TY - JOUR
AB - We consider N × N random matrices of the form H = W + V where W is a real symmetric Wigner matrix and V a random or deterministic, real, diagonal matrix whose entries are independent of W. We assume subexponential decay for the matrix entries of W and we choose V so that the eigenvalues of W and V are typically of the same order. For a large class of diagonal matrices V, we show that the rescaled distribution of the extremal eigenvalues is given by the Tracy-Widom distribution F1 in the limit of large N. Our proofs also apply to the complex Hermitian setting, i.e. when W is a complex Hermitian Wigner matrix.
AU - Lee, Jioon
AU - Schnelli, Kevin
ID - 1674
IS - 8
JF - Reviews in Mathematical Physics
TI - Edge universality for deformed Wigner matrices
VL - 27
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Proofs of work (PoW) have been suggested by Dwork and Naor (Crypto’92) as protection to a shared resource. The basic idea is to ask the service requestor to dedicate some non-trivial amount of computational work to every request. The original applications included prevention of spam and protection against denial of service attacks. More recently, PoWs have been used to prevent double spending in the Bitcoin digital currency system. In this work, we put forward an alternative concept for PoWs - so-called proofs of space (PoS), where a service requestor must dedicate a significant amount of disk space as opposed to computation. We construct secure PoS schemes in the random oracle model (with one additional mild assumption required for the proof to go through), using graphs with high “pebbling complexity” and Merkle hash-trees. We discuss some applications, including follow-up work where a decentralized digital currency scheme called Spacecoin is constructed that uses PoS (instead of wasteful PoW like in Bitcoin) to prevent double spending. The main technical contribution of this work is the construction of (directed, loop-free) graphs on N vertices with in-degree O(log logN) such that even if one places Θ(N) pebbles on the nodes of the graph, there’s a constant fraction of nodes that needs Θ(N) steps to be pebbled (where in every step one can put a pebble on a node if all its parents have a pebble).
AU - Dziembowski, Stefan
AU - Faust, Sebastian
AU - Kolmogorov, Vladimir
AU - Pietrzak, Krzysztof Z
ID - 1675
TI - Proofs of space
VL - 9216
ER -
TY - JOUR
AU - Sixt, Michael K
AU - Raz, Erez
ID - 1676
IS - 10
JF - Current Opinion in Cell Biology
TI - Editorial overview: Cell adhesion and migration
VL - 36
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider real symmetric and complex Hermitian random matrices with the additional symmetry hxy = hN-y,N-x. The matrix elements are independent (up to the fourfold symmetry) and not necessarily identically distributed. This ensemble naturally arises as the Fourier transform of a Gaussian orthogonal ensemble. Italso occurs as the flip matrix model - an approximation of the two-dimensional Anderson model at small disorder. We show that the density of states converges to the Wigner semicircle law despite the new symmetry type. We also prove the local version of the semicircle law on the optimal scale.
AU - Alt, Johannes
ID - 1677
IS - 10
JF - Journal of Mathematical Physics
TI - The local semicircle law for random matrices with a fourfold symmetry
VL - 56
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - High-throughput live-cell screens are intricate elements of systems biology studies and drug discovery pipelines. Here, we demonstrate an optogenetics-assisted method that avoids the need for chemical activators and reporters, reduces the number of operational steps and increases information content in a cell-based small-molecule screen against human protein kinases, including an orphan receptor tyrosine kinase. This blueprint for all-optical screening can be adapted to many drug targets and cellular processes.
AU - Inglés Prieto, Álvaro
AU - Gschaider-Reichhart, Eva
AU - Muellner, Markus
AU - Nowak, Matthias
AU - Nijman, Sebastian
AU - Grusch, Michael
AU - Janovjak, Harald L
ID - 1678
IS - 12
JF - Nature Chemical Biology
TI - Light-assisted small-molecule screening against protein kinases
VL - 11
ER -
TY - JOUR
AU - Lemoult, Grégoire M
AU - Maier, Philipp
AU - Hof, Björn
ID - 1679
IS - 9
JF - Physics of Fluids
TI - Taylor's Forest
VL - 27
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider the satisfiability problem for modal logic over first-order definable classes of frames.We confirm the conjecture from Hemaspaandra and Schnoor [2008] that modal logic is decidable over classes definable by universal Horn formulae. We provide a full classification of Horn formulae with respect to the complexity of the corresponding satisfiability problem. It turns out, that except for the trivial case of inconsistent formulae, local satisfiability is eitherNP-complete or PSPACE-complete, and global satisfiability is NP-complete, PSPACE-complete, or ExpTime-complete. We also show that the finite satisfiability problem for modal logic over Horn definable classes of frames is decidable. On the negative side, we show undecidability of two related problems. First, we exhibit a simple universal three-variable formula defining the class of frames over which modal logic is undecidable. Second, we consider the satisfiability problem of bimodal logic over Horn definable classes of frames, and also present a formula leading to undecidability.
AU - Michaliszyn, Jakub
AU - Otop, Jan
AU - Kieroňski, Emanuel
ID - 1680
IS - 1
JF - ACM Transactions on Computational Logic
TI - On the decidability of elementary modal logics
VL - 17
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In many social situations, individuals endeavor to find the single best possible partner, but are constrained to evaluate the candidates in sequence. Examples include the search for mates, economic partnerships, or any other long-term ties where the choice to interact involves two parties. Surprisingly, however, previous theoretical work on mutual choice problems focuses on finding equilibrium solutions, while ignoring the evolutionary dynamics of decisions. Empirically, this may be of high importance, as some equilibrium solutions can never be reached unless the population undergoes radical changes and a sufficient number of individuals change their decisions simultaneously. To address this question, we apply a mutual choice sequential search problem in an evolutionary game-theoretical model that allows one to find solutions that are favored by evolution. As an example, we study the influence of sequential search on the evolutionary dynamics of cooperation. For this, we focus on the classic snowdrift game and the prisoner’s dilemma game.
AU - Priklopil, Tadeas
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
ID - 1681
IS - 4
JF - Games
TI - Evolution of decisions in population games with sequentially searching individuals
VL - 6
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We study the problem of robust satisfiability of systems of nonlinear equations, namely, whether for a given continuous function f:K→ ℝn on a finite simplicial complex K and α > 0, it holds that each function g: K → ℝn such that ||g - f || ∞ < α, has a root in K. Via a reduction to the extension problem of maps into a sphere, we particularly show that this problem is decidable in polynomial time for every fixed n, assuming dimK ≤ 2n - 3. This is a substantial extension of previous computational applications of topological degree and related concepts in numerical and interval analysis. Via a reverse reduction, we prove that the problem is undecidable when dim K > 2n - 2, where the threshold comes from the stable range in homotopy theory. For the lucidity of our exposition, we focus on the setting when f is simplexwise linear. Such functions can approximate general continuous functions, and thus we get approximation schemes and undecidability of the robust satisfiability in other possible settings.
AU - Franek, Peter
AU - Krcál, Marek
ID - 1682
IS - 4
JF - Journal of the ACM
TI - Robust satisfiability of systems of equations
VL - 62
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The 1 MDa, 45-subunit proton-pumping NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is the largest complex of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The molecular mechanism of complex I is central to the metabolism of cells, but has yet to be fully characterized. The last two years have seen steady progress towards this goal with the first atomic-resolution structure of the entire bacterial complex I, a 5 Å cryo-electron microscopy map of bovine mitochondrial complex I and a ∼3.8 Å resolution X-ray crystallographic study of mitochondrial complex I from yeast Yarrowia lipotytica. In this review we will discuss what we have learned from these studies and what remains to be elucidated.
AU - Letts, Jame A
AU - Sazanov, Leonid A
ID - 1683
IS - 8
JF - Current Opinion in Structural Biology
TI - Gaining mass: The structure of respiratory complex I-from bacterial towards mitochondrial versions
VL - 33
ER -