TY - CONF
AB - The Embedded Machine is a virtual machine that mediates in real time the interaction between software processes and physical processes. It separates the compilation of embedded programs into two phases. The first, platform-independent compiler phase generates E code (code executed by the Embedded Machine), which supervises the timing ---not the scheduling--- of application tasks relative to external events, such as clock ticks and sensor interrupts. E~code is portable and exhibits, given an input behavior, predictable (i.e., deterministic) timing and output behavior. The second, platform-dependent compiler phase checks the time safety of the E code, that is, whether platform performance (determined by the hardware) and platform utilization (determined by the scheduler of the operating system) enable its timely execution. We have used the Embedded Machine to compile and execute high-performance control applications written in Giotto, such as the flight control system of an autonomous model helicopter.
AU - Thomas Henzinger
AU - Kirsch, Christoph M
ID - 4444
TI - The embedded machine: predictable, portable real-time code
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Giotto is a platform-independent language for specifying software for high-performance control applications. In this paper we present a new approach to the compilation of Giotto. Following this approach, the Giotto compiler generates code for a virtual machine, called the E machine, which can be ported to different platforms. The Giotto compiler also checks if the generated E code is time safe for a given platform, that is, if the platform offers sufficient performance to ensure that the E code is executed in a timely fashion that conforms with the Giotto semantics. Time-safety checking requires a schedulability analysis. We show that while for arbitrary E code, the analysis is exponential, for E code generated from typical Giotto programs, the analysis is polynomial. This supports our claim that Giotto identifies a useful fragment of embedded programs.
AU - Thomas Henzinger
AU - Kirsch, Christoph M
AU - Majumdar, Ritankar S
AU - Matic, Slobodan
ID - 4470
TI - Time-safety checking for embedded programs
VL - 2491
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - The sequential synthesis problem, which is closely related to Church’s solvability problem, asks, given a specification in the form of a binary relation between input and output streams, for the construction of a finite-state stream transducer that converts inputs to appropriate outputs. For efficiency reasons, practical sequential hardware is often designed to operate without prior initialization. Such hardware designs can be modeled by uninitialized state machines, which are required to satisfy their specification if started from any state. In this paper we solve the sequential synthesis problem for uninitialized systems, that is, we construct uninitialized finite-state stream transducers. We consider specifications given by LTL formulas, deterministic, nondeterministic, universal, and alternating Büchi automata. We solve this uninitialized synthesis problem by reducing it to the well-understood initialized synthesis problem. While our solution is straightforward, it leads, for some specification formalisms, to upper bounds that are exponentially worse than the complexity of the corresponding initialized problems. However, we prove lower bounds to show that our simple solutions are optimal for all considered specification formalisms. We also study the problem of deciding whether a given specification is uninitialized, that is, if its uninitialized and initialized synthesis problems coincide. We show that this problem has, for each specification formalism, the same complexity as the equivalence problem.
AU - Thomas Henzinger
AU - Krishnan, Sriram C
AU - Kupferman, Orna
AU - Mang, Freddy Y
ID - 4471
TI - Synthesis of uninitialized systems
VL - 2380
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We present a methodology and tool for verifying and certifying systems code. The verification is based on the lazy-abstraction paradigm for intertwining the following three logical steps: construct a predicate abstraction from the code, model check the abstraction, and automatically refine the abstraction based on counterexample analysis. The certification is based on the proof-carrying code paradigm. Lazy abstraction enables the automatic construction of small proof certificates. The methodology is implemented in Blast, the Berkeley Lazy Abstraction Software verification Tool. We describe our experience applying Blast to Linux and Windows device drivers. Given the C code for a driver and for a temporal-safety monitor, Blast automatically generates an easily checkable correctness certificate if the driver satisfies the specification, and an error trace otherwise.
AU - Thomas Henzinger
AU - Necula, George C
AU - Jhala, Ranjit
AU - Sutre, Grégoire
AU - Majumdar, Ritankar S
AU - Weimer, Westley
ID - 4472
TI - Temporal safety proofs for systems code
VL - 2404
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The simulation preorder on state transition systems is widely accepted as a useful notion of refinement, both in its own right and as an efficiently checkable sufficient condition for trace containment. For composite systems, due to the exponential explosion of the state space, there is a need for decomposing a simulation check of the form P ≤s Q, denoting "P is simulated by Q," into simpler simulation checks on the components of P and Q. We present an assume-guarantee rule that enables such a decomposition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first assume-guarantee rule that applies to a refinement relation different from trace containment. Our rule is circular, and its soundness proof requires induction on trace trees. The proof is constructive: given simulation relations that witness the simulation preorder between corresponding components of P and Q, we provide a procedure for constructing a witness relation for P ≤s Q. We also extend our assume-guarantee rule to account for fairness constraints on transition systems.
AU - Thomas Henzinger
AU - Qadeer,Shaz
AU - Rajamani, Sriram K
AU - Tasiran, Serdar
ID - 4473
IS - 1
JF - ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems (TOPLAS)
TI - An assume-guarantee rule for checking simulation
VL - 24
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The simulation preorder for labeled transition systems is defined locally, and operationally, as a game that relates states with their immediate successor states. Simulation enjoys many appealing properties. First, simulation has a denotational characterization: system S simulates system I iff every computation tree embedded in the unrolling of I can be embedded also in the unrolling of S. Second, simulation has a logical characterization: S simulates I iff every universal branching-time formula satisfied by S is satisfied also by I. It follows that simulation is a suitable notion of implementation, and it is the coarsest abstraction of a system that preserves universal branching-time properties. Third, based on its local definition, simulation between finite-state systems can be checked in polynomial time. Finally, simulation implies trace containment, which cannot be defined locally and requires polynomial space for verification. Hence simulation is widely used both in manual and in automatic verification. Liveness assumptions about transition systems are typically modeled using fairness constraints. Existing notions of simulation for fair transition systems, however, are not local, and as a result, many appealing properties of the simulation preorder are lost. We propose a new view of fair simulation by extending the local definition of simulation to account for fairness: system View the MathML sourcefairly simulates system View the MathML source iff in the simulation game, there is a strategy that matches with each fair computation of View the MathML source a fair computation of View the MathML source. Our definition enjoys a denotational characterization and has a logical characterization: View the MathML source fairly simulates View the MathML source iff every fair computation tree (whose infinite paths are fair) embedded in the unrolling of View the MathML source can be embedded also in the unrolling of View the MathML source or, equivalently, iff every Fair-∀AFMC formula satisfied by View the MathML source is satisfied also by View the MathML source (∀AFMC is the universal fragment of the alternation-free μ-calculus). The locality of the definition leads us to a polynomial-time algorithm for checking fair simulation for finite-state systems with weak and strong fairness constraints. Finally, fair simulation implies fair trace containment and is therefore useful as an efficiently computable local criterion for proving linear-time abstraction hierarchies of fair systems.
AU - Thomas Henzinger
AU - Kupferman, Orna
AU - Rajamani, Sriram K
ID - 4474
IS - 1
JF - Information and Computation
TI - Fair simulation
VL - 173
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - One approach to model checking software is based on the abstract-check-refine paradigm: build an abstract model, then check the desired property, and if the check fails, refine the model and start over. We introduce the concept of lazy abstraction to integrate and optimize the three phases of the abstract-check-refine loop. Lazy abstraction continuously builds and refines a single abstract model on demand, driven by the model checker, so that different parts of the model may exhibit different degrees of precision, namely just enough to verify the desired property. We present an algorithm for model checking safety properties using lazy abstraction and describe an implementation of the algorithm applied to C programs. We also provide sufficient conditions for the termination of the method.
AU - Thomas Henzinger
AU - Jhala, Ranjit
AU - Majumdar, Ritankar S
AU - Sutre, Grégoire
ID - 4476
TI - Lazy abstraction
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We present interface models that describe both the input assumptions of a component, and its output behavior. By enabling us to check that the input assumptions of a component are met in a design, interface models provide a compatibility check for component-based design. When refining a design into an implementation, interface models require that the output behavior of a component satisfies the design specification only when the input assumptions of the specification are satisfied, yielding greater flexibility in the choice of implementations. Technically, our interface models are games between two players, Input and Output; the duality of the players accounts for the dual roles of inputs and outputs in composition and refinement. We present two interface models in detail, one for a simple synchronous form of interaction between components typical in hardware, and the other for more complex synchronous interactions on bidirectional connections. As an example, we specify the interface of a bidirectional bus, with the input assumption that at any time at most one component has write access to the bus. For these interface models, we present algorithms for compatibility and refinement checking, and we describe efficient symbolic implementations.
AU - Chakrabarti, Arindam
AU - de Alfaro, Luca
AU - Thomas Henzinger
AU - Mang, Freddy Y
ID - 4562
TI - Synchronous and bidirectional component interfaces
VL - 2404
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We present a formal methodology and tool for uncovering errors in the interaction of software modules. Our methodology consists of a suite of languages for defining software interfaces, and algorithms for checking interface compatibility. We focus on interfaces that explain the method-call dependencies between software modules. Such an interface makes assumptions about the environment in the form of call and availability constraints. A call constraint restricts the accessibility of local methods to certain external methods. An availability constraint restricts the accessibility of local methods to certain states of the module. For example, the interface for a file server with local methods open and read may assert that a file cannot be read without having been opened. Checking interface compatibility requires the solution of games, and in the presence of availability constraints, of pushdown games. Based on this methodology, we have implemented a tool that has uncovered incompatibilities in TinyOS, a small operating system for sensor nodes in adhoc networks.
AU - Chakrabarti, Arindam
AU - de Alfaro, Luca
AU - Thomas Henzinger
AU - Jurdziński, Marcin
AU - Mang, Freddy Y
ID - 4563
TI - Interface compatibility checking for software modules
VL - 2404
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - In the literature, we find several formulations of the control
problem for timed and hybrid systems. We argue that formulations where
a controller can cause an action at any point in dense (rational or real)
time are problematic, by presenting an example where the controller
must act faster and faster, yet causes no Zeno effects (say, the control
actions are at times 0, 1/2, 1, 1 1/4, 2, 2 1/8, 3, 3 1/16 ,...). Such a controller is,
of course, not implementable in software. Such controllers are avoided by formulations where the controller can cause actions only at discrete (integer) points in time. While the resulting control problem is well- understood if the time unit, or “sampling rate” of the controller, is fixed a priori, we define a novel, stronger formulation: the discrete-time control problem with unknown sampling rate asks if a sampling controller exists for some sampling rate. We prove that this problem is undecidable even in the special case of timed automata.
AU - Cassez, Franck
AU - Thomas Henzinger
AU - Raskin, Jean-François
ID - 4565
TI - A comparison of control problems for timed and hybrid systems
VL - 2289
ER -