TY - JOUR
AU - He, Peng
AU - Zhang, Yuzhou
AU - Xiao, Guanghui
ID - 8271
IS - 9
JF - Molecular Plant
SN - 16742052
TI - Origin of a subgenome and genome evolution of allotetraploid cotton species
VL - 13
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We study turn-based stochastic zero-sum games with lexicographic preferences over reachability and safety objectives. Stochastic games are standard models in control, verification, and synthesis of stochastic reactive systems that exhibit both randomness as well as angelic and demonic non-determinism. Lexicographic order allows to consider multiple objectives with a strict preference order over the satisfaction of the objectives. To the best of our knowledge, stochastic games with lexicographic objectives have not been studied before. We establish determinacy of such games and present strategy and computational complexity results. For strategy complexity, we show that lexicographically optimal strategies exist that are deterministic and memory is only required to remember the already satisfied and violated objectives. For a constant number of objectives, we show that the relevant decision problem is in NP∩coNP , matching the current known bound for single objectives; and in general the decision problem is PSPACE -hard and can be solved in NEXPTIME∩coNEXPTIME . We present an algorithm that computes the lexicographically optimal strategies via a reduction to computation of optimal strategies in a sequence of single-objectives games. We have implemented our algorithm and report experimental results on various case studies.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Katoen, Joost P
AU - Weininger, Maximilian
AU - Winkler, Tobias
ID - 8272
SN - 03029743
T2 - International Conference on Computer Aided Verification
TI - Stochastic games with lexicographic reachability-safety objectives
VL - 12225
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Drought and salt stress are the main environmental cues affecting the survival, development, distribution, and yield of crops worldwide. MYB transcription factors play a crucial role in plants’ biological processes, but the function of pineapple MYB genes is still obscure. In this study, one of the pineapple MYB transcription factors, AcoMYB4, was isolated and characterized. The results showed that AcoMYB4 is localized in the cell nucleus, and its expression is induced by low temperature, drought, salt stress, and hormonal stimulation, especially by abscisic acid (ABA). Overexpression of AcoMYB4 in rice and Arabidopsis enhanced plant sensitivity to osmotic stress; it led to an increase in the number stomata on leaf surfaces and lower germination rate under salt and drought stress. Furthermore, in AcoMYB4 OE lines, the membrane oxidation index, free proline, and soluble sugar contents were decreased. In contrast, electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased significantly due to membrane injury, indicating higher sensitivity to drought and salinity stresses. Besides the above, both the expression level and activities of several antioxidant enzymes were decreased, indicating lower antioxidant activity in AcoMYB4 transgenic plants. Moreover, under osmotic stress, overexpression of AcoMYB4 inhibited ABA biosynthesis through a decrease in the transcription of genes responsible for ABA synthesis (ABA1 and ABA2) and ABA signal transduction factor ABI5. These results suggest that AcoMYB4 negatively regulates osmotic stress by attenuating cellular ABA biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways.
AU - Chen, Huihuang
AU - Lai, Linyi
AU - Li, Lanxin
AU - Liu, Liping
AU - Jakada, Bello Hassan
AU - Huang, Youmei
AU - He, Qing
AU - Chai, Mengnan
AU - Niu, Xiaoping
AU - Qin, Yuan
ID - 8283
IS - 16
JF - International Journal of Molecular Sciences
SN - 16616596
TI - AcoMYB4, an Ananas comosus L. MYB transcription factor, functions in osmotic stress through negative regulation of ABA signaling
VL - 21
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Multiple resistance and pH adaptation (Mrp) antiporters are multi-subunit Na+ (or K+)/H+ exchangers representing an ancestor of many essential redox-driven proton pumps, such as respiratory complex I. The mechanism of coupling between ion or electron transfer and proton translocation in this large protein family is unknown. Here, we present the structure of the Mrp complex from Anoxybacillus flavithermus solved by cryo-EM at 3.0 Å resolution. It is a dimer of seven-subunit protomers with 50 trans-membrane helices each. Surface charge distribution within each monomer is remarkably asymmetric, revealing probable proton and sodium translocation pathways. On the basis of the structure we propose a mechanism where the coupling between sodium and proton translocation is facilitated by a series of electrostatic interactions between a cation and key charged residues. This mechanism is likely to be applicable to the entire family of redox proton pumps, where electron transfer to substrates replaces cation movements.
AU - Steiner, Julia
AU - Sazanov, Leonid A
ID - 8284
JF - eLife
TI - Structure and mechanism of the Mrp complex, an ancient cation/proton antiporter
VL - 9
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We demonstrate the utility of optical cavity generated spin-squeezed states in free space atomic fountain clocks in ensembles of 390 000 87Rb atoms. Fluorescence imaging, correlated to an initial quantum nondemolition measurement, is used for population spectroscopy after the atoms are released from a confining lattice. For a free fall time of 4 milliseconds, we resolve a single-shot phase sensitivity of 814(61) microradians, which is 5.8(0.6) decibels (dB) below the quantum projection limit. We observe that this squeezing is preserved as the cloud expands to a roughly 200 μm radius and falls roughly 300 μm in free space. Ramsey spectroscopy with 240 000 atoms at a 3.6 ms Ramsey time results in a single-shot fractional frequency stability of 8.4(0.2)×10−12, 3.8(0.2) dB below the quantum projection limit. The sensitivity and stability are limited by the technical noise in the fluorescence detection protocol and the microwave system, respectively.
AU - Malia, Benjamin K.
AU - Martínez-Rincón, Julián
AU - Wu, Yunfan
AU - Hosten, Onur
AU - Kasevich, Mark A.
ID - 8285
IS - 4
JF - Physical Review Letters
SN - 00319007
TI - Free space Ramsey spectroscopy in rubidium with noise below the quantum projection limit
VL - 125
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We consider the following dynamic load-balancing process: given an underlying graph G with n nodes, in each step t≥ 0, one unit of load is created, and placed at a randomly chosen graph node. In the same step, the chosen node picks a random neighbor, and the two nodes balance their loads by averaging them. We are interested in the expected gap between the minimum and maximum loads at nodes as the process progresses, and its dependence on n and on the graph structure. Variants of the above graphical balanced allocation process have been studied previously by Peres, Talwar, and Wieder [Peres et al., 2015], and by Sauerwald and Sun [Sauerwald and Sun, 2015]. These authors left as open the question of characterizing the gap in the case of cycle graphs in the dynamic case, where weights are created during the algorithm’s execution. For this case, the only known upper bound is of 𝒪(n log n), following from a majorization argument due to [Peres et al., 2015], which analyzes a related graphical allocation process. In this paper, we provide an upper bound of 𝒪 (√n log n) on the expected gap of the above process for cycles of length n. We introduce a new potential analysis technique, which enables us to bound the difference in load between k-hop neighbors on the cycle, for any k ≤ n/2. We complement this with a "gap covering" argument, which bounds the maximum value of the gap by bounding its value across all possible subsets of a certain structure, and recursively bounding the gaps within each subset. We provide analytical and experimental evidence that our upper bound on the gap is tight up to a logarithmic factor.
AU - Alistarh, Dan-Adrian
AU - Nadiradze, Giorgi
AU - Sabour, Amirmojtaba
ID - 8286
SN - 18688969
T2 - 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming
TI - Dynamic averaging load balancing on cycles
VL - 168
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Reachability analysis aims at identifying states reachable by a system within a given time horizon. This task is known to be computationally expensive for linear hybrid systems. Reachability analysis works by iteratively applying continuous and discrete post operators to compute states reachable according to continuous and discrete dynamics, respectively. In this paper, we enhance both of these operators and make sure that most of the involved computations are performed in low-dimensional state space. In particular, we improve the continuous-post operator by performing computations in high-dimensional state space only for time intervals relevant for the subsequent application of the discrete-post operator. Furthermore, the new discrete-post operator performs low-dimensional computations by leveraging the structure of the guard and assignment of a considered transition. We illustrate the potential of our approach on a number of challenging benchmarks.
AU - Bogomolov, Sergiy
AU - Forets, Marcelo
AU - Frehse, Goran
AU - Potomkin, Kostiantyn
AU - Schilling, Christian
ID - 8287
KW - Reachability
KW - Hybrid systems
KW - Decomposition
T2 - Proceedings of the International Conference on Embedded Software
TI - Reachability analysis of linear hybrid systems via block decomposition
ER -
TY - COMP
AB - Automated root growth analysis and tracking of root tips.
AU - Hauschild, Robert
ID - 8294
TI - RGtracker
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - Classic Byzantine fault-tolerant consensus protocols forfeit liveness in the face of asynchrony in order to preserve safety, whereas most deployed blockchain protocols forfeit safety in order to remain live. In this work, we achieve the best of both worlds by proposing a novel abstractions called the finality gadget. A finality gadget allows for transactions to always optimistically commit but informs the clients that these transactions might be unsafe. As a result, a blockchain can execute transactions optimistically and only commit them after they have been sufficiently and provably audited. In
this work, we formally model the finality gadget abstraction, prove that it is impossible to solve it deterministically in full asynchrony (even though it is stronger than consensus) and provide a partially synchronous protocol which is currently securing a major blockchain. This way we show that the protocol designer can decouple safety and liveness in order to speed up recovery from failures. We believe that there can be other types of finality gadgets that provide weaker safety (e.g., probabilistic) in order to gain more efficiency and this can depend on the probability that the network is not in synchrony.
AU - Stewart, Alistair
AU - Kokoris Kogias, Eleftherios
ID - 8307
T2 - arXiv
TI - GRANDPA: A Byzantine finality gadget
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Many-body localization provides a mechanism to avoid thermalization in isolated interacting quantum systems. The breakdown of thermalization may be complete, when all eigenstates in the many-body spectrum become localized, or partial, when the so-called many-body mobility edge separates localized and delocalized parts of the spectrum. Previously, De Roeck et al. [Phys. Rev. B 93, 014203 (2016)] suggested a possible instability of the many-body mobility edge in energy density. The local ergodic regions—so-called “bubbles”—resonantly spread throughout the system, leading to delocalization. In order to study such instability mechanism, in this work we design a model featuring many-body mobility edge in particle density: the states at small particle density are localized, while increasing the density of particles leads to delocalization. Using numerical simulations with matrix product states, we demonstrate the stability of many-body localization with respect to small bubbles in large dilute systems for experimentally relevant timescales. In addition, we demonstrate that processes where the bubble spreads are favored over processes that lead to resonant tunneling, suggesting a possible mechanism behind the observed stability of many-body mobility edge. We conclude by proposing experiments to probe particle density mobility edge in the Bose-Hubbard model.
AU - Brighi, Pietro
AU - Abanin, Dmitry A.
AU - Serbyn, Maksym
ID - 8308
IS - 6
JF - Physical Review B
SN - 2469-9950
TI - Stability of mobility edges in disordered interacting systems
VL - 102
ER -