a)
in the low density limit μ→0. Together with the similar result for the critical temperature by Hainzl and Seiringer (Lett Math Phys 84: 99–107, 2008), this shows that, in the low density limit, the ratio of the energy gap and critical temperature is a universal constant independent of the interaction potential V. The results hold for a class of potentials with negative scattering length a and no bound states.
AU - Lauritsen, Asbjørn Bækgaard
ID - 9121
JF - Letters in Mathematical Physics
KW - Mathematical Physics
KW - Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
SN - 0377-9017
TI - The BCS energy gap at low density
VL - 111
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - While several tools have been developed to study the ground state of many-body quantum spin systems, the limitations of existing techniques call for the exploration of new approaches. In this manuscript we develop an alternative analytical and numerical framework for many-body quantum spin ground states, based on the disentanglement formalism. In this approach, observables are exactly expressed as Gaussian-weighted functional integrals over scalar fields. We identify the leading contribution to these integrals, given by the saddle point of a suitable effective action. Analytically, we develop a field-theoretical expansion of the functional integrals, performed by means of appropriate Feynman rules. The expansion can be truncated to a desired order to obtain analytical approximations to observables. Numerically, we show that the disentanglement approach can be used to compute ground state expectation values from classical stochastic processes. While the associated fluctuations grow exponentially with imaginary time and the system size, this growth can be mitigated by means of an importance sampling scheme based on knowledge of the saddle point configuration. We illustrate the advantages and limitations of our methods by considering the quantum Ising model in 1, 2 and 3 spatial dimensions. Our analytical and numerical approaches are applicable to a broad class of systems, bridging concepts from quantum lattice models, continuum field theory, and classical stochastic processes.
AU - De Nicola, Stefano
ID - 9158
IS - 1
JF - Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment
KW - Statistics
KW - Probability and Uncertainty
KW - Statistics and Probability
KW - Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
SN - 1742-5468
TI - Disentanglement approach to quantum spin ground states: Field theory and stochastic simulation
VL - 2021
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Interspecific crossing experiments have shown that sex chromosomes play a major role in reproductive isolation between many pairs of species. However, their ability to act as reproductive barriers, which hamper interspecific genetic exchange, has rarely been evaluated quantitatively compared to Autosomes. This genome-wide limitation of gene flow is essential for understanding the complete separation of species, and thus speciation. Here, we develop a mainland-island model of secondary contact between hybridizing species of an XY (or ZW) sexual system. We obtain theoretical predictions for the frequency of introgressed alleles, and the strength of the barrier to neutral gene flow for the two types of chromosomes carrying multiple interspecific barrier loci. Theoretical predictions are obtained for scenarios where introgressed alleles are rare. We show that the same analytical expressions apply for sex chromosomes and autosomes, but with different sex-averaged effective parameters. The specific features of sex chromosomes (hemizygosity and absence of recombination in the heterogametic sex) lead to reduced levels of introgression on the X (or Z) compared to autosomes. This effect can be enhanced by certain types of sex-biased forces, but it remains overall small (except when alleles causing incompatibilities are recessive). We discuss these predictions in the light of empirical data comprising model-based tests of introgression and cline surveys in various biological systems.
AU - Fraisse, Christelle
AU - Sachdeva, Himani
ID - 9168
IS - 2
JF - Genetics
SN - 1943-2631
TI - The rates of introgression and barriers to genetic exchange between hybridizing species: Sex chromosomes vs autosomes
VL - 217
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We show that Hilbert schemes of points on supersingular Enriques surface in characteristic 2, Hilbn(X), for n ≥ 2 are simply connected, symplectic varieties but are not irreducible symplectic as the hodge number h2,0 > 1, even though a supersingular Enriques surface is an irreducible symplectic variety. These are the classes of varieties which appear only in characteristic 2 and they show that the hodge number formula for G¨ottsche-Soergel does not hold over haracteristic 2. It also gives examples of varieties with trivial canonical class which are neither irreducible symplectic nor Calabi-Yau, thereby showing that there are strictly more classes of simply connected varieties with trivial canonical class in characteristic 2 than over C as given by Beauville-Bogolomov decomposition theorem.
AU - Srivastava, Tanya K
ID - 9173
IS - 03
JF - Bulletin des Sciences Mathematiques
SN - 0007-4497
TI - Pathologies of the Hilbert scheme of points of a supersingular Enriques surface
VL - 167
ER -
TY - DATA
AB - Here are the research data underlying the publication "Estimating inbreeding and its effects in a long-term study of snapdragons (Antirrhinum majus)". Further information are summed up in the README document.
AU - Arathoon, Louise S
AU - Surendranadh, Parvathy
AU - Barton, Nicholas H
AU - Field, David
AU - Pickup, Melinda
AU - Baskett, Carina
ID - 9192
TI - Estimating inbreeding and its effects in a long-term study of snapdragons (Antirrhinum majus)
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic mechanism that results in parental allele-specific expression of ~1% of all genes in mouse and human. Imprinted genes are key developmental regulators and play pivotal roles in many biological processes such as nutrient transfer from the mother to offspring and neuronal development. Imprinted genes are also involved in human disease, including neurodevelopmental disorders, and often occur in clusters that are regulated by a common imprint control region (ICR). In extra-embryonic tissues ICRs can act over large distances, with the largest surrounding Igf2r spanning over 10 million base-pairs. Besides classical imprinted expression that shows near exclusive maternal or paternal expression, widespread biased imprinted expression has been identified mainly in brain. In this review we discuss recent developments mapping cell type specific imprinted expression in extra-embryonic tissues and neocortex in the mouse. We highlight the advantages of using an inducible uniparental chromosome disomy (UPD) system to generate cells carrying either two maternal or two paternal copies of a specific chromosome to analyze the functional consequences of genomic imprinting. Mosaic Analysis with Double Markers (MADM) allows fluorescent labeling and concomitant induction of UPD sparsely in specific cell types, and thus to over-express or suppress all imprinted genes on that chromosome. To illustrate the utility of this technique, we explain how MADM-induced UPD revealed new insights about the function of the well-studied Cdkn1c imprinted gene, and how MADM-induced UPDs led to identification of highly cell type specific phenotypes related to perturbed imprinted expression in the mouse neocortex. Finally, we give an outlook on how MADM could be used to probe cell type specific imprinted expression in other tissues in mouse, particularly in extra-embryonic tissues.
AU - Pauler, Florian
AU - Hudson, Quanah
AU - Laukoter, Susanne
AU - Hippenmeyer, Simon
ID - 9188
IS - 5
JF - Neurochemistry International
KW - Cell Biology
KW - Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
SN - 0197-0186
TI - Inducible uniparental chromosome disomy to probe genomic imprinting at single-cell level in brain and beyond
VL - 145
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Transposable elements exist widely throughout plant genomes and play important roles in plant evolution. Auxin is an important regulator that is traditionally associated with root development and drought stress adaptation. The DEEPER ROOTING 1 (DRO1) gene is a key component of rice drought avoidance. Here, we identified a transposon that acts as an autonomous auxin‐responsive promoter and its presence at specific genome positions conveys physiological adaptations related to drought avoidance. Rice varieties with high and auxin‐mediated transcription of DRO1 in the root tip show deeper and longer root phenotypes and are thus better adapted to drought. The INDITTO2 transposon contains an auxin response element and displays auxin‐responsive promoter activity; it is thus able to convey auxin regulation of transcription to genes in its proximity. In the rice Acuce, which displays DRO1‐mediated drought adaptation, the INDITTO2 transposon was found to be inserted at the promoter region of the DRO1 locus. Transgenesis‐based insertion of the INDITTO2 transposon into the DRO1 promoter of the non‐adapted rice variety Nipponbare was sufficient to promote its drought avoidance. Our data identify an example of how transposons can act as promoters and convey hormonal regulation to nearby loci, improving plant fitness in response to different abiotic stresses.
AU - Zhao, Y
AU - Wu, L
AU - Fu, Q
AU - Wang, D
AU - Li, J
AU - Yao, B
AU - Yu, S
AU - Jiang, L
AU - Qian, J
AU - Zhou, X
AU - Han, L
AU - Zhao, S
AU - Ma, C
AU - Zhang, Y
AU - Luo, C
AU - Dong, Q
AU - Li, S
AU - Zhang, L
AU - Jiang, X
AU - Li, Y
AU - Luo, H
AU - Li, K
AU - Yang, J
AU - Luo, Q
AU - Li, L
AU - Peng, S
AU - Huang, H
AU - Zuo, Z
AU - Liu, C
AU - Wang, L
AU - Li, C
AU - He, X
AU - Friml, Jiří
AU - Du, Y
ID - 9189
JF - Plant, Cell & Environment
SN - 0140-7791
TI - INDITTO2 transposon conveys auxin-mediated DRO1 transcription for rice drought avoidance
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - Formal design of embedded and cyber-physical systems relies on mathematical
modeling. In this paper, we consider the model class of hybrid automata whose
dynamics are defined by affine differential equations. Given a set of
time-series data, we present an algorithmic approach to synthesize a hybrid
automaton exhibiting behavior that is close to the data, up to a specified
precision, and changes in synchrony with the data. A fundamental problem in our
synthesis algorithm is to check membership of a time series in a hybrid
automaton. Our solution integrates reachability and optimization techniques for
affine dynamical systems to obtain both a sufficient and a necessary condition
for membership, combined in a refinement framework. The algorithm processes one
time series at a time and hence can be interrupted, provide an intermediate
result, and be resumed. We report experimental results demonstrating the
applicability of our synthesis approach.
AU - Garcia Soto, Miriam
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
AU - Schilling, Christian
ID - 9200
KW - hybrid automaton
KW - membership
KW - system identification
T2 - arXiv
TI - Synthesis of hybrid automata with affine dynamics from time-series data
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - We associate a certain tensor product lattice to any primitive integer lattice and ask about its typical shape. These lattices are related to the tangent bundle of Grassmannians and their study is motivated by Peyre's programme on "freeness" for rational points of bounded height on Fano
varieties.
AU - Browning, Timothy D
AU - Horesh, Tal
AU - Wilsch, Florian Alexander
ID - 9199
T2 - arXiv
TI - Equidistribution and freeness on Grassmannians
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Cryo-EM grid preparation is an important bottleneck in protein structure determination, especially for membrane proteins, typically requiring screening of a large number of conditions. We systematically investigated the effects of buffer components, blotting conditions and grid types on the outcome of grid preparation of five different membrane protein samples. Aggregation was the most common type of problem which was addressed by changing detergents, salt concentration or reconstitution of proteins into nanodiscs or amphipols. We show that the optimal concentration of detergent is between 0.05 and 0.4% and that the presence of a low concentration of detergent with a high critical micellar concentration protects the proteins from denaturation at the air-water interface. Furthermore, we discuss the strategies for achieving an adequate ice thickness, particle coverage and orientation distribution on free ice and on support films. Our findings provide a clear roadmap for comprehensive screening of conditions for cryo-EM grid preparation of membrane proteins.
AU - Kampjut, Domen
AU - Steiner, Julia
AU - Sazanov, Leonid A
ID - 9205
IS - 3
JF - iScience
TI - Cryo-EM grid optimization for membrane proteins
VL - 24
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The precise engineering of thermoelectric materials using nanocrystals as their building blocks has proven to be an excellent strategy to increase energy conversion efficiency. Here we present a synthetic route to produce Sb-doped PbS colloidal nanoparticles. These nanoparticles are then consolidated into nanocrystalline PbS:Sb using spark plasma sintering. We demonstrate that the introduction of Sb significantly influences the size, geometry, crystal lattice and especially the carrier concentration of PbS. The increase of charge carrier concentration achieved with the introduction of Sb translates into an increase of the electrical and thermal conductivities and a decrease of the Seebeck coefficient. Overall, PbS:Sb nanomaterial were characterized by two-fold higher thermoelectric figures of merit than undoped PbS.
AU - Cadavid, Doris
AU - Wei, Kaya
AU - Liu, Yu
AU - Zhang, Yu
AU - Li, Mengyao
AU - Genç, Aziz
AU - Berestok, Taisiia
AU - Ibáñez, Maria
AU - Shavel, Alexey
AU - Nolas, George S.
AU - Cabot, Andreu
ID - 9206
IS - 4
JF - Materials
TI - Synthesis, bottom up assembly and thermoelectric properties of Sb-doped PbS nanocrystal building blocks
VL - 14
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In this paper we experimentally study the transitional range of Reynolds numbers in
plane Couette–Poiseuille flow, focusing our attention on the localized turbulent structures
triggered by a strong impulsive jet and the large-scale flow generated around these
structures. We present a detailed investigation of the large-scale flow and show how
its amplitude depends on Reynolds number and amplitude perturbation. In addition,
we characterize the initial dynamics of the localized turbulent spot, which includes the
coupling between the small and large scales, as well as the dependence of the advection
speed on the large-scale flow generated around the spot. Finally, we provide the first
experimental measurements of the large-scale flow around an oblique turbulent band.
AU - Klotz, Lukasz
AU - Pavlenko, A. M.
AU - Wesfreid, J. E.
ID - 9207
JF - Journal of Fluid Mechanics
SN - 0022-1120
TI - Experimental measurements in plane Couette-Poiseuille flow: Dynamics of the large- and small-scale flow
VL - 912
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We propose a novel hybridization method for stability analysis that over-approximates nonlinear dynamical systems by switched systems with linear inclusion dynamics. We observe that existing hybridization techniques for safety analysis that over-approximate nonlinear dynamical systems by switched affine inclusion dynamics and provide fixed approximation error, do not suffice for stability analysis. Hence, we propose a hybridization method that provides a state-dependent error which converges to zero as the state tends to the equilibrium point. The crux of our hybridization computation is an elegant recursive algorithm that uses partial derivatives of a given function to obtain upper and lower bound matrices for the over-approximating linear inclusion. We illustrate our method on some examples to demonstrate the application of the theory for stability analysis. In particular, our method is able to establish stability of a nonlinear system which does not admit a polynomial Lyapunov function.
AU - Garcia Soto, Miriam
AU - Prabhakar, Pavithra
ID - 9202
T2 - 2020 IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium
TI - Hybridization for stability verification of nonlinear switched systems
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Plant fitness is largely dependent on the root, the underground organ, which, besides its anchoring function, supplies the plant body with water and all nutrients necessary for growth and development. To exploit the soil effectively, roots must constantly integrate environmental signals and react through adjustment of growth and development. Important components of the root management strategy involve a rapid modulation of the root growth kinetics and growth direction, as well as an increase of the root system radius through formation of lateral roots (LRs). At the molecular level, such a fascinating growth and developmental flexibility of root organ requires regulatory networks that guarantee stability of the developmental program but also allows integration of various environmental inputs. The plant hormone auxin is one of the principal endogenous regulators of root system architecture by controlling primary root growth and formation of LR. In this review, we discuss recent progress in understanding molecular networks where auxin is one of the main players shaping the root system and acting as mediator between endogenous cues and environmental factors.
AU - Cavallari, Nicola
AU - Artner, Christina
AU - Benková, Eva
ID - 9212
JF - Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
SN - 1943-0264
TI - Auxin-regulated lateral root organogenesis
ER -
TY - THES
AB - In this thesis, we consider several of the most classical and fundamental problems in static analysis and formal verification, including invariant generation, reachability analysis, termination analysis of probabilistic programs, data-flow analysis, quantitative analysis of Markov chains and Markov decision processes, and the problem of data packing in cache management.
We use techniques from parameterized complexity theory, polyhedral geometry, and real algebraic geometry to significantly improve the state-of-the-art, in terms of both scalability and completeness guarantees, for the mentioned problems. In some cases, our results are the first theoretical improvements for the respective problems in two or three decades.
AU - Goharshady, Amir Kafshdar
ID - 8934
SN - 2663-337X
TI - Parameterized and algebro-geometric advances in static program analysis
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - When short-range attractions are combined with long-range repulsions in colloidal particle systems, complex microphases can emerge. Here, we study a system of isotropic particles, which can form lamellar structures or a disordered fluid phase when temperature is varied. We show that, at equilibrium, the lamellar structure crystallizes, while out of equilibrium, the system forms a variety of structures at different shear rates and temperatures above melting. The shear-induced ordering is analyzed by means of principal component analysis and artificial neural networks, which are applied to data of reduced dimensionality. Our results reveal the possibility of inducing ordering by shear, potentially providing a feasible route to the fabrication of ordered lamellar structures from isotropic particles.
AU - Pȩkalski, J.
AU - Rzadkowski, Wojciech
AU - Panagiotopoulos, A. Z.
ID - 7956
IS - 20
JF - The Journal of chemical physics
TI - Shear-induced ordering in systems with competing interactions: A machine learning study
VL - 152
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are a class of disorders affecting brain development and function and are characterized by wide genetic and clinical variability. In this review, we discuss the multiple factors that influence the clinical presentation of NDDs, with particular attention to gene vulnerability, mutational load, and the two-hit model. Despite the complex architecture of
mutational events associated with NDDs, the various proteins involved appear to converge on common pathways, such as synaptic plasticity/function, chromatin remodelers and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms behind these pathways will hopefully lead to the identification of candidates that could be targeted for treatment approaches.
AU - Parenti, Ilaria
AU - Garcia Rabaneda, Luis E
AU - Schön, Hanna
AU - Novarino, Gaia
ID - 7957
IS - 8
JF - Trends in Neurosciences
SN - 01662236
TI - Neurodevelopmental disorders: From genetics to functional pathways
VL - 43
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Let A={A1,…,An} be a family of sets in the plane. For 0≤i2b be integers. We prove that if each k-wise or (k+1)-wise intersection of sets from A has at most b path-connected components, which all are open, then fk+1=0 implies fk≤cfk−1 for some positive constant c depending only on b and k. These results also extend to two-dimensional compact surfaces.
AU - Kalai, Gil
AU - Patakova, Zuzana
ID - 7960
JF - Discrete and Computational Geometry
SN - 01795376
TI - Intersection patterns of planar sets
VL - 64
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - A string graph is the intersection graph of a family of continuous arcs in the plane. The intersection graph of a family of plane convex sets is a string graph, but not all string graphs can be obtained in this way. We prove the following structure theorem conjectured by Janson and Uzzell: The vertex set of almost all string graphs on n vertices can be partitioned into five cliques such that some pair of them is not connected by any edge (n→∞). We also show that every graph with the above property is an intersection graph of plane convex sets. As a corollary, we obtain that almost all string graphs on n vertices are intersection graphs of plane convex sets.
AU - Pach, János
AU - Reed, Bruce
AU - Yuditsky, Yelena
ID - 7962
IS - 4
JF - Discrete and Computational Geometry
SN - 01795376
TI - Almost all string graphs are intersection graphs of plane convex sets
VL - 63
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - For 1≤m≤n, we consider a natural m-out-of-n multi-instance scenario for a public-key encryption (PKE) scheme. An adversary, given n independent instances of PKE, wins if he breaks at least m out of the n instances. In this work, we are interested in the scaling factor of PKE schemes, SF, which measures how well the difficulty of breaking m out of the n instances scales in m. That is, a scaling factor SF=ℓ indicates that breaking m out of n instances is at least ℓ times more difficult than breaking one single instance. A PKE scheme with small scaling factor hence provides an ideal target for mass surveillance. In fact, the Logjam attack (CCS 2015) implicitly exploited, among other things, an almost constant scaling factor of ElGamal over finite fields (with shared group parameters).
For Hashed ElGamal over elliptic curves, we use the generic group model to argue that the scaling factor depends on the scheme's granularity. In low granularity, meaning each public key contains its independent group parameter, the scheme has optimal scaling factor SF=m; In medium and high granularity, meaning all public keys share the same group parameter, the scheme still has a reasonable scaling factor SF=√m. Our findings underline that instantiating ElGamal over elliptic curves should be preferred to finite fields in a multi-instance scenario.
As our main technical contribution, we derive new generic-group lower bounds of Ω(√(mp)) on the difficulty of solving both the m-out-of-n Gap Discrete Logarithm and the m-out-of-n Gap Computational Diffie-Hellman problem over groups of prime order p, extending a recent result by Yun (EUROCRYPT 2015). We establish the lower bound by studying the hardness of a related computational problem which we call the search-by-hypersurface problem.
AU - Auerbach, Benedikt
AU - Giacon, Federico
AU - Kiltz, Eike
ID - 7966
SN - 0302-9743
T2 - Advances in Cryptology – EUROCRYPT 2020
TI - Everybody’s a target: Scalability in public-key encryption
VL - 12107
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Organic materials are known to feature long spin-diffusion times, originating in a generally small spin–orbit coupling observed in these systems. From that perspective, chiral molecules acting as efficient spin selectors pose a puzzle that attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Here, we revisit the physical origins of chiral-induced spin selectivity (CISS) and propose a simple analytic minimal model to describe it. The model treats a chiral molecule as an anisotropic wire with molecular dipole moments aligned arbitrarily with respect to the wire’s axes and is therefore quite general. Importantly, it shows that the helical structure of the molecule is not necessary to observe CISS and other chiral nonhelical molecules can also be considered as potential candidates for the CISS effect. We also show that the suggested simple model captures the main characteristics of CISS observed in the experiment, without the need for additional constraints employed in the previous studies. The results pave the way for understanding other related physical phenomena where the CISS effect plays an essential role.
AU - Ghazaryan, Areg
AU - Paltiel, Yossi
AU - Lemeshko, Mikhail
ID - 7968
IS - 21
JF - The Journal of Physical Chemistry C
SN - 1932-7447
TI - Analytic model of chiral-induced spin selectivity
VL - 124
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Multilayer graphene lattices allow for an additional tunability of the band structure by the strong perpendicular electric field. In particular, the emergence of the new multiple Dirac points in ABA stacked trilayer graphene subject to strong transverse electric fields was proposed theoretically and confirmed experimentally. These new Dirac points dubbed “gullies” emerge from the interplay between strong electric field and trigonal warping. In this work, we first characterize the properties of new emergent Dirac points and show that the electric field can be used to tune the distance between gullies in the momentum space. We demonstrate that the band structure has multiple Lifshitz transitions and higher-order singularity of “monkey saddle” type. Following the characterization of the band structure, we consider the spectrum of Landau levels and structure of their wave functions. In the limit of strong electric fields when gullies are well separated in momentum space, they give rise to triply degenerate Landau levels. In the second part of this work, we investigate how degeneracy between three gully Landau levels is lifted in the presence of interactions. Within the Hartree-Fock approximation we show that the symmetry breaking state interpolates between the fully gully polarized state that breaks C3 symmetry at high displacement field and the gully symmetric state when the electric field is decreased. The discontinuous transition between these two states is driven by enhanced intergully tunneling and exchange. We conclude by outlining specific experimental predictions for the existence of such a symmetry-breaking state.
AU - Rao, Peng
AU - Serbyn, Maksym
ID - 7971
IS - 24
JF - Physical Review B
SN - 2469-9950
TI - Gully quantum Hall ferromagnetism in biased trilayer graphene
VL - 101
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The goal of limiting global warming to 1.5 °C requires a drastic reduction in CO2 emissions across many sectors of the world economy. Batteries are vital to this endeavor, whether used in electric vehicles, to store renewable electricity, or in aviation. Present lithium-ion technologies are preparing the public for this inevitable change, but their maximum theoretical specific capacity presents a limitation. Their high cost is another concern for commercial viability. Metal–air batteries have the highest theoretical energy density of all possible secondary battery technologies and could yield step changes in energy storage, if their practical difficulties could be overcome. The scope of this review is to provide an objective, comprehensive, and authoritative assessment of the intensive work invested in nonaqueous rechargeable metal–air batteries over the past few years, which identified the key problems and guides directions to solve them. We focus primarily on the challenges and outlook for Li–O2 cells but include Na–O2, K–O2, and Mg–O2 cells for comparison. Our review highlights the interdisciplinary nature of this field that involves a combination of materials chemistry, electrochemistry, computation, microscopy, spectroscopy, and surface science. The mechanisms of O2 reduction and evolution are considered in the light of recent findings, along with developments in positive and negative electrodes, electrolytes, electrocatalysis on surfaces and in solution, and the degradative effect of singlet oxygen, which is typically formed in Li–O2 cells.
AU - Kwak, WJ
AU - Sharon, D
AU - Xia, C
AU - Kim, H
AU - Johnson, LR
AU - Bruce, PG
AU - Nazar, LF
AU - Sun, YK
AU - Frimer, AA
AU - Noked, M
AU - Freunberger, Stefan Alexander
AU - Aurbach, D
ID - 7985
IS - 14
JF - Chemical Reviews
SN - 0009-2665
TI - Lithium-oxygen batteries and related systems: Potential, status, and future
VL - 120
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We prove general topological Radon-type theorems for sets in ℝ^d, smooth real manifolds or finite dimensional simplicial complexes. Combined with a recent result of Holmsen and Lee, it gives fractional Helly theorem, and consequently the existence of weak ε-nets as well as a (p,q)-theorem. More precisely: Let X be either ℝ^d, smooth real d-manifold, or a finite d-dimensional simplicial complex. Then if F is a finite, intersection-closed family of sets in X such that the ith reduced Betti number (with ℤ₂ coefficients) of any set in F is at most b for every non-negative integer i less or equal to k, then the Radon number of F is bounded in terms of b and X. Here k is the smallest integer larger or equal to d/2 - 1 if X = ℝ^d; k=d-1 if X is a smooth real d-manifold and not a surface, k=0 if X is a surface and k=d if X is a d-dimensional simplicial complex. Using the recent result of the author and Kalai, we manage to prove the following optimal bound on fractional Helly number for families of open sets in a surface: Let F be a finite family of open sets in a surface S such that the intersection of any subfamily of F is either empty, or path-connected. Then the fractional Helly number of F is at most three. This also settles a conjecture of Holmsen, Kim, and Lee about an existence of a (p,q)-theorem for open subsets of a surface.
AU - Patakova, Zuzana
ID - 7989
SN - 18688969
T2 - 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry
TI - Bounding radon number via Betti numbers
VL - 164
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Given a finite point set P in general position in the plane, a full triangulation is a maximal straight-line embedded plane graph on P. A partial triangulation on P is a full triangulation of some subset P' of P containing all extreme points in P. A bistellar flip on a partial triangulation either flips an edge, removes a non-extreme point of degree 3, or adds a point in P ⧵ P' as vertex of degree 3. The bistellar flip graph has all partial triangulations as vertices, and a pair of partial triangulations is adjacent if they can be obtained from one another by a bistellar flip. The goal of this paper is to investigate the structure of this graph, with emphasis on its connectivity. For sets P of n points in general position, we show that the bistellar flip graph is (n-3)-connected, thereby answering, for sets in general position, an open questions raised in a book (by De Loera, Rambau, and Santos) and a survey (by Lee and Santos) on triangulations. This matches the situation for the subfamily of regular triangulations (i.e., partial triangulations obtained by lifting the points and projecting the lower convex hull), where (n-3)-connectivity has been known since the late 1980s through the secondary polytope (Gelfand, Kapranov, Zelevinsky) and Balinski’s Theorem. Our methods also yield the following results (see the full version [Wagner and Welzl, 2020]): (i) The bistellar flip graph can be covered by graphs of polytopes of dimension n-3 (products of secondary polytopes). (ii) A partial triangulation is regular, if it has distance n-3 in the Hasse diagram of the partial order of partial subdivisions from the trivial subdivision. (iii) All partial triangulations are regular iff the trivial subdivision has height n-3 in the partial order of partial subdivisions. (iv) There are arbitrarily large sets P with non-regular partial triangulations, while every proper subset has only regular triangulations, i.e., there are no small certificates for the existence of non-regular partial triangulations (answering a question by F. Santos in the unexpected direction).
AU - Wagner, Uli
AU - Welzl, Emo
ID - 7990
SN - 18688969
T2 - 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry
TI - Connectivity of triangulation flip graphs in the plane (Part II: Bistellar flips)
VL - 164
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We define and study a discrete process that generalizes the convex-layer decomposition of a planar point set. Our process, which we call homotopic curve shortening (HCS), starts with a closed curve (which might self-intersect) in the presence of a set P⊂ ℝ² of point obstacles, and evolves in discrete steps, where each step consists of (1) taking shortcuts around the obstacles, and (2) reducing the curve to its shortest homotopic equivalent. We find experimentally that, if the initial curve is held fixed and P is chosen to be either a very fine regular grid or a uniformly random point set, then HCS behaves at the limit like the affine curve-shortening flow (ACSF). This connection between HCS and ACSF generalizes the link between "grid peeling" and the ACSF observed by Eppstein et al. (2017), which applied only to convex curves, and which was studied only for regular grids. We prove that HCS satisfies some properties analogous to those of ACSF: HCS is invariant under affine transformations, preserves convexity, and does not increase the total absolute curvature. Furthermore, the number of self-intersections of a curve, or intersections between two curves (appropriately defined), does not increase. Finally, if the initial curve is simple, then the number of inflection points (appropriately defined) does not increase.
AU - Avvakumov, Sergey
AU - Nivasch, Gabriel
ID - 7991
SN - 18688969
T2 - 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry
TI - Homotopic curve shortening and the affine curve-shortening flow
VL - 164
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Let K be a convex body in ℝⁿ (i.e., a compact convex set with nonempty interior). Given a point p in the interior of K, a hyperplane h passing through p is called barycentric if p is the barycenter of K ∩ h. In 1961, Grünbaum raised the question whether, for every K, there exists an interior point p through which there are at least n+1 distinct barycentric hyperplanes. Two years later, this was seemingly resolved affirmatively by showing that this is the case if p=p₀ is the point of maximal depth in K. However, while working on a related question, we noticed that one of the auxiliary claims in the proof is incorrect. Here, we provide a counterexample; this re-opens Grünbaum’s question. It follows from known results that for n ≥ 2, there are always at least three distinct barycentric cuts through the point p₀ ∈ K of maximal depth. Using tools related to Morse theory we are able to improve this bound: four distinct barycentric cuts through p₀ are guaranteed if n ≥ 3.
AU - Patakova, Zuzana
AU - Tancer, Martin
AU - Wagner, Uli
ID - 7992
SN - 18688969
T2 - 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry
TI - Barycentric cuts through a convex body
VL - 164
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - In the recent study of crossing numbers, drawings of graphs that can be extended to an arrangement of pseudolines (pseudolinear drawings) have played an important role as they are a natural combinatorial extension of rectilinear (or straight-line) drawings. A characterization of the pseudolinear drawings of K_n was found recently. We extend this characterization to all graphs, by describing the set of minimal forbidden subdrawings for pseudolinear drawings. Our characterization also leads to a polynomial-time algorithm to recognize pseudolinear drawings and construct the pseudolines when it is possible.
AU - Arroyo Guevara, Alan M
AU - Bensmail, Julien
AU - Bruce Richter, R.
ID - 7994
SN - 18688969
T2 - 36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry
TI - Extending drawings of graphs to arrangements of pseudolines
VL - 164
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - When divergent populations are connected by gene flow, the establishment of complete reproductive isolation usually requires the joint action of multiple barrier effects. One example where multiple barrier effects are coupled consists of a single trait that is under divergent natural selection and also mediates assortative mating. Such multiple‐effect traits can strongly reduce gene flow. However, there are few cases where patterns of assortative mating have been described quantitatively and their impact on gene flow has been determined. Two ecotypes of the coastal marine snail, Littorina saxatilis , occur in North Atlantic rocky‐shore habitats dominated by either crab predation or wave action. There is evidence for divergent natural selection acting on size, and size‐assortative mating has previously been documented. Here, we analyze the mating pattern in L. saxatilis with respect to size in intensively sampled transects across boundaries between the habitats. We show that the mating pattern is mostly conserved between ecotypes and that it generates both assortment and directional sexual selection for small male size. Using simulations, we show that the mating pattern can contribute to reproductive isolation between ecotypes but the barrier to gene flow is likely strengthened more by sexual selection than by assortment.
AU - Perini, Samuel
AU - Rafajlović, Marina
AU - Westram, Anja M
AU - Johannesson, Kerstin
AU - Butlin, Roger K.
ID - 7995
IS - 7
JF - Evolution
SN - 00143820
TI - Assortative mating, sexual selection, and their consequences for gene flow in Littorina
VL - 74
ER -
TY - THES
AB - Quantum computation enables the execution of algorithms that have exponential complexity. This might open the path towards the synthesis of new materials or medical drugs, optimization of transport or financial strategies etc., intractable on even the fastest classical computers. A quantum computer consists of interconnected two level quantum systems, called qubits, that satisfy DiVincezo’s criteria. Worldwide, there are ongoing efforts to find the qubit architecture which will unite quantum error correction compatible single and two qubit fidelities, long distance qubit to qubit coupling and
calability. Superconducting qubits have gone the furthest in this race, demonstrating an algorithm running on 53 coupled qubits, but still the fidelities are not even close to those required for realizing a single logical qubit. emiconductor qubits offer extremely good characteristics, but they are currently investigated across different platforms. Uniting those good characteristics into a single platform might be a big step towards the quantum computer realization.
Here we describe the implementation of a hole spin qubit hosted in a Ge hut wire double quantum dot. The high and tunable spin-orbit coupling together with a heavy hole state character is expected to allow fast spin manipulation and long coherence times. Furthermore large lever arms, for hut wire devices, should allow good coupling to superconducting resonators enabling efficient long distance spin to spin coupling and a sensitive gate reflectometry spin readout. The developed cryogenic setup (printed circuit board sample holders, filtering, high-frequency wiring) enabled us to perform low temperature spin dynamics experiments. Indeed, we measured the fastest single spin qubit Rabi frequencies reported so far, reaching 140 MHz, while the dephasing times of 130 ns oppose the long decoherence predictions. In order to further investigate this, a double quantum dot gate was connected directly to a lumped element
resonator which enabled gate reflectometry readout. The vanishing inter-dot transition signal, for increasing external magnetic field, revealed the spin nature of the measured quantity.
AU - Kukucka, Josip
ID - 7996
TI - Implementation of a hole spin qubit in Ge hut wires and dispersive spin sensing
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Linking epigenetic marks to clinical outcomes improves insight into molecular processes, disease prediction, and therapeutic target identification. Here, a statistical approach is presented to infer the epigenetic architecture of complex disease, determine the variation captured by epigenetic effects, and estimate phenotype-epigenetic probe associations jointly. Implicitly adjusting for probe correlations, data structure (cell-count or relatedness), and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker effects, improves association estimates and in 9,448 individuals, 75.7% (95% CI 71.70–79.3) of body mass index (BMI) variation and 45.6% (95% CI 37.3–51.9) of cigarette consumption variation was captured by whole blood methylation array data. Pathway-linked probes of blood cholesterol, lipid transport and sterol metabolism for BMI, and xenobiotic stimuli response for smoking, showed >1.5 times larger associations with >95% posterior inclusion probability. Prediction accuracy improved by 28.7% for BMI and 10.2% for smoking over a LASSO model, with age-, and tissue-specificity, implying associations are a phenotypic consequence rather than causal.
AU - Trejo Banos, D
AU - McCartney, DL
AU - Patxot, M
AU - Anchieri, L
AU - Battram, T
AU - Christiansen, C
AU - Costeira, R
AU - Walker, RM
AU - Morris, SW
AU - Campbell, A
AU - Zhang, Q
AU - Porteous, DJ
AU - McRae, AF
AU - Wray, NR
AU - Visscher, PM
AU - Haley, CS
AU - Evans, KL
AU - Deary, IJ
AU - McIntosh, AM
AU - Hemani, G
AU - Bell, JT
AU - Marioni, RE
AU - Robinson, Matthew Richard
ID - 7999
JF - Nature Communications
SN - 2041-1723
TI - Bayesian reassessment of the epigenetic architecture of complex traits
VL - 11
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Post-tetanic potentiation (PTP) is an attractive candidate mechanism for hippocampus-dependent short-term memory. Although PTP has a uniquely large magnitude at hippocampal mossy fiber-CA3 pyramidal neuron synapses, it is unclear whether it can be induced by natural activity and whether its lifetime is sufficient to support short-term memory. We combined in vivo recordings from granule cells (GCs), in vitro paired recordings from mossy fiber terminals and postsynaptic CA3 neurons, and “flash and freeze” electron microscopy. PTP was induced at single synapses and showed a low induction threshold adapted to sparse GC activity in vivo. PTP was mainly generated by enlargement of the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles, allowing multiplicative interaction with other plasticity forms. PTP was associated with an increase in the docked vesicle pool, suggesting formation of structural “pool engrams.” Absence of presynaptic activity extended the lifetime of the potentiation, enabling prolonged information storage in the hippocampal network.
AU - Vandael, David H
AU - Borges Merjane, Carolina
AU - Zhang, Xiaomin
AU - Jonas, Peter M
ID - 8001
IS - 3
JF - Neuron
SN - 0896-6273
TI - Short-term plasticity at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses is induced by natural activity patterns and associated with vesicle pool engram formation
VL - 107
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Wound healing in plant tissues, consisting of rigid cell wall-encapsulated cells, represents a considerable challenge and occurs through largely unknown mechanisms distinct from those in animals. Owing to their inability to migrate, plant cells rely on targeted cell division and expansion to regenerate wounds. Strict coordination of these wound-induced responses is essential to ensure efficient, spatially restricted wound healing. Single-cell tracking by live imaging allowed us to gain mechanistic insight into the wound perception and coordination of wound responses after laser-based wounding in Arabidopsis root. We revealed a crucial contribution of the collapse of damaged cells in wound perception and detected an auxin increase specific to cells immediately adjacent to the wound. This localized auxin increase balances wound-induced cell expansion and restorative division rates in a dose-dependent manner, leading to tumorous overproliferation when the canonical TIR1 auxin signaling is disrupted. Auxin and wound-induced turgor pressure changes together also spatially define the activation of key components of regeneration, such as the transcription regulator ERF115. Our observations suggest that the wound signaling involves the sensing of collapse of damaged cells and a local auxin signaling activation to coordinate the downstream transcriptional responses in the immediate wound vicinity.
AU - Hörmayer, Lukas
AU - Montesinos López, Juan C
AU - Marhavá, Petra
AU - Benková, Eva
AU - Yoshida, Saiko
AU - Friml, Jiří
ID - 8002
IS - 26
JF - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
SN - 0027-8424
TI - Wounding-induced changes in cellular pressure and localized auxin signalling spatially coordinate restorative divisions in roots
VL - 117
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Relaxation to a thermal state is the inevitable fate of nonequilibrium interacting quantum systems without special conservation laws. While thermalization in one-dimensional systems can often be suppressed by integrability mechanisms, in two spatial dimensions thermalization is expected to be far more effective due to the increased phase space. In this work we propose a general framework for escaping or delaying the emergence of the thermal state in two-dimensional arrays of Rydberg atoms via the mechanism of quantum scars, i.e., initial states that fail to thermalize. The suppression of thermalization is achieved in two complementary ways: by adding local perturbations or by adjusting the driving Rabi frequency according to the local connectivity of the lattice. We demonstrate that these mechanisms allow us to realize robust quantum scars in various two-dimensional lattices, including decorated lattices with nonconstant connectivity. In particular, we show that a small decrease of the Rabi frequency at the corners of the lattice is crucial for mitigating the strong boundary effects in two-dimensional systems. Our results identify synchronization as an important tool for future experiments on two-dimensional quantum scars.
AU - Michailidis, Alexios
AU - Turner, C. J.
AU - Papić, Z.
AU - Abanin, D. A.
AU - Serbyn, Maksym
ID - 8011
IS - 2
JF - Physical Review Research
SN - 2643-1564
TI - Stabilizing two-dimensional quantum scars by deformation and synchronization
VL - 2
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Asynchronous programs are notoriously difficult to reason about because they spawn computation tasks which take effect asynchronously in a nondeterministic way. Devising inductive invariants for such programs requires understanding and stating complex relationships between an unbounded number of computation tasks in arbitrarily long executions. In this paper, we introduce inductive sequentialization, a new proof rule that sidesteps this complexity via a sequential reduction, a sequential program that captures every behavior of the original program up to reordering of coarse-grained commutative actions. A sequential reduction of a concurrent program is easy to reason about since it corresponds to a simple execution of the program in an idealized synchronous environment, where processes act in a fixed order and at the same speed. We have implemented and integrated our proof rule in the CIVL verifier, allowing us to provably derive fine-grained implementations of asynchronous programs. We have successfully applied our proof rule to a diverse set of message-passing protocols, including leader election protocols, two-phase commit, and Paxos.
AU - Kragl, Bernhard
AU - Enea, Constantin
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
AU - Mutluergil, Suha Orhun
AU - Qadeer, Shaz
ID - 8012
SN - 9781450376136
T2 - Proceedings of the 41st ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation
TI - Inductive sequentialization of asynchronous programs
ER -
TY - THES
AB - Algorithms in computational 3-manifold topology typically take a triangulation as an input and return topological information about the underlying 3-manifold. However, extracting the desired information from a triangulation (e.g., evaluating an invariant) is often computationally very expensive. In recent years this complexity barrier has been successfully tackled in some cases by importing ideas from the theory of parameterized algorithms into the realm of 3-manifolds. Various computationally hard problems were shown to be efficiently solvable for input triangulations that are sufficiently “tree-like.”
In this thesis we focus on the key combinatorial parameter in the above context: we consider the treewidth of a compact, orientable 3-manifold, i.e., the smallest treewidth of the dual graph of any triangulation thereof. By building on the work of Scharlemann–Thompson and Scharlemann–Schultens–Saito on generalized Heegaard splittings, and on the work of Jaco–Rubinstein on layered triangulations, we establish quantitative relations between the treewidth and classical topological invariants of a 3-manifold. In particular, among other results, we show that the treewidth of a closed, orientable, irreducible, non-Haken 3-manifold is always within a constant factor of its Heegaard genus.
AU - Huszár, Kristóf
ID - 8032
SN - 2663-337X
TI - Combinatorial width parameters for 3-dimensional manifolds
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - When tiny soft ferromagnetic particles are placed along a liquid interface and exposed to a vertical magnetic field, the balance between capillary attraction and magnetic repulsion leads to self-organization into well-defined patterns. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that precessing magnetic fields induce metachronal waves on the periphery of these assemblies, similar to the ones observed in ciliates and some arthropods. The outermost layer of particles behaves like an array of cilia or legs whose sequential movement causes a net and controllable locomotion. This bioinspired many-particle swimming strategy is effective even at low Reynolds number, using only spatially uniform fields to generate the waves.
AU - Collard, Ylona
AU - Grosjean, Galien M
AU - Vandewalle, Nicolas
ID - 8036
JF - Communications Physics
TI - Magnetically powered metachronal waves induce locomotion in self-assemblies
VL - 3
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Genetic perturbations that affect bacterial resistance to antibiotics have been characterized genome-wide, but how do such perturbations interact with subsequent evolutionary adaptation to the drug? Here, we show that strong epistasis between resistance mutations and systematically identified genes can be exploited to control spontaneous resistance evolution. We evolved hundreds of Escherichia coli K-12 mutant populations in parallel, using a robotic platform that tightly controls population size and selection pressure. We find a global diminishing-returns epistasis pattern: strains that are initially more sensitive generally undergo larger resistance gains. However, some gene deletion strains deviate from this general trend and curtail the evolvability of resistance, including deletions of genes for membrane transport, LPS biosynthesis, and chaperones. Deletions of efflux pump genes force evolution on inferior mutational paths, not explored in the wild type, and some of these essentially block resistance evolution. This effect is due to strong negative epistasis with resistance mutations. The identified genes and cellular functions provide potential targets for development of adjuvants that may block spontaneous resistance evolution when combined with antibiotics.
AU - Lukacisinova, Marta
AU - Fernando, Booshini
AU - Bollenbach, Mark Tobias
ID - 8037
JF - Nature Communications
TI - Highly parallel lab evolution reveals that epistasis can curb the evolution of antibiotic resistance
VL - 11
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Microelectromechanical systems and integrated photonics provide the basis for many reliable and compact circuit elements in modern communication systems. Electro-opto-mechanical devices are currently one of the leading approaches to realize ultra-sensitive, low-loss transducers for an emerging quantum information technology. Here we present an on-chip microwave frequency converter based on a planar aluminum on silicon nitride platform that is compatible with slot-mode coupled photonic crystal cavities. We show efficient frequency conversion between two propagating microwave modes mediated by the radiation pressure interaction with a metalized dielectric nanobeam oscillator. We achieve bidirectional coherent conversion with a total device efficiency of up to ~60%, a dynamic range of 2 × 10^9 photons/s and an instantaneous bandwidth of up to 1.7 kHz. A high fidelity quantum state transfer would be possible if the drive dependent output noise of currently ~14 photons s^−1 Hz^−1 is further reduced. Such a silicon nitride based transducer is in situ reconfigurable and could be used for on-chip classical and quantum signal routing and filtering, both for microwave and hybrid microwave-optical applications.
AU - Fink, Johannes M
AU - Kalaee, M.
AU - Norte, R.
AU - Pitanti, A.
AU - Painter, O.
ID - 8038
IS - 3
JF - Quantum Science and Technology
TI - Efficient microwave frequency conversion mediated by a photonics compatible silicon nitride nanobeam oscillator
VL - 5
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In the present work, we report a solution-based strategy to produce crystallographically textured SnSe bulk nanomaterials and printed layers with optimized thermoelectric performance in the direction normal to the substrate. Our strategy is based on the formulation of a molecular precursor that can be continuously decomposed to produce a SnSe powder or printed into predefined patterns. The precursor formulation and decomposition conditions are optimized to produce pure phase 2D SnSe nanoplates. The printed layer and the bulk material obtained after hot press displays a clear preferential orientation of the crystallographic domains, resulting in an ultralow thermal conductivity of 0.55 W m–1 K–1 in the direction normal to the substrate. Such textured nanomaterials present highly anisotropic properties with the best thermoelectric performance in plane, i.e., in the directions parallel to the substrate, which coincide with the crystallographic bc plane of SnSe. This is an unfortunate characteristic because thermoelectric devices are designed to create/harvest temperature gradients in the direction normal to the substrate. We further demonstrate that this limitation can be overcome with the introduction of small amounts of tellurium in the precursor. The presence of tellurium allows one to reduce the band gap and increase both the charge carrier concentration and the mobility, especially the cross plane, with a minimal decrease of the Seebeck coefficient. These effects translate into record out of plane ZT values at 800 K.
AU - Zhang, Yu
AU - Liu, Yu
AU - Xing, Congcong
AU - Zhang, Ting
AU - Li, Mengyao
AU - Pacios, Mercè
AU - Yu, Xiaoting
AU - Arbiol, Jordi
AU - Llorca, Jordi
AU - Cadavid, Doris
AU - Ibáñez, Maria
AU - Cabot, Andreu
ID - 8039
IS - 24
JF - ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
TI - Tin selenide molecular precursor for the solution processing of thermoelectric materials and devices
VL - 12
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider systems of N bosons in a box of volume one, interacting through a repulsive two-body potential of the form κN3β−1V(Nβx). For all 0<β<1, and for sufficiently small coupling constant κ>0, we establish the validity of Bogolyubov theory, identifying the ground state energy and the low-lying excitation spectrum up to errors that vanish in the limit of large N.
AU - Boccato, Chiara
AU - Brennecke, Christian
AU - Cenatiempo, Serena
AU - Schlein, Benjamin
ID - 8042
IS - 7
JF - Journal of the European Mathematical Society
SN - 14359855
TI - The excitation spectrum of Bose gases interacting through singular potentials
VL - 22
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - With decreasing Reynolds number, Re, turbulence in channel flow becomes spatio-temporally intermittent and self-organises into solitary stripes oblique to the mean flow direction. We report here the existence of localised nonlinear travelling wave solutions of the Navier–Stokes equations possessing this obliqueness property. Such solutions are identified numerically using edge tracking coupled with arclength continuation. All solutions emerge in saddle-node bifurcations at values of Re lower than the non-localised solutions. Relative periodic orbit solutions bifurcating from branches of travelling waves have also been computed. A complete parametric study is performed, including their stability, the investigation of their large-scale flow, and the robustness to changes of the numerical domain.
AU - Paranjape, Chaitanya S
AU - Duguet, Yohann
AU - Hof, Björn
ID - 8043
JF - Journal of Fluid Mechanics
SN - 00221120
TI - Oblique stripe solutions of channel flow
VL - 897
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Water-in-salt electrolytes based on highly concentrated bis(trifluoromethyl)sulfonimide (TFSI) promise aqueous electrolytes with stabilities approaching 3 V. However, especially with an electrode approaching the cathodic (reductive) stability, cycling stability is insufficient. While stability critically relies on a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), the mechanism behind the cathodic stability limit remains unclear. Here, we reveal two distinct reduction potentials for the chemical environments of ‘free’ and ‘bound’ water and that both contribute to SEI formation. Free-water is reduced ~1V above bound water in a hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and responsible for SEI formation via reactive intermediates of the HER; concurrent LiTFSI precipitation/dissolution establishes a dynamic interface. The free-water population emerges, therefore, as the handle to extend the cathodic limit of aqueous electrolytes and the battery cycling stability.
AU - Bouchal, Roza
AU - Li, Zhujie
AU - Bongu, Chandra
AU - Le Vot, Steven
AU - Berthelot, Romain
AU - Rotenberg, Benjamin
AU - Favier, Frederic
AU - Freunberger, Stefan Alexander
AU - Salanne, Mathieu
AU - Fontaine, Olivier
ID - 8057
IS - 37
JF - Angewandte Chemie
SN - 0044-8249
TI - Competitive salt precipitation/dissolution during free‐water reduction in water‐in‐salt electrolyte
VL - 132
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - We present a generative model of images that explicitly reasons over the set
of objects they show. Our model learns a structured latent representation that
separates objects from each other and from the background; unlike prior works,
it explicitly represents the 2D position and depth of each object, as well as
an embedding of its segmentation mask and appearance. The model can be trained
from images alone in a purely unsupervised fashion without the need for object
masks or depth information. Moreover, it always generates complete objects,
even though a significant fraction of training images contain occlusions.
Finally, we show that our model can infer decompositions of novel images into
their constituent objects, including accurate prediction of depth ordering and
segmentation of occluded parts.
AU - Anciukevicius, Titas
AU - Lampert, Christoph
AU - Henderson, Paul M
ID - 8063
T2 - arXiv
TI - Object-centric image generation with factored depths, locations, and appearances
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - With the lithium-ion technology approaching its intrinsic limit with graphite-based anodes, lithium metal is recently receiving renewed interest from the battery community as potential high capacity anode for next-generation rechargeable batteries. In this focus paper, we review the main advances in this field since the first attempts in the
mid-1970s. Strategies for enabling reversible cycling and avoiding dendrite growth are thoroughly discussed, including specific applications in all-solid-state (polymeric and inorganic), Lithium-sulphur and Li-O2 (air) batteries. A particular attention is paid to review recent developments in regard of prototype manufacturing and current state-ofthe-art of these battery technologies with respect to the 2030 targets of the EU Integrated Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan) Action 7.
AU - Varzi, Alberto
AU - Thanner, Katharina
AU - Scipioni, Roberto
AU - Di Lecce, Daniele
AU - Hassoun, Jusef
AU - Dörfler, Susanne
AU - Altheus, Holger
AU - Kaskel, Stefan
AU - Prehal, Christian
AU - Freunberger, Stefan Alexander
ID - 8067
KW - Battery
KW - Lithium metal
KW - Lithium-sulphur
KW - Lithium-air
KW - All-solid-state
SN - 2664-1690
TI - Current status and future perspectives of Lithium metal batteries
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The projection methods with vanilla inertial extrapolation step for variational inequalities have been of interest to many authors recently due to the improved convergence speed contributed by the presence of inertial extrapolation step. However, it is discovered that these projection methods with inertial steps lose the Fejér monotonicity of the iterates with respect to the solution, which is being enjoyed by their corresponding non-inertial projection methods for variational inequalities. This lack of Fejér monotonicity makes projection methods with vanilla inertial extrapolation step for variational inequalities not to converge faster than their corresponding non-inertial projection methods at times. Also, it has recently been proved that the projection methods with vanilla inertial extrapolation step may provide convergence rates that are worse than the classical projected gradient methods for strongly convex functions. In this paper, we introduce projection methods with alternated inertial extrapolation step for solving variational inequalities. We show that the sequence of iterates generated by our methods converges weakly to a solution of the variational inequality under some appropriate conditions. The Fejér monotonicity of even subsequence is recovered in these methods and linear rate of convergence is obtained. The numerical implementations of our methods compared with some other inertial projection methods show that our method is more efficient and outperforms some of these inertial projection methods.
AU - Shehu, Yekini
AU - Iyiola, Olaniyi S.
ID - 8077
JF - Applied Numerical Mathematics
SN - 0168-9274
TI - Projection methods with alternating inertial steps for variational inequalities: Weak and linear convergence
VL - 157
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - Here, we employ micro- and nanosized cellulose particles, namely paper fines and cellulose
nanocrystals, to induce hierarchical organization over a wide length scale. After processing
them into carbonaceous materials, we demonstrate that these hierarchically organized materials
outperform the best materials for supercapacitors operating with organic electrolytes reported
in literature in terms of specific energy/power (Ragone plot) while showing hardly any capacity
fade over 4,000 cycles. The highly porous materials feature a specific surface area as high as
2500 m2ˑg-1 and exhibit pore sizes in the range of 0.5 to 200 nm as proven by scanning electron
microscopy and N2 physisorption. The carbonaceous materials have been further investigated
by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and RAMAN spectroscopy. Since paper fines are an
underutilized side stream in any paper production process, they are a cheap and highly available
feedstock to prepare carbonaceous materials with outstanding performance in electrochemical
applications.
AU - Hobisch, Mathias A.
AU - Mourad, Eléonore
AU - Fischer, Wolfgang J.
AU - Prehal, Christian
AU - Eyley, Samuel
AU - Childress, Anthony
AU - Zankel, Armin
AU - Mautner, Andreas
AU - Breitenbach, Stefan
AU - Rao, Apparao M.
AU - Thielemans, Wim
AU - Freunberger, Stefan Alexander
AU - Eckhart, Rene
AU - Bauer, Wolfgang
AU - Spirk, Stefan
ID - 8081
TI - High specific capacitance supercapacitors from hierarchically organized all-cellulose composites
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Origin and functions of intermittent transitions among sleep stages, including brief awakenings and arousals, constitute a challenge to the current homeostatic framework for sleep regulation, focusing on factors modulating sleep over large time scales. Here we propose that the complex micro-architecture characterizing sleep on scales of seconds and minutes results from intrinsic non-equilibrium critical dynamics. We investigate θ- and δ-wave dynamics in control rats and in rats where the sleep-promoting ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) is lesioned (male Sprague-Dawley rats). We demonstrate that bursts in θ and δ cortical rhythms exhibit complex temporal organization, with long-range correlations and robust duality of power-law (θ-bursts, active phase) and exponential-like (δ-bursts, quiescent phase) duration distributions, features typical of non-equilibrium systems self-organizing at criticality. We show that such non-equilibrium behavior relates to anti-correlated coupling between θ- and δ-bursts, persists across a range of time scales, and is independent of the dominant physiologic state; indications of a basic principle in sleep regulation. Further, we find that VLPO lesions lead to a modulation of cortical dynamics resulting in altered dynamical parameters of θ- and δ-bursts and significant reduction in θ–δ coupling. Our empirical findings and model simulations demonstrate that θ–δ coupling is essential for the emerging non-equilibrium critical dynamics observed across the sleep–wake cycle, and indicate that VLPO neurons may have dual role for both sleep and arousal/brief wake activation. The uncovered critical behavior in sleep- and wake-related cortical rhythms indicates a mechanism essential for the micro-architecture of spontaneous sleep-stage and arousal transitions within a novel, non-homeostatic paradigm of sleep regulation.
AU - Lombardi, Fabrizio
AU - Gómez-Extremera, Manuel
AU - Bernaola-Galván, Pedro
AU - Vetrivelan, Ramalingam
AU - Saper, Clifford B.
AU - Scammell, Thomas E.
AU - Ivanov, Plamen Ch.
ID - 8084
IS - 1
JF - Journal of Neuroscience
SN - 0270-6474
TI - Critical dynamics and coupling in bursts of cortical rhythms indicate non-homeostatic mechanism for sleep-stage transitions and dual role of VLPO neurons in both sleep and wake
VL - 40
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In the setting of the fractional quantum Hall effect we study the effects of strong, repulsive two-body interaction potentials of short range. We prove that Haldane’s pseudo-potential operators, including their pre-factors, emerge as mathematically rigorous limits of such interactions when the range of the potential tends to zero while its strength tends to infinity. In a common approach the interaction potential is expanded in angular momentum eigenstates in the lowest Landau level, which amounts to taking the pre-factors to be the moments of the potential. Such a procedure is not appropriate for very strong interactions, however, in particular not in the case of hard spheres. We derive the formulas valid in the short-range case, which involve the scattering lengths of the interaction potential in different angular momentum channels rather than its moments. Our results hold for bosons and fermions alike and generalize previous results in [6], which apply to bosons in the lowest angular momentum channel. Our main theorem asserts the convergence in a norm-resolvent sense of the Hamiltonian on the whole Hilbert space, after appropriate energy scalings, to Hamiltonians with contact interactions in the lowest Landau level.
AU - Seiringer, Robert
AU - Yngvason, Jakob
ID - 8091
JF - Journal of Statistical Physics
SN - 00224715
TI - Emergence of Haldane pseudo-potentials in systems with short-range interactions
VL - 181
ER -
TY - CHAP
AB - Image translation refers to the task of mapping images from a visual domain to another. Given two unpaired collections of images, we aim to learn a mapping between the corpus-level style of each collection, while preserving semantic content shared across the two domains. We introduce xgan, a dual adversarial auto-encoder, which captures a shared representation of the common domain semantic content in an unsupervised way, while jointly learning the domain-to-domain image translations in both directions. We exploit ideas from the domain adaptation literature and define a semantic consistency loss which encourages the learned embedding to preserve semantics shared across domains. We report promising qualitative results for the task of face-to-cartoon translation. The cartoon dataset we collected for this purpose, “CartoonSet”, is also publicly available as a new benchmark for semantic style transfer at https://google.github.io/cartoonset/index.html.
AU - Royer, Amélie
AU - Bousmalis, Konstantinos
AU - Gouws, Stephan
AU - Bertsch, Fred
AU - Mosseri, Inbar
AU - Cole, Forrester
AU - Murphy, Kevin
ED - Singh, Richa
ED - Vatsa, Mayank
ED - Patel, Vishal M.
ED - Ratha, Nalini
ID - 8092
SN - 9783030306717
T2 - Domain Adaptation for Visual Understanding
TI - XGAN: Unsupervised image-to-image translation for many-to-many mappings
ER -
TY - JOUR
AU - Hippe, Andreas
AU - Braun, Stephan Alexander
AU - Oláh, Péter
AU - Gerber, Peter Arne
AU - Schorr, Anne
AU - Seeliger, Stephan
AU - Holtz, Stephanie
AU - Jannasch, Katharina
AU - Pivarcsi, Andor
AU - Buhren, Bettina
AU - Schrumpf, Holger
AU - Kislat, Andreas
AU - Bünemann, Erich
AU - Steinhoff, Martin
AU - Fischer, Jens
AU - Lira, Sérgio A.
AU - Boukamp, Petra
AU - Hevezi, Peter
AU - Stoecklein, Nikolas Hendrik
AU - Hoffmann, Thomas
AU - Alves, Frauke
AU - Sleeman, Jonathan
AU - Bauer, Thomas
AU - Klufa, Jörg
AU - Amberg, Nicole
AU - Sibilia, Maria
AU - Zlotnik, Albert
AU - Müller-Homey, Anja
AU - Homey, Bernhard
ID - 8093
JF - British Journal of Cancer
SN - 00070920
TI - EGFR/Ras-induced CCL20 production modulates the tumour microenvironment
VL - 123
ER -
TY - DATA
AB - Antibiotics that interfere with translation, when combined, interact in diverse and difficult-to-predict ways. Here, we explain these interactions by "translation bottlenecks": points in the translation cycle where antibiotics block ribosomal progression. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms of drug interactions between translation inhibitors, we generate translation bottlenecks genetically using inducible control of translation factors that regulate well-defined translation cycle steps. These perturbations accurately mimic antibiotic action and drug interactions, supporting that the interplay of different translation bottlenecks causes these interactions. We further show that growth laws, combined with drug uptake and binding kinetics, enable the direct prediction of a large fraction of observed interactions, yet fail to predict suppression. However, varying two translation bottlenecks simultaneously supports that dense traffic of ribosomes and competition for translation factors account for the previously unexplained suppression. These results highlight the importance of "continuous epistasis" in bacterial physiology.
AU - Kavcic, Bor
ID - 8097
KW - Escherichia coli
KW - antibiotic combinations
KW - translation
KW - growth laws
KW - drug interactions
KW - bacterial physiology
KW - translation inhibitors
TI - Analysis scripts and research data for the paper "Mechanisms of drug interactions between translation-inhibiting antibiotics"
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Sewall Wright developed FST for describing population differentiation and it has since been extended to many novel applications, including the detection of homomorphic sex chromosomes. However, there has been confusion regarding the expected estimate of FST for a fixed difference between the X‐ and Y‐chromosome when comparing males and females. Here, we attempt to resolve this confusion by contrasting two common FST estimators and explain why they yield different estimates when applied to the case of sex chromosomes. We show that this difference is true for many allele frequencies, but the situation characterized by fixed differences between the X‐ and Y‐chromosome is among the most extreme. To avoid additional confusion, we recommend that all authors using FST clearly state which estimator of FST their work uses.
AU - Gammerdinger, William J
AU - Toups, Melissa A
AU - Vicoso, Beatriz
ID - 8099
IS - 6
JF - Molecular Ecology Resources
SN - 1755-098X
TI - Disagreement in FST estimators: A case study from sex chromosomes
VL - 20
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - By rigorously accounting for mesoscale spatial correlations in donor/acceptor surface properties, we develop a scale-spanning model for same-material tribocharging. We find that mesoscale correlations affect not only the magnitude of charge transfer but also the fluctuations—suppressing otherwise overwhelming charge-transfer variability that is not observed experimentally. We furthermore propose a generic theoretical mechanism by which the mesoscale features might emerge, which is qualitatively consistent with other proposals in the literature.
AU - Grosjean, Galien M
AU - Wald, Sebastian
AU - Sobarzo Ponce, Juan Carlos A
AU - Waitukaitis, Scott R
ID - 8101
IS - 8
JF - Physical Review Materials
KW - electric charge
KW - tribocharging
KW - soft matter
KW - granular materials
KW - polymers
TI - Quantitatively consistent scale-spanning model for same-material tribocharging
VL - 4
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Physical and biological systems often exhibit intermittent dynamics with bursts or avalanches (active states) characterized by power-law size and duration distributions. These emergent features are typical of systems at the critical point of continuous phase transitions, and have led to the hypothesis that such systems may self-organize at criticality, i.e. without any fine tuning of parameters. Since the introduction of the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) model, the paradigm of self-organized criticality (SOC) has been very fruitful for the analysis of emergent collective behaviors in a number of systems, including the brain. Although considerable effort has been devoted in identifying and modeling scaling features of burst and avalanche statistics, dynamical aspects related to the temporal organization of bursts remain often poorly understood or controversial. Of crucial importance to understand the mechanisms responsible for emergent behaviors is the relationship between active and quiet periods, and the nature of the correlations. Here we investigate the dynamics of active (θ-bursts) and quiet states (δ-bursts) in brain activity during the sleep-wake cycle. We show the duality of power-law (θ, active phase) and exponential-like (δ, quiescent phase) duration distributions, typical of SOC, jointly emerge with power-law temporal correlations and anti-correlated coupling between active and quiet states. Importantly, we demonstrate that such temporal organization shares important similarities with earthquake dynamics, and propose that specific power-law correlations and coupling between active and quiet states are distinctive characteristics of a class of systems with self-organization at criticality.
AU - Lombardi, Fabrizio
AU - Wang, Jilin W.J.L.
AU - Zhang, Xiyun
AU - Ivanov, Plamen Ch
ID - 8105
JF - EPJ Web of Conferences
SN - 2100-014X
TI - Power-law correlations and coupling of active and quiet states underlie a class of complex systems with self-organization at criticality
VL - 230
ER -
TY - JOUR
AU - Barton, Nicholas H
ID - 8112
IS - 1806
JF - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. Series B: Biological Sciences
SN - 0962-8436
TI - On the completion of speciation
VL - 375
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - Context, such as behavioral state, is known to modulate memory formation and retrieval, but is usually ignored in associative memory models. Here, we propose several types of contextual modulation for associative memory networks that greatly increase their performance. In these networks, context inactivates specific neurons and connections, which modulates the effective connectivity of the network. Memories are stored only by the active components, thereby reducing interference from memories acquired in other contexts. Such networks exhibit several beneficial characteristics, including enhanced memory capacity, high robustness to noise, increased robustness to memory overloading, and better memory retention during continual learning. Furthermore, memories can be biased to have different relative strengths, or even gated on or off, according to contextual cues, providing a candidate model for cognitive control of memory and efficient memory search. An external context-encoding network can dynamically switch the memory network to a desired state, which we liken to experimentally observed contextual signals in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Overall, our work illustrates the benefits of organizing memory around context, and provides an important link between behavioral studies of memory and mechanistic details of neural circuits.SIGNIFICANCEMemory is context dependent — both encoding and recall vary in effectiveness and speed depending on factors like location and brain state during a task. We apply this idea to a simple computational model of associative memory through contextual gating of neurons and synaptic connections. Intriguingly, this results in several advantages, including vastly enhanced memory capacity, better robustness, and flexible memory gating. Our model helps to explain (i) how gating and inhibition contribute to memory processes, (ii) how memory access dynamically changes over time, and (iii) how context representations, such as those observed in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, may interact with and control memory processes.
AU - Podlaski, William F.
AU - Agnes, Everton J.
AU - Vogels, Tim P
ID - 8125
T2 - bioRxiv
TI - Context-modular memory networks support high-capacity, flexible, and robust associative memories
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Cortical areas comprise multiple types of inhibitory interneurons with stereotypical connectivity motifs, but their combined effect on postsynaptic dynamics has been largely unexplored. Here, we analyse the response of a single postsynaptic model neuron receiving tuned excitatory connections alongside inhibition from two plastic populations. Depending on the inhibitory plasticity rule, synapses remain unspecific (flat), become anti-correlated to, or mirror excitatory synapses. Crucially, the neuron’s receptive field, i.e., its response to presynaptic stimuli, depends on the modulatory state of inhibition. When both inhibitory populations are active, inhibition balances excitation, resulting in uncorrelated postsynaptic responses regardless of the inhibitory tuning profiles. Modulating the activity of a given inhibitory population produces strong correlations to either preferred or non-preferred inputs, in line with recent experimental findings showing dramatic context-dependent changes of neurons’ receptive fields. We thus confirm that a neuron’s receptive field doesn’t follow directly from the weight profiles of its presynaptic afferents.
AU - Agnes, Everton J.
AU - Luppi, Andrea I.
AU - Vogels, Tim P
ID - 8126
IS - 50
JF - The Journal of Neuroscience
TI - Complementary inhibitory weight profiles emerge from plasticity and allow attentional switching of receptive fields
VL - 40
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Mechanistic modeling in neuroscience aims to explain observed phenomena in terms of underlying causes. However, determining which model parameters agree with complex and stochastic neural data presents a significant challenge. We address this challenge with a machine learning tool which uses deep neural density estimators—trained using model simulations—to carry out Bayesian inference and retrieve the full space of parameters compatible with raw data or selected data features. Our method is scalable in parameters and data features and can rapidly analyze new data after initial training. We demonstrate the power and flexibility of our approach on receptive fields, ion channels, and Hodgkin–Huxley models. We also characterize the space of circuit configurations giving rise to rhythmic activity in the crustacean stomatogastric ganglion, and use these results to derive hypotheses for underlying compensation mechanisms. Our approach will help close the gap between data-driven and theory-driven models of neural dynamics.
AU - Gonçalves, Pedro J.
AU - Lueckmann, Jan-Matthis
AU - Deistler, Michael
AU - Nonnenmacher, Marcel
AU - Öcal, Kaan
AU - Bassetto, Giacomo
AU - Chintaluri, Chaitanya
AU - Podlaski, William F.
AU - Haddad, Sara A.
AU - Vogels, Tim P
AU - Greenberg, David S.
AU - Macke, Jakob H.
ID - 8127
JF - eLife
TI - Training deep neural density estimators to identify mechanistic models of neural dynamics
VL - 9
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We study the dynamics of a system of N interacting bosons in a disc-shaped trap, which is realised by an external potential that confines the bosons in one spatial dimension to an interval of length of order ε. The interaction is non-negative and scaled in such a way that its scattering length is of order ε/N, while its range is proportional to (ε/N)β with scaling parameter β∈(0,1]. We consider the simultaneous limit (N,ε)→(∞,0) and assume that the system initially exhibits Bose–Einstein condensation. We prove that condensation is preserved by the N-body dynamics, where the time-evolved condensate wave function is the solution of a two-dimensional non-linear equation. The strength of the non-linearity depends on the scaling parameter β. For β∈(0,1), we obtain a cubic defocusing non-linear Schrödinger equation, while the choice β=1 yields a Gross–Pitaevskii equation featuring the scattering length of the interaction. In both cases, the coupling parameter depends on the confining potential.
AU - Bossmann, Lea
ID - 8130
IS - 11
JF - Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis
SN - 0003-9527
TI - Derivation of the 2d Gross–Pitaevskii equation for strongly confined 3d Bosons
VL - 238
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The possibility to generate construct valid animal models enabled the development and testing of therapeutic strategies targeting the core features of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). At the same time, these studies highlighted the necessity of identifying sensitive developmental time windows for successful therapeutic interventions. Animal and human studies also uncovered the possibility to stratify the variety of ASDs in molecularly distinct subgroups, potentially facilitating effective treatment design. Here, we focus on the molecular pathways emerging as commonly affected by mutations in diverse ASD-risk genes, on their role during critical windows of brain development and the potential treatments targeting these biological processes.
AU - Basilico, Bernadette
AU - Morandell, Jasmin
AU - Novarino, Gaia
ID - 8131
IS - 12
JF - Current Opinion in Genetics and Development
SN - 0959437X
TI - Molecular mechanisms for targeted ASD treatments
VL - 65
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) is crucial for assembly of the peripheral branched actin network constituting one of the main drivers of eukaryotic cell migration. Here, we uncover an essential role of the hematopoietic-specific WRC component HEM1 for immune cell development. Germline-encoded HEM1 deficiency underlies an inborn error of immunity with systemic autoimmunity, at cellular level marked by WRC destabilization, reduced filamentous actin, and failure to assemble lamellipodia. Hem1−/− mice display systemic autoimmunity, phenocopying the human disease. In the absence of Hem1, B cells become deprived of extracellular stimuli necessary to maintain the strength of B cell receptor signaling at a level permissive for survival of non-autoreactive B cells. This shifts the balance of B cell fate choices toward autoreactive B cells and thus autoimmunity.
AU - Salzer, Elisabeth
AU - Zoghi, Samaneh
AU - Kiss, Máté G.
AU - Kage, Frieda
AU - Rashkova, Christina
AU - Stahnke, Stephanie
AU - Haimel, Matthias
AU - Platzer, René
AU - Caldera, Michael
AU - Ardy, Rico Chandra
AU - Hoeger, Birgit
AU - Block, Jana
AU - Medgyesi, David
AU - Sin, Celine
AU - Shahkarami, Sepideh
AU - Kain, Renate
AU - Ziaee, Vahid
AU - Hammerl, Peter
AU - Bock, Christoph
AU - Menche, Jörg
AU - Dupré, Loïc
AU - Huppa, Johannes B.
AU - Sixt, Michael K
AU - Lomakin, Alexis
AU - Rottner, Klemens
AU - Binder, Christoph J.
AU - Stradal, Theresia E.B.
AU - Rezaei, Nima
AU - Boztug, Kaan
ID - 8132
IS - 49
JF - Science Immunology
TI - The cytoskeletal regulator HEM1 governs B cell development and prevents autoimmunity
VL - 5
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The molecular factors which control circulating levels of inflammatory proteins are not well understood. Furthermore, association studies between molecular probes and human traits are often performed by linear model-based methods which may fail to account for complex structure and interrelationships within molecular datasets.In this study, we perform genome- and epigenome-wide association studies (GWAS/EWAS) on the levels of 70 plasma-derived inflammatory protein biomarkers in healthy older adults (Lothian Birth Cohort 1936; n = 876; Olink® inflammation panel). We employ a Bayesian framework (BayesR+) which can account for issues pertaining to data structure and unknown confounding variables (with sensitivity analyses using ordinary least squares- (OLS) and mixed model-based approaches). We identified 13 SNPs associated with 13 proteins (n = 1 SNP each) concordant across OLS and Bayesian methods. We identified 3 CpG sites spread across 3 proteins (n = 1 CpG each) that were concordant across OLS, mixed-model and Bayesian analyses. Tagged genetic variants accounted for up to 45% of variance in protein levels (for MCP2, 36% of variance alone attributable to 1 polymorphism). Methylation data accounted for up to 46% of variation in protein levels (for CXCL10). Up to 66% of variation in protein levels (for VEGFA) was explained using genetic and epigenetic data combined. We demonstrated putative causal relationships between CD6 and IL18R1 with inflammatory bowel disease and between IL12B and Crohn’s disease. Our data may aid understanding of the molecular regulation of the circulating inflammatory proteome as well as causal relationships between inflammatory mediators and disease.
AU - Hillary, Robert F.
AU - Trejo-Banos, Daniel
AU - Kousathanas, Athanasios
AU - Mccartney, Daniel L.
AU - Harris, Sarah E.
AU - Stevenson, Anna J.
AU - Patxot, Marion
AU - Ojavee, Sven Erik
AU - Zhang, Qian
AU - Liewald, David C.
AU - Ritchie, Craig W.
AU - Evans, Kathryn L.
AU - Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.
AU - Wray, Naomi R.
AU - Mcrae, Allan F.
AU - Visscher, Peter M.
AU - Deary, Ian J.
AU - Robinson, Matthew Richard
AU - Marioni, Riccardo E.
ID - 8133
IS - 1
JF - Genome Medicine
TI - Multi-method genome- and epigenome-wide studies of inflammatory protein levels in healthy older adults
VL - 12
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We prove an upper bound on the free energy of a two-dimensional homogeneous Bose gas in the thermodynamic limit. We show that for a2ρ ≪ 1 and βρ ≳ 1, the free energy per unit volume differs from the one of the non-interacting system by at most 4πρ2|lna2ρ|−1(2−[1−βc/β]2+) to leading order, where a is the scattering length of the two-body interaction potential, ρ is the density, β is the inverse temperature, and βc is the inverse Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless critical temperature for superfluidity. In combination with the corresponding matching lower bound proved by Deuchert et al. [Forum Math. Sigma 8, e20 (2020)], this shows equality in the asymptotic expansion.
AU - Mayer, Simon
AU - Seiringer, Robert
ID - 8134
IS - 6
JF - Journal of Mathematical Physics
SN - 00222488
TI - The free energy of the two-dimensional dilute Bose gas. II. Upper bound
VL - 61
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Discrete Morse theory has recently lead to new developments in the theory of random geometric complexes. This article surveys the methods and results obtained with this new approach, and discusses some of its shortcomings. It uses simulations to illustrate the results and to form conjectures, getting numerical estimates for combinatorial, topological, and geometric properties of weighted and unweighted Delaunay mosaics, their dual Voronoi tessellations, and the Alpha and Wrap complexes contained in the mosaics.
AU - Edelsbrunner, Herbert
AU - Nikitenko, Anton
AU - Ölsböck, Katharina
AU - Synak, Peter
ID - 8135
SN - 21932808
T2 - Topological Data Analysis
TI - Radius functions on Poisson–Delaunay mosaics and related complexes experimentally
VL - 15
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Directional transport of the phytohormone auxin is a versatile, plant-specific mechanism regulating many aspects of plant development. The recently identified plant hormones, strigolactones (SLs), are implicated in many plant traits; among others, they modify the phenotypic output of PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin transporters for fine-tuning of growth and developmental responses. Here, we show in pea and Arabidopsis that SLs target processes dependent on the canalization of auxin flow, which involves auxin feedback on PIN subcellular distribution. D14 receptor- and MAX2 F-box-mediated SL signaling inhibits the formation of auxin-conducting channels after wounding or from artificial auxin sources, during vasculature de novo formation and regeneration. At the cellular level, SLs interfere with auxin effects on PIN polar targeting, constitutive PIN trafficking as well as clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Our results identify a non-transcriptional mechanism of SL action, uncoupling auxin feedback on PIN polarity and trafficking, thereby regulating vascular tissue formation and regeneration.
AU - Zhang, J
AU - Mazur, E
AU - Balla, J
AU - Gallei, Michelle C
AU - Kalousek, P
AU - Medveďová, Z
AU - Li, Y
AU - Wang, Y
AU - Prat, Tomas
AU - Vasileva, Mina K
AU - Reinöhl, V
AU - Procházka, S
AU - Halouzka, R
AU - Tarkowski, P
AU - Luschnig, C
AU - Brewer, PB
AU - Friml, Jiří
ID - 8138
IS - 1
JF - Nature Communications
SN - 2041-1723
TI - Strigolactones inhibit auxin feedback on PIN-dependent auxin transport canalization
VL - 11
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is a crucial cellular process implicated in many aspects of plant growth, development, intra- and inter-cellular signaling, nutrient uptake and pathogen defense. Despite these significant roles, little is known about the precise molecular details of how it functions in planta. In order to facilitate the direct quantitative study of plant CME, here we review current routinely used methods and present refined, standardized quantitative imaging protocols which allow the detailed characterization of CME at multiple scales in plant tissues. These include: (i) an efficient electron microscopy protocol for the imaging of Arabidopsis CME vesicles in situ, thus providing a method for the detailed characterization of the ultra-structure of clathrin-coated vesicles; (ii) a detailed protocol and analysis for quantitative live-cell fluorescence microscopy to precisely examine the temporal interplay of endocytosis components during single CME events; (iii) a semi-automated analysis to allow the quantitative characterization of global internalization of cargos in whole plant tissues; and (iv) an overview and validation of useful genetic and pharmacological tools to interrogate the molecular mechanisms and function of CME in intact plant samples.
AU - Johnson, Alexander J
AU - Gnyliukh, Nataliia
AU - Kaufmann, Walter
AU - Narasimhan, Madhumitha
AU - Vert, G
AU - Bednarek, SY
AU - Friml, Jiří
ID - 8139
IS - 15
JF - Journal of Cell Science
SN - 0021-9533
TI - Experimental toolbox for quantitative evaluation of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in the plant model Arabidopsis
VL - 133
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Cell production and differentiation for the acquisition of specific functions are key features of living systems. The dynamic network of cellular microtubules provides the necessary platform to accommodate processes associated with the transition of cells through the individual phases of cytogenesis. Here, we show that the plant hormone cytokinin fine‐tunes the activity of the microtubular cytoskeleton during cell differentiation and counteracts microtubular rearrangements driven by the hormone auxin. The endogenous upward gradient of cytokinin activity along the longitudinal growth axis in Arabidopsis thaliana roots correlates with robust rearrangements of the microtubule cytoskeleton in epidermal cells progressing from the proliferative to the differentiation stage. Controlled increases in cytokinin activity result in premature re‐organization of the microtubule network from transversal to an oblique disposition in cells prior to their differentiation, whereas attenuated hormone perception delays cytoskeleton conversion into a configuration typical for differentiated cells. Intriguingly, cytokinin can interfere with microtubules also in animal cells, such as leukocytes, suggesting that a cytokinin‐sensitive control pathway for the microtubular cytoskeleton may be at least partially conserved between plant and animal cells.
AU - Montesinos López, Juan C
AU - Abuzeineh, A
AU - Kopf, Aglaja
AU - Juanes Garcia, Alba
AU - Ötvös, Krisztina
AU - Petrášek, J
AU - Sixt, Michael K
AU - Benková, Eva
ID - 8142
IS - 17
JF - The Embo Journal
SN - 0261-4189
TI - Phytohormone cytokinin guides microtubule dynamics during cell progression from proliferative to differentiated stage
VL - 39
ER -