@article{2602,
abstract = {Although presynaptic localization of mGluR7 is well established, the mechanism by which the receptor may control Ca2+ channels in neurons is still unknown. We show here that cultured cerebellar granule cells express native metabotropic glutamate receptor type 7 (mGluR7) in neuritic processes, whereas transfected mGluR7 was also expressed in cell bodies. This allowed us to study the effect of the transfected receptor on somatic Ca2+ channels. In transfected neurons, mGuR7 selectively inhibited P/Q-type Ca2+ channels. The effect was mimicked by GTPγS and blocked by pertussis toxin (PTX) or a selective antibody raised against the G-protein αo subunit, indicating the involvement of a G(o)-like protein. The mGuR7 effect did not display the characteristics of a direct interaction between G-protein βγ subunits and the α1A Ca2+ channel subunit, but was abolished by quenching βγ subunits with specific intracellular peptides. Intracellular dialysis of G-protein βγ subunits did not mimic the action of mGluR7, suggesting that both G-protein βγ and αo subunits were required to mediate the effect. Inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) blocked the inhibitory action of mGluR7, suggesting that a coincident activation of PLC by the G-protein βγ with αo subunits was required. The Ca2+ chelator BAPTA, as well as inhibition of either the inositol trisphosphate (IP3) receptor or protein kinase C (PKC) abolished the mGluR7 effect. Moreover, activation of native mGluR7 induced a PTX-dependent IP3 formation. These results indicated that IP3-mediated intracellular Ca2+ release was required for PKC-dependent inhibition of the Ca2+ channels. Possible control of synaptic transmission by the present mechanisms is discussed.},
author = {Perroy, Julie and Prezèau, Laurent and De Waard, Michel and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Bockaërt, Joël L and Fagni, Laurent},
journal = {Journal of Neuroscience},
number = {21},
pages = {7896 -- 7904},
publisher = {Society for Neuroscience},
title = {{Selective blockade of P/Q-type calcium channels by the metabotropic glutamate receptor type 7 involves a phospholipase C pathway in neurons}},
volume = {20},
year = {2000},
}
@article{2603,
abstract = {Aggregation of neurotransmitter receptors at pre- and postsynaptic structures is crucial for efficient neuronal communication. In contrast to the wealth of information about postsynaptic specializations, little is known about the molecular organization of presynaptic membrane proteins. We show here that the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR7a, which localizes specifically to presynaptic active zones, interacts in vitro and in vivo with PICK1. Coexpression in heterologous systems induces coclustering dependent upon the extreme C terminus of mGluR7a and the PDZ domain of PICK1. mGluR7a and PICK1 localize to excitatory synapses in hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, whereas transfected mGluR7a clusters at presynaptic sites, mGluR7aΔ3 lacking the PICK1 binding site targets to axons but does not cluster. These results suggest that PICK1 is a component of the presynaptic machinery involved in mGlUR7a aggregation and in modulation of glutamate neurotransmission.},
author = {Boudin, Hélène and Doan, Andrew and Xia, Jun and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Huganir, Richard L and Worley, Paul F and Craig, Ann M},
journal = {Neuron},
number = {2},
pages = {485 -- 497},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Presynaptic clustering of mGluR7a requires the PICK1 PDZ domain binding site}},
doi = {10.1016/S0896-6273(00)00127-6},
volume = {28},
year = {2000},
}
@inproceedings{2710,
author = {László Erdös},
pages = {111 -- 119},
publisher = {American Mathematical Society},
title = {{The kernel of Dirac operators on S3 and R3}},
volume = {16},
year = {2000},
}
@article{2731,
abstract = {We study the time evolution of a quantum particle in a Gaussian random environment. We show that in the weak coupling limit the Wigner distribution of the wave function converges to a solution of a linear Boltzmann equation globally in time. The Boltzmann collision kernel is given by the Born approximation of the quantum differential scattering cross section.},
author = {László Erdös and Yau, Horng-Tzer},
journal = {Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics},
number = {6},
pages = {667 -- 735},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{Linear Boltzmann equation as the weak coupling limit of a random Schrödinger equation}},
doi = {10.1002/(SICI)1097-0312(200006)53:6<667::AID-CPA1>3.0.CO;2-5},
volume = {53},
year = {2000},
}
@article{2732,
abstract = {We consider a quantum particle moving in a harmonic exterior potential and linearly coupled to a heat bath of quantum oscillators. Caldeira and Leggett derived the Fokker Planck equation with friction for the Wigner distribution of the particle in the large-temperature limit: however, their (nonrigorous) derivation was not free of criticism, especially since the limiting equation is not of Lindblad form. In this paper we recover the correct form of their result in a rigorous way. We also point out that the source of the diffusion is physically restrictive under this scaling. We investigate the model at a fixed temperature and in the large-time limit, where the origin of the diffusion is a cumulative effect of many resonant collisions. We obtain a heat equation with a friction term for the radial process in phase space and we prove the Einstein relation in this case.},
author = {Castella, François and László Erdös and Frommlet, Florian and Markowich, Peter A},
journal = {Journal of Statistical Physics},
number = {3-4},
pages = {543 -- 601},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Fokker-Planck equations as scaling limits of reversible quantum systems}},
doi = {10.1023/A:1018667323830},
volume = {100},
year = {2000},
}
@article{2733,
abstract = {The Li-Yau semiclassical lower bound for the sum of the first N eigenvalues of the Dirichlet–Laplacian is extended to Dirichlet–Laplacians with constant magnetic fields. Our method involves a new diamagnetic inequality for constant magnetic fields.},
author = {László Erdös and Loss, Michael and Vougalter, Vitali},
journal = {Annales de l'Institut Fourier},
number = {3},
pages = {891 -- 907},
publisher = {Association des Annales de l'Institut Fourier},
title = {{Diamagnetic behavior of sums Dirichlet eigenvalues}},
doi = {10.5802/aif.1777},
volume = {50},
year = {2000},
}
@article{842,
author = {Wolf, Yuri I and Fyodor Kondrashov and Koonin, Eugene V},
journal = {Trends in Genetics},
number = {8},
pages = {333 -- 334},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{No footprints of primordial introns in a eukaryotic genome}},
doi = {10.1016/S0168-9525(00)02059-X},
volume = {16},
year = {2000},
}
@article{8525,
abstract = {Let M be a smooth compact manifold of dimension at least 2 and Diffr(M) be the space of C r smooth diffeomorphisms of M. Associate to each diffeomorphism f;isin; Diffr(M) the sequence P n (f) of the number of isolated periodic points for f of period n. In this paper we exhibit an open set N in the space of diffeomorphisms Diffr(M) such for a Baire generic diffeomorphism f∈N the number of periodic points P n f grows with a period n faster than any following sequence of numbers {a n } n ∈ Z + along a subsequence, i.e. P n (f)>a ni for some n i →∞ with i→∞. In the cases of surface diffeomorphisms, i.e. dim M≡2, an open set N with a supergrowth of the number of periodic points is a Newhouse domain. A proof of the man result is based on the Gontchenko–Shilnikov–Turaev Theorem [GST]. A complete proof of that theorem is also presented.},
author = {Kaloshin, Vadim},
issn = {0010-3616},
journal = {Communications in Mathematical Physics},
keywords = {Mathematical Physics, Statistical and Nonlinear Physics},
pages = {253--271},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{Generic diffeomorphisms with superexponential growth of number of periodic orbits}},
doi = {10.1007/s002200050811},
volume = {211},
year = {2000},
}
@inproceedings{1736,
abstract = {A coding scheme called diode is compared with duobinary signalling and with normal binary transmission. It is shown that the diode coding suppresses the FWM products of a three channel DWDM system and this reduction against that achieved with duobinary coding is presented. The results presented show how the average level of the FWM products relative to the average levels of the three optical carriers vary over the channel spacing range. The suppression observed is about / dB more than that achieved with duobinary modulation and is greater for narrow channel spacing.},
author = {Georgios Katsaros and Lane, Phil M and Murphy, Michelle M},
pages = {27 -- 28},
publisher = {IEEE},
title = {{Comparison of the impact of FWM on binary, duobinary and dicode modulation in DWDM systems}},
doi = {10.1109/LEOS.2000.890656},
volume = {1},
year = {2000},
}
@article{1957,
abstract = {NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is the first and largest enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The low-resolution structure of the complex is known from electron microscopy studies. The general shape of the complex is in the form of an L, with one arm in the membrane and the other peripheral. We have purified complex I from beef heart mitochondria and reconstituted the enzyme into lipid bilayers. Under different conditions, several two-dimensional crystal forms were obtained. Crystals belonging to space groups p2221 and c12 (unit cell 488 Å x 79 Å) were obtained at 22°C and contained only the membrane fragment of complex I similar to hydrophobic subcomplex Iβ but lacking the ND5 subunit. A crystal form with larger unit cell (534 Å x 81 Å, space group c12) produced at 4°C contained both the peripheral and membrane arms of the enzyme, except that ND5 was missing. Projection maps from frozen hydrated samples were calculated for all crystal forms. By comparing two different c12 crystal forms, extra electron density in the projection map of large crystal form was assigned to the peripheral arm of the enzyme. One of the features of the map is a deep, channel-like, cleft next to peripheral arm. Comparison with available structures of the intact enzyme indicates that large hydrophobic subunit ND5 is situated at the distal end of the membrane domain. Possible locations of sub-unit ND4 and of other subunits in the membrane domain are proposed. Implications of our findings for the mechanism of proton pumping by complex I are discussed. (C) 2000 Academic Press.},
author = {Leonid Sazanov and Walker, John E},
journal = {Journal of Molecular Biology},
number = {2},
pages = {455 -- 464},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Cryo-electron crystallography of two sub-complexes of bovine complex I reveals the relationship between the membrane and peripheral arms}},
doi = {10.1006/jmbi.2000.4079},
volume = {302},
year = {2000},
}
@article{1958,
abstract = {
Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) purified from bovine heart mitochondria was treated with the detergent N,N-dimethyldodecylamine N-oxide (LDAO). The enzyme dissociated into two known subcomplexes, Iα and Iβ, containing mostly hydrophilic and hydrophobic subunits, and a previously undetected fragment referred to as Iγ. Subcomplex Iγ contains the hydrophobic subunits ND1, ND2, ND3, and ND4L which are encoded in the mitochondrial genome, and the nuclear-encoded subunit KFYL. During size- exclusion chromatography in the presence of LDAO, subcomplex Iα lost several subunits and formed another characterized subcomplex known as Iλ. Similarly, subcomplex Iβ dissociated into two smaller subcomplexes, one of which contains the hydrophobic subunits ND4 and ND5; subcomplex Iγ released a fragment containing ND1 and ND2. These results suggest that in the intact complex subunits ND1 and ND2 are likely to be in a different region of the membrane domain than subunits ND4 and ND5. The compositions of the various subcomplexes and fragments of complex I provide an organization of the subunits of the enzyme in the framework of the known low resolution structure of the enzyme.},
author = {Leonid Sazanov and Peak-Chew, Sew Y and Fearnley, Ian M and Walker, John E},
journal = {Biochemistry},
number = {24},
pages = {7229 -- 7235},
publisher = {ACS},
title = {{Resolution of the membrane domain of bovine complex I into subcomplexes: implications for the structural organization of the enzyme}},
doi = {10.1021/bi000335t},
volume = {39},
year = {2000},
}
@inproceedings{4627,
abstract = {We consider two-player games, which are played on a finite state space for an infinite number of rounds. The games are concurrent, that is, in each round, the two players choose their moves independently and simultaneously; the current state and the two moves determine a successor state. We consider omega-regular winning conditions on the resulting infinite state sequence. To model the independent choice of moves, both players are allowed to use randomization for selecting their moves. This gives rise to the following qualitative modes of winning, which can be studied without numerical considerations concerning probabilities: sure-win (player 1 can ensure winning with certainty), almost-sure-win (player 1 can ensure winning with probability 1), limit-win (player 1 can ensure winning with probability arbitrarily close to 1), bounded-win (player 1 can ensure winning with probability bounded away from 0), positive-win (player 1 can ensure winning with positive probability), and exist-win (player 1 can ensure that at least one possible outcome of the game satisfies the winning condition).We provide algorithms for computing the sets of winning states for each of these winning modes. In particular, we solve concurrent Rabin-chain games in n0 (m) time, where n is the size of the game structure and m is the number of pairs in the Rabin-chain condition. While this complexity is in line with traditional turn-based games, where in each state only one of the two players has a choice of moves, our algorithms are considerably more involved than those for turn-based games are. This is because concurrent games violate two of the most fundamental properties of turn-based games. First, concurrent games are not determined, but rather exhibit a more general duality property, which involves multiple modes of winning. Second, winning strategies for concurrent games may require infinite memory.},
author = {de Alfaro, Luca and Thomas Henzinger},
pages = {141 -- 154},
publisher = {IEEE},
title = {{Concurrent omega-regular games}},
doi = {10.1109/LICS.2000.855763},
year = {2000},
}
@inproceedings{4637,
abstract = {In the synchronous composition of processes, one process may prevent another process from proceeding unless compositions without a well-defined product behavior are ruled out. They can be ruled out semantically, by insisting on the existence of certain fixed points, or syntactically, by equipping processes with types, which make the dependencies between input and output signals transparent. We classify various typing mechanisms and study their effects on the control problem.
A static type enforces fixed, acyclic dependencies between input and output ports. For example, synchronous hardware without combinational loops can be typed statically. A dynamic type may vary the dependencies from state to state, while maintaining acyclicity, as in level-sensitive latches. Then, two dynamically typed processes can be syntactically compatible, if all pairs of possible dependencies are compatible, or semantically compatible, if in each state the combined dependencies remain acyclic. For a given plant process and control objective, there may be a controller of a static type, or only a controller of a syntactically compatible dynamic type, or only a controller of a semantically compatible dynamic type. We show this to be a strict hierarchy of possibilities, and we present algorithms and determine the complexity of the corresponding control problems.
Furthermore, we consider versions of the control problem in which the type of the controller (static or dynamic) is given. We show that the solution of these fixed-type control problems requires the evaluation of partially ordered (Henkin) quantifiers on boolean formulas, and is therefore harder (nondeterministic exponential time) than more traditional control questions},
author = {de Alfaro, Luca and Thomas Henzinger and Mang, Freddy Y},
pages = {458 -- 473},
publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik},
title = {{The control of synchronous systems}},
doi = {10.1007/3-540-44618-4_33},
volume = {1877},
year = {2000},
}
@inproceedings{4638,
abstract = {Any formal method or tool is almost certainly more often applied in situations where the outcome is failure (a counterexample) rather than success (a correctness proof). We present a method for symbolic model checking that can lead to significant time and memory savings for model-checking runs that fail, while occurring only a small overhead for model-checking runs that succeed. Our method discovers an error as soon as it cannot be prevented, which can be long before it actually occurs; for example, the violation of an invariant may become unpreventable many transitions before the invariant is violated.
The key observation is that “unpreventability” is a local property of a single module: an error is unpreventable in a module state if no environment can prevent it. Therefore, unpreventability is inexpensive to compute for each module, yet can save much work in the state exploration of the global, compound system. Based on different degrees of information available about the environment, we define and implement several notions of “unpreventability,” including the standard notion of uncontrollability from discrete-event control. We present experimental results for two examples, a distributed database protocol and a wireless communication protocol.},
author = {de Alfaro, Luca and Thomas Henzinger and Mang, Freddy Y},
pages = {186 -- 201},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Detecting errors before reaching them}},
doi = {10.1007/10722167_17},
volume = {1855},
year = {2000},
}
@article{1455,
abstract = {First, a special case of Knaster's problem is proved implying that each symmetric convex body in ℝ3 admits an inscribed cube. It is deduced from a theorem in equivariant topology, which says that there is no S4 - equivariant map from SO(3) to S2, where S4 acts on SO(3) on the right as the rotation group of the cube, and on S2 on the right as the symmetry group of the regular tetrahedron. Some generalizations are also given. Second, it is shown how the above non-existence theorem yields Makeev's conjecture in ℝ3 that each set in ℝ3 of diameter 1 can be covered by a rhombic dodecahedron, which has distance 1 between its opposite faces. This reveals an unexpected connection between inscribing cubes into symmetric bodies and covering sets by rhombic dodecahedra. Finally, a possible application of our second theorem to the Borsuk problem in ℝ3 is pointed out.},
author = {Tamas Hausel and Makai, Endre and Szücs, András},
journal = {Mathematika},
number = {1-2},
pages = {371 -- 397},
publisher = {University College London},
title = {{Inscribing cubes and covering by rhombic dodecahedra via equivariant topology}},
doi = {10.1112/S0025579300015965},
volume = {47},
year = {2000},
}
@article{3798,
abstract = {Glutamate is the main excitatory transmitter in the mammalian CNS, mediating fast synaptic transmission primarily by activation of AMPA-type glutamate receptor channels. Both synaptic structure and a cell-specific molecular switch in the AMPA receptor subunit expression are involved in the regulation of the synaptic signaling time course.},
author = {Peter Jonas},
journal = {Physiology},
number = {2},
pages = {83 -- 89},
publisher = {American Physiological Society},
title = {{The time course of signaling at central glutamatergic synapses}},
volume = {15},
year = {2000},
}
@article{3923,
author = {Cremer, Sylvia},
journal = {B.I.F. Futura},
number = {1},
pages = {68 -- 71},
publisher = {Hippokrates},
title = {{Paternity analysis with AFLPs in Cardiocondyla ants}},
volume = {15},
year = {2000},
}
@article{4004,
abstract = {In this paper we introduce the abacus model of a simplex and use it to subdivide a d-simplex into k(d) d-simplices all of the same volume and shape characteristics. The construction is an extension of the subdivision method of Freudenthal [3] and has been used by Goodman and Peters [4] to design smooth manifolds.},
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner and Grayson, Daniel R},
journal = {Discrete & Computational Geometry},
number = {4},
pages = {707 -- 719},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Edgewise subdivision of a simplex}},
doi = {10.1007/s004540010063},
volume = {24},
year = {2000},
}
@inproceedings{4008,
abstract = {We formalize a notion of topological simplification within the framework of a filtration, which is the history of a growing complex. We classify a topological change that happens during growth as either a feature or noise depending on its life-time or persistence within the filtration. We give fast algorithms for computing persistence and experimental evidence for their speed and utility.},
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner and Letscher, David and Zomorodian, Afra},
pages = {454 -- 463},
publisher = {IEEE},
title = {{Topological persistance and simplification}},
doi = {10.1109/SFCS.2000.892133},
year = {2000},
}
@article{4009,
abstract = {We study the maintenance of a simplicial grid or complex under changing density requirements. The proposed method works in any fixed dimension and generates grids by projecting cross-sections of a monotone simplicial complex that lives in one dimension higher than the grid. The density of the grid is adapted by locally moving the cross-section up or down along the extra dimension.},
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner and Waupotitsch, Roman},
journal = {International Journal of Computational Geometry and Applications},
number = {3},
pages = {267 -- 284},
publisher = {World Scientific Publishing},
title = {{Adaptive simplicial grids from cross-sections of monotone complexes}},
doi = {10.1142/S0218195900000164},
volume = {10},
year = {2000},
}