@article{2554,
abstract = {The retinal bipolar cell receiving glutamate transmission from photoreceptors mediates a key process in segregating visual signals into ON center and OFF center pathways. This transmission involves a G protein- coupled metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR). Immunocytochemical and immunoelectron microscopic studies indicate the restricted localization of a specific mGluR subtype, mGluR6, at the postsynaptic site of the rat rod bipolar cell. This specialization is developmentally regulated: mGluR6 is initially distributed in both the soma and dendrites and is finally concentrated on the postsynaptic site. The mGluR6 localization is reversed when photoreceptors degenerate in the mutant rat with retinal dystrophy. Evidence is thus presented indicating specialized, developmentally regulated receptor distribution in the central nervous system and the crucial role of mGluR6 in photoreceptor-bipolar cell synaptic transmission.},
author = {Nomura, Akinori and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Nakamura, Yasuhisa and Okamoto, Naoyuki and Mizuno, Noboru and Nakanishi, Shigetada},
journal = {Cell},
number = {3},
pages = {361 -- 369},
publisher = {Cell Press},
title = {{Developmentally regulated postsynaptic localization of a metabotropic glutamate receptor in rat rod bipolar cells}},
doi = {10.1016/0092-8674(94)90151-1},
volume = {77},
year = {1994},
}
@article{2489,
abstract = {Five N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits have been identified thus far: NR1, NR2A, NR2B, NR2C, and NR2D. Here, we have analyzed the expression patterns of mRNAs for the NMDA receptor subunits in the developing and adult rats by in situ hybridization. The developmental changes of the expression patterns were most salient in the cerebellum. In the external granular layer, hybridization signals of mRNAs for NR1, NR2A, NR2B, and NR2C appeared by postnatal day 3, but no NR2D mRNA was expressed at any developmental stage examined. The NR1 mRNA was expressed in all cerebellar neurons at all developmental stages examined. The signals for the NR2A mRNA appeared in Purkinje cells and granule cells during the second postnatal week. The signals for the NR2B mRNA in granule cells were seen transiently during the first 2 weeks after birth. The signals for NR2C mRNA appeared in granule cells and glial cells during the second postnatal week. The signals for NR2D mRNA appeared transiently in Purkinje cells during the first 8 postnatal days; in adult rats, these were seen in stellate and Golgi cells. In the cerebellar nuclei, mRNAs for NR1, NR2A, NR2B, and NR2D were more or less expressed on postnatal day 0, while expression signals for the NR2C mRNA were first detected in postnatal day 14. Thus, the most conspicuous changes of expression patterns were observed in the cerebellar cortex during the first 2 weeks after birth, when development and maturation of the cerebellum proceed most rapidly.},
author = {Akazawa, Chihiro and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Bessho, Yasumasa and Nakanishi, Shigetada and Mizuno, Noboru},
journal = {Journal of Comparative Neurology},
number = {1},
pages = {150 -- 160},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{Differential expression of five N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit mRNAs in the cerebellum of developing and adult rats}},
doi = {10.1002/cne.903470112},
volume = {347},
year = {1994},
}
@article{2713,
author = {László Erdös},
journal = {Duke Mathematical Journal},
number = {2},
pages = {541 -- 566},
publisher = {Duke University Press},
title = {{Estimates on stochastic oscillatory integrals and on the heat kernel of the magnetic Schrödinger operator}},
doi = {10.1215/S0012-7094-94-07619-9},
volume = {76},
year = {1994},
}
@article{3641,
abstract = {The probability of fixation of a mutation with selective advantage s will be reduced by substitutions at other loci. The effect of a single substitution, with selective advantage S0016672300032857inline1, can be approximated as a sudden reduction in the frequency of the favourable allele, by a fraction w = 1 −(s/S)r/s (where r is the recombination rate). An expression for the effect of a given sequence of such catastrophes is derived. This also applies to the ecological prxoblem of finding the probability that a small population will survive, despite occasional disasters. It is shown that if substitutions occur at a rate Δ, and are scattered randomly over a genetic map of length R, then an allele is unlikely to be fixed if its advantage is less than a critical value, Scrit = (π2/6)(2ΔS/(Rlog(S/s))). This threshold depends primarily on the variance in fitness per unit map length dueto substitutions, var(W)/R = 2ΔS/R. With no recombination, the fixation probability can be calculated for a finite population. If Δ > s, it is of the same order as for a neutral allele ( ≈ Δ/(2N(Δ−s))), whilst if S0016672300032857inline2, fixation probability is much higher than for a neutral allele, but much lower than in the absence of hitch-hiking S0016672300032857inline3. These results suggest that hitch-hiking may substantially impede the accumulation of weakly favoured adaptations.},
author = {Nicholas Barton},
journal = {Genetical Research},
number = {3},
pages = {199 -- 208},
publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
title = {{The reduction in fixation probability caused by substitutions at linked loci}},
doi = {10.1017/S0016672300032857 },
volume = {64},
year = {1994},
}
@article{3475,
abstract = {1. A potassium channel activated by internal Na+ ions (K+Na channel) was identified in peripheral myelinated axons of Xenopus laevis using the cell-attached and excised configurations of the patch clamp technique. 2. The single-channel conductance for the main open state was 88 pS with [K+]o = 105 mM and pS with [K+]o = 2.5 mM ([K+]i = 105 mM). The channel was selectively permeable to K+ over Na+ ions. A characteristic feature of the K+Na channel was the frequent occurrence of subconductance states. 3. The open probability of the channel was strongly dependent on the concentration of Na+ ions at the inner side of the membrane. The half-maximal activating Na+ concentration and the Hill coefficient were 33 mM and 2.9, respectively. The open probability of the channel showed only weak potential dependence. 4. The K+Na channel was relatively insensitive to external tetraethylammonium (TEA+) in comparison with voltage-dependent axonal K+ channels; the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 21.3 mM (at -90 mV). In contrast, the channel was blocked by low concentrations of external Ba2+ and Cs+ ions, with IC50 values of 0.7 and 1.1 mM, respectively (at -90 mV). The block by Ba2+ and Cs+ was more pronounced at negative than at positive membrane potentials. 5. A comparison of the number of K+Na channels in nodal and paranodal patches from the same axon revealed that the channel density was about 10-fold higher at the node of Ranvier than at the paranode. Moreover, a correlation between the number of K+Na channels and voltage-dependent Na+ channels in the same patches was found, suggesting co-localization of both channel types. 6. As weakly potential-dependent ('leakage') channels, axonal K+Na channels may be involved in setting the resting potential of vertebrate axons. Simulations of Na+ ion diffusion suggest two possible mechanisms of activation of K+Na channels: the local increase of Na+ concentration in a cluster of Na+ channels during a single action potential or the accumulation in the intracellular axonal compartment during a train of action potentials.},
author = {Koh, Duk S and Peter Jonas and Vogel, Werner},
journal = {Journal of Physiology},
pages = {183 -- 197},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{Na+-activated K+ channels localized in the nodal region of myelinated axons of Xenopus}},
doi = {10.1113/jphysiol.1994.sp020287},
volume = {479},
year = {1994},
}
@article{4202,
abstract = {NERVE growth factor (NGF) injected into the otherwise unlesioned adult rat septum induced sprouting of presumptive cholinergic fibres positive for p75(NGFR) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). These fibres did not stain for tyrosine hydroxylase and therefore did not represent sympathetic ingrowth. Neurofilament staining on adjacent sections revealed fibres with similar morphology, suggesting new outgrowth in the form of sprouting rather than the upregulation of p75(NGFR) and AChE in pre-existing fibres. Simultaneous injections of subneurotoxic doses of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) significantly potentiated the effect of NGF on cholinergic fibre sprouting and caused pronounced glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)positive astrocytosis. Application of NMDA alone did not elicit sprouting of this type. These findings indicate that NGF can induce the sprouting of uninjured adult rat septal cholinergic fibres in vivo and suggest that reactive astrocytes are not inhibitory to cholinergic axonal outgrowth, and might serve as a substrate for growing axons in the presence of NGF.},
author = {Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp and Cooper, John D and Berke, J and Sofroniew, Michael V},
journal = {Neuroreport},
number = {4},
pages = {413 -- 416},
publisher = {Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins},
title = {{NMDA potentiates NGF-induced sprouting of septal cholinergic fibres}},
volume = {5},
year = {1994},
}
@inproceedings{4586,
abstract = {Fairness is a mathematical abstraction: in a multiprogramming environment, fairness abstracts the details of admissible (“fair”) schedulers; in a distributed environment, fairness abstracts the speeds of independent processors. We argue that the standard definition of fairness often is unnecessarily weak and can be replaced by the stronger, yet still abstract, notion of finitary fairness. While standard weak fairness requires that no enabled transition is postponed forever, finitary weak fairness requires that for every run of a system there is an unknown bound k such that no enabled transition is postponed more than k consecutive times. In general, the finitary restriction fin(F) of any given fairness assumption F is the union of all w-regular safety properties that are contained in F. The adequacy of the proposed abstraction is demonstrated in two ways. Suppose that we prove a program property under the assumption of finitary fairness. In a multiprogramming environment, the program then satisfies the property for all fair finite-state schedulers. In a distributed environment, the program then satisfies the property for all choices of lower and upper bounds on the speeds (or timings) of processors},
author = {Alur, Rajeev and Thomas Henzinger},
pages = {52 -- 61},
publisher = {IEEE},
title = {{Finitary fairness}},
doi = {10.1109/LICS.1994.316087 },
year = {1994},
}
@article{1949,
abstract = {H+-transhydrogenase (H+-Thase) and NADP-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH) are very active in animal mitochondria but their physiological function is only poorly understood. This is especially so in the case of the heart and muscle, where there are no major consumers of NADPH. We propose here that H+-Thase and NADP-ICDH have a combined function in the fine regulation of the activity of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, providing enhanced sensitivy to changes in energy demand. This is achieved through cycling of substrates by NAD-linked ICDH, NADP-linked ICDH and H+-Thase. It is proposed that NAD-ICDH operates in the forward direction of the TCA cycle, but NADP-ICDH is driven in reverse by elevated levels of NADPH resulting from the action of the transmembrane proton electrochemical potential gradient (Δp) on H+-Thase. This has the effect of increasing the sensitivity to allosteric modifiers of NAD-ICDH (NADH, ADP, ATP, Ca2+ etc), potentially giving rise to large changes in the net flux from iso-citrate to α-ketoglutarate. Furthermore, changes in the level of Δp resulting from changes in the demand for ATP would, via H+-Thase, shift the redox state of the NADP pool and this, in turn, would lead to a change in the rate of the reaction catalysed by NADP-ICDH and hence to an additional and complementary effect on the net metabolic flux from isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate. Other consequences of this substrate cycle are, (i) the production of heat at the expense of Δp, which may contribute to thermoregulation in the animal, and (ii) an increased rate of dissipation of Δp (leak).},
author = {Leonid Sazanov and Jackson, Julie B},
journal = {FEBS Letters},
number = {2-3},
pages = {109 -- 116},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Proton translocating transhydrogenase and NAD- and NADP-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases operate in a substrate cycle which contributes to fine regulation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle activity in mitochondria}},
doi = {10.1016/0014-5793(94)00370-X},
volume = {344},
year = {1994},
}
@inproceedings{2548,
abstract = {The induction mechanism of cerebellar long term depression (LTD) has been analysed in a cerebellar culture. Using nitr-5, a photolabile Ca chelator, we demonstrated that an increase in postsynaptic Ca together with glutamate application is sufficient to induce the LTD of glutamate responsiveness in Purkinje cells. It has also been shown that one subtype of genetically defined metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR1, is involved in the LTD induction. We raised antibodies which specifically recognized mGluR1 and inactivated its function. The antibodies suppressed the LTD induction in the cultured Purkinje cells.},
author = {Hirano, Tomoo and Kasono, Keizo and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Nakanishi, Shigetada},
number = {SUPPL. 1},
pages = {79 -- 81},
publisher = {Biomedical Research Foundation},
title = {{Induction mechanism of long term depression in cultured Purkinje neurons}},
volume = {15},
year = {1994},
}
@article{2550,
abstract = {A cDNA clone for a new rat metabotropic glutamate receptor termed mGluR7 was isolated through polymerase chain reaction-mediated DNA amplification by using primer sequences conserved among the metabotropic receptor (mGluR) family and by the subsequent screening of a rat forebrain cDNA library. The cloned mGluR7 subtype consists of 915 amino acid residues and exhibits a structural architecture common to the mGluR family with a large extracellular domain preceding the seven putative membrane-spanning domains. mGluR7 shows the highest sequence similarity to mGluR4 and mGluR6 among the members of the mGluR family. Similar to mGluR4 and mGluR6, mGluR7 inhibits forskolin- stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in response to agonist interaction and potently reacts with L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate and L-serine-O-phosphate in Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with the cloned cDNA. RNA blot and in situ hybridization analyses of mGluR7 mRNA indicated that it is widely expressed in many neuronal cells of the central nervous system and is thus different from the more limitedly expressed mGluR4 or mGluR6 mRNA. mGluR7 together with mGluR4 thus corresponds to the putative L-2-amino-4- phosphonobutyrate receptor which plays an important role in modulation of glutamate transmission in the central nervous system.},
author = {Okamoto, Naoyuki and Hori, Seiji and Akazawa, Chihiro and Hayashi, Yasunori and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Mizuno, Noboru and Nakanishi, Shigetada},
journal = {Journal of Biological Chemistry},
number = {2},
pages = {1231 -- 1236},
publisher = {American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology},
title = {{Molecular characterization of a new metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR7 coupled to inhibitory cyclic AMP signal transduction}},
volume = {269},
year = {1994},
}
@article{2555,
abstract = {Antibodies were raised against two distinct extracellular sequences of the rat mGluR1 metabotropic glutamate receptor expressed as bacterial fusion proteins. Both antibodies specifically reacted with mGluR1 in the rat cerebellum and inhibited the mGluR1 activity as assessed by the analysis of glutamate-stimulated inositol phosphate formation in CHO cells expressing mGluR1. Using these antibodies, we examined the role of mGluR1 in the induction of long-term depression in cultured Purkinje cells. In voltage- clamped Purkinje cells, current induced by iontophoretically applied glutamate was persistently depressed by depolarization of the Purkinje cells in conjunction with the glutamate application. The mGluR1 antibodies completely blocked the depression of glutamate-induced current. The results indicate that activation of mGluR1 is necessary for the induction of cerebellar long-term depression and that these mGluR1 antibodies can be used as selective antagonists.
},
author = {Ryuichi Shigemoto and Abe, Takaaki and Nomura, Sakashi and Nakanishi, Shigetada and Hirano, Tomoo},
journal = {Neuron},
number = {6},
pages = {1245 -- 1255},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Antibodies inactivating mGluR1 metabotropic glutamate receptor block long-term depression in cultured Purkinje cells}},
doi = {10.1016/0896-6273(94)90441-3},
volume = {12},
year = {1994},
}
@article{3642,
abstract = {We develop a general population genetic framework for analyzing selection on many loci, and apply it to strong truncation and disruptive selection on an additive polygenic trait. We first present statistical methods for analyzing the infinitesimal model, in which offspring breeding values are normally distributed around the mean of the parents, with fixed variance. These show that the usual assumption of a Gaussian distribution of breeding values in the population gives remarkably accurate predictions for the mean and the variance, even when disruptive selection generates substantial deviations from normality. We then set out a general genetic analysis of selection and recombination. The population is represented by multilocus cumulants describing the distribution of haploid genotypes, and selection is described by the relation between mean fitness and these cumulants. We provide exact recursions in terms of generating functions for the effects of selection on non-central moments. The effects of recombination are simply calculated as a weighted sum over all the permutations produced by meiosis. Finally, the new cumulants that describe the next generation are computed from the non-central moments. Although this scheme is applied here in detail only to selection on an additive trait, it is quite general. For arbitrary epistasis and linkage, we describe a consistent infinitesimal limit in which the short-term selection response is dominated by infinitesimal allele frequency changes and linkage disequilibria. Numerical multilocus results show that the standard Gaussian approximation gives accurate predictions for the dynamics of the mean and genetic variance in this limit. Even with intense truncation selection, linkage disequilibria of order three and higher never cause much deviation from normality. Thus, the empirical deviations frequently found between predicted and observed responses to artificial selection are not caused by linkage-disequilibrium-induced departures from normality. Disruptive selection can generate substantial four-way disequilibria, and hence kurtosis; but even then, the Gaussian assumption predicts the variance accurately. In contrast to the apparent simplicity of the infinitesimal limit, data suggest that changes in genetic variance after 10 or more generations of selection are likely to be dominated by allele frequency dynamics that depend on genetic details.},
author = {Turelli, Michael and Nicholas Barton},
journal = {Genetics},
number = {3},
pages = {913 -- 941},
publisher = {Genetics Society of America},
title = {{Genetic and statistical analyses of strong selection on polygenic traits: What, me normal?}},
volume = {138},
year = {1994},
}
@article{3476,
abstract = {Tight-seal whole-cell recordings were made from cleaned somata of CA3 pyramidal cells deep in hippocampal slices from 19–21-d-old rats. The cells were filled with biocytin, and their voltage responses to short current pulses were recorded. After washout of initial sag, responses scaled linearly with injected current and were stable over time. The dendritic and axonal arbors of four cells were reconstructed and measured using light microscopy. Dendritic spines and axonal boutons were counted and the additional membrane area was incorporated into the relevant segments. The morphology of each neuron was converted into a detailed branching cable model by assuming values for specific membrane capacitance Cm and resistance Rm, and cytoplasmic resistivity Ri. These parameters were optimized for each cell by directly matching the model's response to that of the real cell by means of a modified weighted least-squares fitting procedure. By comparing the deviations between model and experimental responses to control noise recordings, approximate 95% confidence intervals were established for each parameter. If a somatic shunt was allowed, a wide range of possible Rm values produced acceptable fits. With zero shunt, Cm was 0.7–0.8 microFcm-2, Ri was 170–340 omega cm, and Rm ranged between 120 and 200 k omega cm2. The electrotonic lengths of the basal and oblique dendrites were 0.2–0.3 space constants, and those of the apical tufts were 0.4–0.7 space constants. The steady-state electrical geometry of these cells was therefore compact; average dendritic tip/soma relative synaptic efficacies were > 93% for the basal and oblique dendrites, and > 81% for the tufts. With fast transient synaptic inputs, however, the models produced a wide range of postsynaptic potential shapes and marked filtering of voltage-clamp currents.
© 1994 by Society for Neuroscience},
author = {Major, Guy and Larkman, Alan U and Peter Jonas and Sakmann, Bert and Jack, Julian B},
journal = {Journal of Neuroscience},
number = {8},
pages = {4613 -- 4638},
publisher = {Society for Neuroscience},
title = {{Detailed passive cable models of whole-cell recorded CA3 pyramidal neurons in rat hippocampal slices}},
volume = {14},
year = {1994},
}
@article{4032,
abstract = {Every collection of t≥2 n2 triangles with a total of n vertices in ℝ3 has Ω(t4/n6) crossing pairs. This implies that one of their edges meets Ω(t3/n6) of the triangles. From this it follows that n points in ℝ3 have only O(n8/3) halving planes.},
author = {Dey, Tamal K and Herbert Edelsbrunner},
journal = {Discrete & Computational Geometry},
number = {1},
pages = {281 -- 289},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Counting triangle crossings and halving planes}},
doi = {10.1007/BF02574381},
volume = {12},
year = {1994},
}
@article{4037,
abstract = {Frequently, data in scientific computing is in its abstract form a finite point set in space, and it is sometimes useful or required to compute what one might call the `'shape” of the set. For that purpose, this article introduces the formal notion of the family of alpha-shapes of a finite point set in R3. Each shape is a well-defined polytope, derived from the Delaunay triangulation of the point set, with a parameter alpha is-an-element-of R controlling the desired level of detail. An algorithm is presented that constructs the entire family of shapes for a given set of size n in time O(n2), worst case. A robust implementation of the algorithm is discussed, and several applications in the area of scientific computing are mentioned.},
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner and Mücke, Ernst P},
journal = {ACM Transactions on Graphics},
number = {1},
pages = {43 -- 72},
publisher = {ACM},
title = {{Three-dimensional alpha shapes}},
doi = {10.1145/174462.156635},
volume = {13},
year = {1994},
}
@article{4501,
abstract = {We extend the specification language of temporal logic, the corresponding verification framework, and the underlying computational model to deal with real-;time properties of reactive systems. The abstract notion of timed transition systems generalizes traditional transition systems conservatively: qualitative fairness requirements are replaced (and superseded) by quantitative lower-bound and upper-bound timing constraints on transitions. This framework can model real-time systems that communicate either through shared variables or by message passing and real-time issues such as timeouts, process priorities (interrupts), and process scheduling. We exhibit two styles for the specification of real-time systems. While the first approach uses time-bounded versions of the temporal operators, the second approach allows explicit references to time through a special clock variable. Corresponding to the two styles of specification, we present and compare two different proof methodologies for the verification of timing requirements that are expressed in these styles. For the bounded-operator style, we provide a set of proof rules for establishing bounded-invariance and bounded-responce properties of timed transition systems. This approach generalizes the standard temporal proof rules for verifying invariance and response properties conservatively. For the explicit-clock style, we exploit the observation that every time-bounded property is a safety property and use the standard temporal proof rules for establishing safety properties.
},
author = {Thomas Henzinger and Manna, Zohar and Pnueli,Amir},
journal = {Information and Computation},
number = {2},
pages = {273 -- 337},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Temporal proof methodologies for timed transition systems}},
doi = {10.1006/inco.1994.1060},
volume = {112},
year = {1994},
}
@inproceedings{4614,
abstract = {We develop a theory of equivalences for timed systems. Two systems are equivalent iff external observers cannot observe differences in their behavior. The notion of equivalence depends, therefore, on the distinguishing power of the observers. The power of an observer to measure time results in untimed, clock, and timed equivalences: an untimed observer cannot measure the time difference between events; a clock observer uses a clock to measure time differences with finite precision; a timed observer is able to measure time differences with arbitrary precision.
We show that the distinguishing power of clock observers grows with the number of observers, and approaches, in the limit, the distinguishing power of a timed observer. More precisely, given any equivalence for untimed systems, two timed systems are k-clock congruent, for a nonnegative integer k, iff their compositions with every environment that uses k clocks are untimed equivalent. Both k-clock bisimulation congruence and k-clock trace congruence form strict decidable hierarchies that converge towards the corresponding timed equivalences. Moreover, k-clock bisimulation congruence and k-clock trace congruence provide an adequate and abstract semantics for branching-time and linear-time logics with k clocks.
Our results impact on the verification of timed systems in two ways. First, our decision procedure for k-clock bisimulation congruence leads to a new, symbolic, decision procedure for timed bisimilarity. Second, timed trace equivalence is known to be undecidable. If the number of environment clocks is bounded, however, then our decision procedure for k-clock trace congruence allows the verification of timed systems in a trace model.},
author = {Alur, Rajeev and Courcoubetis, Costas and Thomas Henzinger},
pages = {162 -- 177},
publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik},
title = {{The observational power of clocks}},
doi = {10.1007/BFb0015008},
volume = {836},
year = {1994},
}
@article{2537,
abstract = {The metabotropic glutamate receptors are coupled to intracellular signal transduction via G-proteins and consist of a family of at least five different subtypes, termed mGluR1-mGluR5. We studied the signal transduction mechanism and pharmacological characteristics of the rat mGluR3 and mGluR4 subtypes in Chinese hamster ovary cells permanently expressing the cloned receptors. Both mGluR3 and mGluR4 inhibit the forskolin-stimulated accumulation of intracellular cAMP formation in response to agonist interaction. Consistent with the high degree of sequence similarity to mGluR2, mGluR3 closely resembles mGluR2 in its agonist selectivity; the potency rank order of agonists is L-glutamate > trans-1-aminocyclopentane- 1,3-dicarboxylate > ibotenate > quisqualate. mGluR4 is totally different in its agonist specificity from any other member of the metabotropic receptors. This receptor potently reacts with L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate(L-AP4) in a stereo-selective manner and moderately responds to L-serine-O-phosphate. mGluR4 thus corresponds well to the putative L-AP4 receptor characterized from brain preparations. Blot and in situ hybridization analyses indicated that both mRNAs are widely distributed in the rat brain. mGluR3 mRNA is highly expressed in neuronal cells of the cerebral cortex and the caudate- putamen, and in granule cells of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. The expression pattern of mGluR4 mRNA is more restricted, and this expression is prominent in the cerebellum, olfactory bulb, and thalamus. Furthermore, the mGluR3 mRNA, unlike the other mRNAs for the metabotropic receptors, is highly expressed in glial cells throughout the brain regions. The metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes can thus be classified into three subgroups according to the similarity in their amino acid sequences, signal transduction, and agonist selectivity: mGluR1/mGluR5, mGluR2/mGluR3, and mGluR4. The mRNAs for the individual receptor subtypes, however, show overlapping but distinct patterns of expression in the rat CNS.},
author = {Tanabe, Yasuto and Nomura, Akinori and Masu, Masayuki and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Mizuno, Noboru and Nakanishi, Shigetada},
journal = {Journal of Neuroscience},
number = {4},
pages = {1372 -- 1378},
publisher = {Society for Neuroscience},
title = {{Signal transduction, pharmacological properties, and expression patterns of two rat metabotropic glutamate receptors, mGluR3 and mGluR4}},
volume = {13},
year = {1993},
}
@article{2544,
abstract = {VARIOUS functions of glutamate transmission are mediated by both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors1. The metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) consist of at least six different subtypes that are classified into three subgroups, mGluR1/mGluR5, mGluR2/mGluR3, and mGluR4/mGluR6 (refs 1-5), but their physiological roles are largely unknown. Here we report the identification of a very potent agonist for mGluR2/mGluR3, DCG-IV, and the specific localization of mGluR2 in granule cell dendrites that form dendrodendritic synapses with mitral cells in the accessory olfactory bulb. Using the DCG-IV agonist for mGluR2 in combination with slice patchrecording, we demonstrate that the granule cell mGluR2 presynaptically suppresses inhibitory GABA (γ-aminobutyrate) transmission to the mitral cell. Our results indicate that mGluR2 in granule cells plays an important role in the persistent excitation of olfactory sensory transmission in the accessory olfactory bulb by relieving mitral cells from the GABA inhibition.},
author = {Hayashi, Yasunori and Momiyama, Akiko and Takahashi, Tomoyuki and Ohishi, Hitoshi and Ogawa-Meguro, Reiko and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Mizuno, Noboru and Nakanishi, Shigetada},
journal = {Nature},
number = {6456},
pages = {687 -- 690},
publisher = {Nature Publishing Group},
title = {{Role of a metabotropic glutamate receptor in synaptic modulation in the accessory olfactory bulb}},
doi = {10.1038/366687a0},
volume = {366},
year = {1993},
}
@article{3446,
abstract = {An effective character recognition procedure implemented on a new type of hardware system and using a new architecture called CNND is proposed. This CNND contains one or more analog cellular neural networks (CNNs) and some digital logic, combining the advantages of the fast analog CNN signal processing and the fast and easy decision capability of digital logic. It is shown that the CNND system can be used for recognition of multifont printed or handwritten characters and could recognize 100,000 char/s with a recognition rate of more than 95%. The more advantage of the system over competing types is that there is not an extra feature extraction procedure implemented in slow hardware},
author = {Sziranyi, Tamas and Jozsef Csicsvari},
journal = {IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing},
number = {3},
pages = {223 -- 231},
publisher = {IEEE},
title = {{High-speed character recognition using a dual cellular neural network architecture (CNND)}},
doi = {10.1109/82.222823},
volume = {40},
year = {1993},
}