TY - GEN
AB - It is widely accepted that the hippocampus plays a major role in learning and memory. The mossy fiber synapse between granule cells in the dentate gyrus and pyramidal neurons in the CA3 region is a key component of the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit. Recent work, partially based on direct presynaptic patch-clamp recordings from hippocampal mossy fiber boutons, sheds light on the mechanisms of synaptic transmission and plasticity at mossy fiber synapses. A high Na(+) channel density in mossy fiber boutons leads to a large amplitude of the presynaptic action potential. Together with the fast gating of presynaptic Ca(2+) channels, this generates a large and brief presynaptic Ca(2+) influx, which can trigger transmitter release with high efficiency and temporal precision. The large number of release sites, the large size of the releasable pool of vesicles, and the huge extent of presynaptic plasticity confer unique strength to this synapse, suggesting a large impact onto the CA3 pyramidal cell network under specific behavioral conditions. The characteristic properties of the hippocampal mossy fiber synapse may be important for pattern separation and information storage in the dentate gyrus-CA3 cell network.
AU - Bischofberger, Joseph
AU - Engel, Dominique
AU - Frotscher, Michael
AU - Peter Jonas
ID - 3463
IS - 3
T2 - Pflugers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology
TI - Timing and efficacy of transmitter release at mossy fiber synapses in the hippocampal network. (Review)
VL - 453
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We study infinite stochastic games played by n-players on a finite graph with goals specified by sets of infinite traces. The games are concurrent (each player simultaneously and independently chooses an action at each round), stochastic (the next state is determined by a probability distribution depending on the current state and the chosen actions), infinite (the game continues for an infinite number of rounds), nonzero-sum (the players’ goals are not necessarily conflicting), and undiscounted. We show that if each player has an upward-closed objective, then there exists an ε-Nash equilibrium in memoryless strategies, for every ε>0; and exact Nash equilibria need not exist. Upward-closure of an objective means that if a set Z of infinitely repeating states is winning, then all supersets of Z of infinitely repeating states are also winning. Memoryless strategies are strategies that are independent of history of plays and depend only on the current state. We also study the complexity of finding values (payoff profile) of an ε-Nash equilibrium. We show that the values of an ε-Nash equilibrium in nonzero-sum concurrent games with upward-closed objectives for all players can be computed by computing ε-Nash equilibrium values of nonzero-sum concurrent games with reachability objectives for all players and a polynomial procedure. As a consequence we establish that values of an ε-Nash equilibrium can be computed in TFNP (total functional NP), and hence in EXPTIME.
AU - Krishnendu Chatterjee
ID - 3499
TI - Nash equilibrium for upward-closed objectives
VL - 4207
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - The classical algorithm for solving Bu ̈chi games requires time O(n · m) for game graphs with n states and m edges. For game graphs with constant outdegree, the best known algorithm has running time O(n2/logn). We present two new algorithms for Bu ̈chi games. First, we give an algorithm that performs at most O(m) more work than the classical algorithm, but runs in time O(n) on infinitely many graphs of constant outdegree on which the classical algorithm requires time O(n2). Second, we give an algorithm with running time O(n · m · log δ(n)/ log n), where 1 ≤ δ(n) ≤ n is the outdegree of the game graph. Note that this algorithm performs asymptotically better than the classical algorithm if δ(n) = O(log n).
AU - Krishnendu Chatterjee
AU - Thomas Henzinger
AU - Piterman, Nir
ID - 3500
TI - Algorithms for Büchi Games
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - Embodiments automatically generate an accurate network of watertight NURBS patches from polygonal models of objects while automatically detecting and preserving character lines thereon. These embodiments generate from an initial triangulation of the surface, a hierarchy of progressively coarser triangulations of the surface by performing a sequence of edge contractions using a greedy algorithm that selects edge contractions by their numerical properties. Operations are also performed to connect the triangulations in the hierarchy using homeomorphisms that preserve the topology of the initial triangulation in the coarsest triangulation. A desired quadrangulation of the surface can then be generated by homeomorphically mapping edges of a coarsest triangulation in the hierarchy back to the initial triangulation. This quadrangulation is topologically consistent with the initial triangulation and is defined by a plurality of quadrangular patches. These quadrangular patches are linked together by a (U, V) mesh that is guaranteed to be continuous at patch boundaries. A grid is then preferably fit to each of the quadrangles in the resulting quadrangulation by decomposing each of the quadrangles into k.sup.2 smaller quadrangles. A watertight NURBS model may be generated from the resulting quadrangulation.
AU - Herbert Edelsbrunner
AU - Fu, Ping
AU - Nekhayev, Dmitry V
AU - Facello, Michael
AU - Williams, Steven P
ID - 3510
TI - Method, apparatus and computer program products for automatically generating NURBS models of triangulated surfaces using homeomorphism
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - Methods, apparatus and computer program products provide efficient techniques for designing and printing shells of hearing-aid devices with a high degree of quality assurance and reliability and with a reduced number of manual and time consuming production steps and operations. These techniques also preferably provide hearing-aid shells having internal volumes that can approach a maximum allowable ratio of internal volume relative to external volume. These high internal volumes facilitate the inclusion of hearing-aid electrical components having higher degrees of functionality and/or the use of smaller and less conspicuous hearing-aid shells. A preferred method includes operations to generate a watertight digital model of a hearing-aid shell by thickening a three-dimensional digital model of a shell surface in a manner that eliminates self-intersections and results in a thickened model having an internal volume that is a high percentage of an external volume of the model.
AU - Fu, Ping
AU - Nekhayev, Dmitry V
AU - Herbert Edelsbrunner
ID - 3511
TI - Manufacturing methods and systems for rapid production of hearing-aid shells
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - Methods, apparatus and computer program products provide efficient techniques for reconstructing surfaces from data point sets. These techniques include reconstructing surfaces from sets of scanned data points that have preferably undergone preprocessing operations to improve their quality by, for example, reducing noise and removing outliers. These techniques include reconstructing a dense and locally two-dimensionally distributed 3D point set (e.g., point cloud) by merging stars in two-dimensional weighted Delaunay triangulations within estimated tangent planes. The techniques include determining a plurality of stars from a plurality of points p.sub.i in a 3D point set S that at least partially describes the 3D surface, by projecting the plurality of points p.sub.i onto planes T.sub.i that are each estimated to be tangent about a respective one of the plurality of points p.sub.i. The plurality of stars are then merged into a digital model of the 3D surface.
AU - Fletcher, Yates G
AU - Gloth, Tobias
AU - Herbert Edelsbrunner
AU - Fu, Ping
ID - 3512
TI - Method, apparatus and computer products that reconstruct surfaces from data points
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We observed sharp wave/ripples (SWR) during exploration within brief (< 2.4 s) interruptions of or during theta oscillations. CA1 network responses of SWRs occurring during exploration (eSWR) and SWRs detected in waking immobility or sleep were similar. However, neuronal activity during eSWR was location dependent, and eSWR-related firing was stronger inside the place field than outside. The eSPW-related firing increase was stronger than the baseline increase inside compared to outside, suggesting a “supralinear” summation of eSWR and place-selective inputs. Pairs of cells with similar place fields and/or correlated firing during exploration showed stronger coactivation during eSWRs and subsequent sleep-SWRs. Sequential activation of place cells was not required for the reactivation of waking co-firing patterns; cell pairs with symmetrical cross-correlations still showed reactivated waking co-firing patterns during sleep-SWRs. We suggest that place-selective firing during eSWRs facilitates initial associations between cells with similar place fields that enable place-related ensemble patterns to recur during subsequent sleep-SWRs.
AU - Joseph O'Neill
AU - Senior,Timothy
AU - Jozsef Csicsvari
ID - 3522
IS - 1
JF - Neuron
TI - Place-selective firing of CA1 pyramidal cells during sharp wave/ripple network patterns in exploratory behavior
VL - 49
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The functional organization of the basal ganglia ( BG) is often defined according to one of two opposing schemes. The first proposes multiple, essentially independent channels of information processing. The second posits convergence and lateral integration of striatal channels at the level of the globus pallidus ( GP). We tested the hypothesis that these proposed aspects of functional connectivity within the striatopallidal axis are dynamic and related to brain state. Local field potentials ( LFPs) were simultaneously recorded from multiple sites in striatum and GP in anesthetized rats during slow-wave activity( SWA) and during global activation evoked by sensory stimulation. Functional connectivity was inferred from comparative analyses of the internuclear and intranuclear coherence between bipolar derivations of LFPs. During prominent SWA, as shown in the electrocorticogram and local field potentials in the basal ganglia, intranuclear coherence, and, thus, lateral functional connectivity within striatum or globus pallidus was relatively weak. Furthermore, the temporal coupling of LFPs recorded across these two nuclei involved functional convergence at the level of GP. Global activation, indicated by a loss of SWA, was accompanied by a rapid functional reorganization of the striatopallidal axis. Prominent lateral functional connectivity developed within GP and, to a significantly more constrained spatial extent, striatum. Additionally, functional convergence on GP was no longer apparent, despite increased internuclear coherence. These data demonstrate that functional connectivity within the BG is highly dynamic and suggest that the relative expression of organizational principles, such as parallel, independent processing channels, striatopallidal convergence, and lateral integration within BG nuclei, is dependent on brain state.
AU - Magill,Peter J
AU - Pogosyan,Alek
AU - Sharott,Andrew
AU - Jozsef Csicsvari
AU - Bolam, John Paul
AU - Brown,Peter
ID - 3545
IS - 23
JF - Journal of Neuroscience
TI - Changes in functional connectivity within the rat striatopallidal axis during global brain activation in vivo
VL - 26
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Persistent homology is the mathematical core of recent work on shape, including reconstruction, recognition, and matching. Its per- tinent information is encapsulated by a pairing of the critical values of a function, visualized by points forming a diagram in the plane. The original algorithm in [10] computes the pairs from an ordering of the simplices in a triangulation and takes worst-case time cubic in the number of simplices. The main result of this paper is an algorithm that maintains the pairing in worst-case linear time per transposition in the ordering. A side-effect of the algorithm’s anal- ysis is an elementary proof of the stability of persistence diagrams [7] in the special case of piecewise-linear functions. We use the algorithm to compute 1-parameter families of diagrams which we apply to the study of protein folding trajectories.
AU - Cohen-Steiner, David
AU - Herbert Edelsbrunner
AU - Morozov, Dmitriy
ID - 3559
TI - Vines and vineyards by updating persistence in linear time
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We continue the study of topological persistence [5] by investigat- ing the problem of simplifying a function f in a way that removes topological noise as determined by its persistence diagram [2]. To state our results, we call a function g an ε-simplification of another function f if ∥f − g∥∞ ≤ ε, and the persistence diagrams of g are the same as those of f except all points within L1-distance at most ε from the diagonal have been removed. We prove that for func- tions f on a 2-manifold such ε-simplification exists, and we give an algorithm to construct them in the piecewise linear case.
AU - Herbert Edelsbrunner
AU - Morozov, Dmitriy
AU - Pascucci, Valerio
ID - 3560
TI - Persistence-sensitive simplification of functions on 2-manifolds
ER -