@article{4056,
abstract = {This paper proves that for every n ≥ 4 there is a convex n-gon such that the vertices of 2n - 7 vertex pairs are one unit of distance apart. This improves the previously best lower bound of ⌊ (5n - 5) 3⌋ given by Erdo{combining double acute accent}s and Moser if n ≥ 17.},
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner and Hajnal, Péter},
journal = {Journal of Combinatorial Theory Series A},
number = {2},
pages = {312 -- 316},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{A lower bound on the number of unit distances between the vertices of a convex polygon}},
doi = {10.1016/0097-3165(91)90042-F},
volume = {56},
year = {1991},
}
@article{4057,
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner},
journal = {Journal of Computer and System Sciences},
number = {2},
pages = {249 -- 251},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Corrigendum}},
doi = {10.1016/0022-0000(91)90013-U},
volume = {42},
year = {1991},
}
@inproceedings{4058,
abstract = {We present a randomized incremental algorithm for computing a single face in an arrangement of n line segments in the plane that is fairly simple to implement. The expected running
time of the algorithm is O (nα(n) log n). The analysis of the algorithm uses a novel approach that generalizes and extends the Clarkson-Shor analysis technique.},
author = {Chazelle, Bernard and Herbert Edelsbrunner and Guibas, Leonidas and Sharir, Micha and Snoeyink, Jack},
pages = {441 -- 448},
publisher = {SIAM},
title = {{Computing a face in an arrangement of line segments}},
year = {1991},
}
@inproceedings{4059,
abstract = {Let P be a simple polygon with n vertices. We present a simple decomposition scheme that partitions the interior of P into O(n) so-called geodesic triangles, so that any line segment interior to P crosses at most 2 log n of these triangles. This decomposition can be used to preprocess P in time O(n log n) and storage O(n), so that any ray-shooting query can be answered in time O(log n).The algorithms are fairly simple and easy to implement. We also extend this technique to the case of ray-shooting amidst k polygonal obstacles with a total of n edges, so that a query can be answered in O(radicklog n) time.},
author = {Chazelle, Bernard and Herbert Edelsbrunner and Grigni, Michelangelo and Guibas, Leonidas and Hershberger, John and Sharir, Micha and Snoeyink, Jack},
pages = {661 -- 673},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Ray shooting in polygons using geodesic triangulations}},
doi = {10.1007/3-540-54233-7_172},
volume = {510},
year = {1991},
}
@article{4061,
abstract = {We present an algorithm to compute a Euclidean minimum spanning tree of a given set S of N points in Ed in time O(Fd (N,N) logd N), where Fd (n,m) is the time required to compute a bichromatic closest pair among n red and m green points in Ed . If Fd (N,N)=Ω(N1+ε), for some fixed e{open}>0, then the running time improves to O(Fd (N,N)). Furthermore, we describe a randomized algorithm to compute a bichromatic closest pair in expected time O((nm log n log m)2/3+m log2 n+n log2 m) in E3, which yields an O(N4/3 log4/3 N) expected time, algorithm for computing a Euclidean minimum spanning tree of N points in E3. In d≥4 dimensions we obtain expected time O((nm)1-1/([d/2]+1)+ε+m log n+n log m) for the bichromatic closest pair problem and O(N2-2/([d/2]+1)ε) for the Euclidean minimum spanning tree problem, for any positive e{open}.},
author = {Agarwal, Pankaj K and Herbert Edelsbrunner and Schwarzkopf, Otfried and Welzl, Emo},
journal = {Discrete & Computational Geometry},
number = {1},
pages = {407 -- 422},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Euclidean minimum spanning trees and bichromatic closest pairs}},
doi = {10.1007/BF02574698},
volume = {6},
year = {1991},
}
@article{4062,
abstract = {We prove that for any set S of n points in the plane and n3-α triangles spanned by the points in S there exists a point (not necessarily in S) contained in at least n3-3α/(c log5 n) of the triangles. This implies that any set of n points in three-dimensional space defines at most {Mathematical expression} halving planes.},
author = {Aronov, Boris and Chazelle, Bernard and Herbert Edelsbrunner and Guibas, Leonidas J and Sharir, Micha and Wenger, Rephael},
journal = {Discrete & Computational Geometry},
number = {1},
pages = {435 -- 442},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Points and triangles in the plane and halving planes in space}},
doi = {10.1007/BF02574700},
volume = {6},
year = {1991},
}
@inproceedings{4508,
abstract = {We extend the specification language of temporal logic, the corresponding verification framework, and the underlying computational model to deal with real-time properties of concurrent and reactive systems. A global, discrete, and asynchronous clock is incorporated into the model by defining the abstract notion of a real-time transition system as a conservative extension of traditional transition systems: qualitative fairness requirements are replaced (and superseded) by quantitative lower-bound and upperbound real-time requirements for transitions. We show how to model real-time systems that communicate either through shared variables or by message passing, and how to represent the important real-time constructs of priorities (interrupts), scheduling, and timeouts in this framework. Two styles for the specification of real-time properties are presented. The first style uses bounded versions of the temporal operators; the real-time requirements expressed in this style are classified ...},
author = {Thomas Henzinger and Manna, Zohar and Pnueli,Amir},
pages = {353 -- 366},
publisher = {ACM},
title = {{Temporal proof methodologies for real-time systems}},
doi = {10.1145/99583.99629},
year = {1991},
}
@phdthesis{4516,
author = {Thomas Henzinger},
publisher = {Stanford University},
title = {{The Temporal Specification and Verification of Real-time Systems }},
year = {1991},
}
@article{4592,
author = {Alur, Rajeev and Thomas Henzinger},
journal = {SIGACT News},
number = {3},
pages = {6 -- 12},
publisher = {ACM},
title = {{Time for logic}},
volume = {22},
year = {1991},
}
@article{3468,
abstract = {Two types of metabolically regulated K channels have been identified for the first time in enzymatically demyelinated fibres of amphibian sciatic nerve using the patch-clamp technique. A maxi K channel with a single-channel conductance of 132 pS (105 mM K on both sides of the membrane, 15°C) is activated both by micromolar concentrations of internal Ca and by depolarization. A second type of K channel with a conductance of 44 pS is inhibited by intracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 35 μM. It is blocked by submicromolar concentrations of external glibenclamide. Both channels are sensitive to external tetraethylammonium chloride (IC50 = 0.2 mM for the maxi K channel and 4.2 mM for the ATP-sensitive channel). They may be part of a complex feedback system regulating axonal excitability under various metabolic conditions.
},
author = {Peter Jonas and Koh, Duk S and Kampe, Knut and Hermsteiner, Markus and Vogel, Werner},
journal = {Pflugers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology},
number = {1-2},
pages = {68 -- 73},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{ATP-sensitive and Ca-activated K channels in vertebrate axons: novel links between metabolism and excitability}},
doi = {10.1007/BF00370453},
volume = {418},
year = {1991},
}
@inbook{3566,
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner and Sharir, Micha},
booktitle = {Applied Geometry and Discrete Mathematics: The Victor Klee Festschrift},
pages = {253 -- 263},
publisher = {American Mathematical Society},
title = {{A hyperplane incidence problem with applications to counting distances}},
volume = {4},
year = {1991},
}
@inbook{3567,
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner},
booktitle = {Discrete & Computational Geometry},
pages = {77 -- 93},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Lines in space – A collection of results}},
volume = {6},
year = {1991},
}
@article{3646,
abstract = {We compare the pattern of morphological and electrophoretic variation in the hybrid zone between Bombina bombina and B. variegata across two transects: one near Cracow and one 200 km away, near Przemysl in southeastern Poland. Morphological variation across the Przemysl transect had been surveyed more than 50 years ago; though we found a significant shift at one site, there is no evidence for gross movement over this period. Morphological and electrophoretic changes coincide, and the average shape of the clines is the same across both transects. At the center, most of the change in frequency of six diagnostic allozymes occurs within w = 6.05 km (2-unit support limits 5.56-6.54 km). These steep gradients are generated not by selection on the allozymes themselves, but by associations with other loci: though these markers are unlinked, they are in strong linkage disequilibrium with each other [R = D/ = 0.22 (0.15-0.29) at the center]. Disequilibria are broken up as alleles diffuse away from the zone and flow into the new genetic background. The net barrier to the flow of genes from bombina into variegata, which is generated by these disequilibria, is B = 51 (22-81) km. The fitness of hybrids must be substantially reduced to produce such a barrier [W̄H/W̄P = 0.58 (0.54-0.68)], and this selection must be spread over many loci [N = 55 (26-88)]. Alleles introgress significantly less far than would be expected from the age of the zone and the estimated dispersal rate [σ = 0.99 (0.82-1.14) km gen.-1/2]: this implies selection of se = 0.37 (0.15-0.58)% on the enzymes themselves. There is weak but significant linkage disequilibrium well away from the center of the zone; this, together with the presence of parental and F1 genotypes, suggests some long-range migration. However, such migration is not likely to cause significant introgression.
},
author = {Szymura, Jacek M and Nicholas Barton},
journal = {Evolution},
number = {2},
pages = {237 -- 261},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{The genetic structure of the hybrid zone between the fire-bellied toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata: comparisons between transects and between loci}},
volume = {45},
year = {1991},
}
@article{3647,
abstract = {A method is developed that describes the effects on an arbitrary number of autosomal loci of selection on haploid and diploid stages, of nonrandom mating between haploid individuals, and of recombination. We provide exact recursions for the dynamics of allele frequencies and linkage disequilibria (nonrandom associations of alleles across loci). When selection is weak relative to recombination, our recursions provide simple approximations for the linkage disequilibria among arbitrary combinations of loci. We show how previous models of sex-independent natural selection on diploids, assortative mating between haploids, and sexual selection on haploids can be analyzed in this framework. Using our weak-selection approximations, we derive new results concerning the coevolution of male traits and female preferences under natural and sexual selection. In particular, we provide general expressions for the intensity of linkage-disequilibrium induced selection experienced by loci that contribute to female preferences for specific male traits. Our general results support the previous observation that these indirect selection forces are so weak that they are unlikely to dominate the evolution of preference-producing loci.},
author = {Nicholas Barton and Turelli, Michael},
journal = {Genetics},
number = {1},
pages = {229 -- 255},
publisher = {Genetics Society of America},
title = {{Natural and sexual selection on many loci}},
volume = {127},
year = {1991},
}
@article{3648,
abstract = {We investigate the probability of fixation of a chromosome rearrangement in a subdivided population, concentrating on the limit where migration is so large relative to selection (m ≫ s) that the population can be thought of as being continuously distributed. We study two demes, and one- and two-dimensional populations. For two demes, the probability of fixation in the limit of high migration approximates that of a population with twice the size of a single deme: migration therefore greatly reduces the fixation probability. However, this behavior does not extend to a large array of demes. Then, the fixation probability depends primarily on neighborhood size (Nb), and may be appreciable even with strong selection and free gene flow (≈exp(-B·Nb) in one dimension, ≈exp(-B\cdotNb) in two dimensions). Our results are close to those for the more tractable case of a polygenic character under disruptive selection.},
author = {Nicholas Barton and Rouhani, Shahin},
journal = {Evolution},
number = {3},
pages = {499 -- 517},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{The probability of fixation of a new karyotype in a continuous population}},
volume = {45},
year = {1991},
}
@article{2480,
abstract = {Functional cDNA clones for rat neuromedin K receptor were isolated from a rat brain cDNA library by cross-hybridization with the bovine substance K recepor cDNA. Injection of the mRNA synthesized in vitro from the cloned cDNA into Xenopus oocytes elicited electrophysiological responses to tachykinins, with the most potent sensitivity being to neuromedin K. Ligand-binding displacement in membranes of mammalian COS cells transfected with the cDNA indicated the rank order of affinity of the receptor to tachykinins; neuromedin K > substance K > substance P. The hybridization analysis showed that the neuromedin K receptor mRNA is expressed in both the brain and the peripheral tissues at different levels. The rat neuromedin K receptor consists of 452 amino acid residues and belongs to the family of G protein-coupled receptors, which are thought to have seven transmembrane domains. The sequence comparison of the rat neuromedin K, substance P, and substance K receptors revealed that these receptors are highly conserved in the seven transmembrane domains and the cytoplasmic sides of the receptors. They also show some structural characteristics, including the common presence of histidine residues in transmembrane segments V and VI and the difference in the numbers and distributions of serine and threonine residues as possible phosphorylation sites in the cytoplasmic regions. This paper thus presents the first comprehensive analysis of the molecular nature of the multiple peptide receptors that exhibit similar but pharmacologically distinguishable activities.},
author = {Ryuichi Shigemoto and Yokota, Yoshifumi and Tsuchida, Kunihiro and Nakanishi, Shigetada},
journal = {Journal of Biological Chemistry},
number = {2},
pages = {623 -- 628},
publisher = {American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology},
title = {{Cloning and expression of a rat neuromedin K receptor cDNA}},
volume = {265},
year = {1990},
}
@article{2481,
abstract = {The family of mammalian tachykinin receptors consists of substance P receptor (SPR), neuromedin K receptor (NKR) and substance K receptor (SKR). In this investigation, tissue and regional distributions of the mRNAs for the three rat tachykinin receptors were investigated by blot-hybridization and RNase-protection analyses using the previously cloned receptor cDNAs. SPR mRNA is widely distributed in both the nervous system and peripheral tissues and is expressed abundantly in the hypothalamus and olfactory buld, as well as in the urinary bladder, salivary glands and small and large intestines. In contrast, NKR mRNA is predominantly expressed in the nervous system, particularly in the cortex, hypothalamus and cerebellum, whereas SKR mRNA expression is restricted to the peripheral tissues, being abundant in the urinary bladder, large intestine, stomach and adenal glands. Thus, the mRNAs for the three tachykinin receptors show distinct patterns of expression between the nervous system and peripheral tissues. Blot-hybridization analysis in combination with S1 nuclease protection and primer-extension analyses revealed that there are two large forms of SKR mRNA expressed commonly in the peripheral tissues, and two additional small forms of the mRNA expressed specifically in the adrenal gland and eye. These analyses also showed that the multiple forms of SKR mRNA differ in the lengths of the 5' mRNA portions, and that the two small forms of the mRNA, if translated, encode a truncated SKR polypeptide lacking the first two transmembrane domains. This investigation thus provides the comprehensive analysis of the distribution and mode of expression of the mRNAs for the multiple peptide receptors and offers a new basis on which to interpret the diverse functions of multiple tachykinin peptides in the CNS and peripheral tissues.},
author = {Tsuchida, Kunihiro and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Yokota, Yoshifumi and Nakanishi, Shigetada},
journal = {European Journal of Biochemistry},
number = {3},
pages = {751 -- 757},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{Tissue distribution and quantitation of the mRNAs for three rat tachykinin receptors}},
doi = {10.1111/j.1432-1033.1990.tb19396.x},
volume = {193},
year = {1990},
}
@article{2528,
abstract = {We previously reported a novel rat membrane protein that exhibits a voltage-dependent potassium channel activity on the basis of molecular cloning combined with an electrophysiological assay. This protein, termed I(sK) protein, is small and different from the conventional potassium channel proteins but induces selective permeation of potassium ions on its expression in Xenopus oocytes. In this investigation, we examined cellular localization of rat I(sK) protein by preparing three different types of antibody that specifically reacts with a distinct part of rat I(sK) protein. Immunohistochemical analysis using these antibody preparations demonstrated that rat I(sK) protein is confined to the apical membrane portion of epithelial cells in the proximal tubule of the kidney, the submandibular duct and the uterine endometrium. The observed tissue distribution of rat I(sK) protein was consistent with that of the I(sK) protein mRNA determined by blot hybridization analysis. In epithelial cells, the sodium, potassium-ATPase pump in the basolateral membrane generates a sodium gradient across the epithelial cell and allows sodium ions to enter the cell through the apical membrane. Thus, taking into account the cellular localization of the I(sK) protein, together with its electrophysiological properties, we discussed a possible function of the I(sK) protein, namely that this protein is involved in potassium permeation in the apical membrane of epithelial cells through the depolarizing effect of sodium entry.},
author = {Sugimoto, Tetsuo and Tanabe, Yasuto and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Iwai, Masazumi and Takumi, Toru and Ohkubo, Hiroaki and Nakanishi, Shigetada},
journal = {Journal of Membrane Biology},
number = {1},
pages = {39 -- 47},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Immunohistochemical study of a rat membrane protein which induces a selective potassium permeation: Its localization in the apical membrane portion of epithelial cells}},
doi = {10.1007/BF01869604},
volume = {113},
year = {1990},
}
@article{2721,
abstract = {We consider a multidimensional system consisting of a particle of mass M and radius r (molecule), surrounded by an infinite ideal gas of point particles of mass m (atoms). The molecule is confined to the unit ball and interacts with its boundary (barrier) via elastic collision, while the atoms are not affected by the boundary. We obtain convergence to equilibrium for the molecule from almost every initial distribution on its position and velocity. Furthermore, we prove that the infinite composite system of the molecule and the atoms is Bernoulli.},
author = {László Erdös and Tuyen, Dao Quang},
journal = {Journal of Statistical Physics},
number = {5-6},
pages = {1589 -- 1602},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Ergodic properties of the multidimensional rayleigh gas with a semipermeable barrier}},
doi = {10.1007/BF01334766},
volume = {59},
year = {1990},
}
@article{4060,
abstract = {This paper offers combinatorial results on extremum problems concerning the number of tetrahedra in a tetrahedrization of n points in general position in three dimensions, i.e. such that no four points are co-planar, It also presents an algorithm that in O(n log n) time constructs a tetrahedrization of a set of n points consisting of at most 3n-11 tetrahedra.},
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner and Preparata, Franco P and West, Douglas B},
journal = {Journal of Symbolic Computation},
number = {3-4},
pages = {335 -- 347},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Tetrahedrizing point sets in three dimensions}},
doi = {10.1016/S0747-7171(08)80068-5},
volume = {10},
year = {1990},
}
@article{4063,
abstract = {This paper describes a general-purpose programming technique, called Simulation of Simplicity, that can be used to cope with degenerate input data for geometric algorithms. It relieves the programmer from the task of providing a consistent treatment for every single special case that can occur. The programs that use the technique tend to be considerably smaller and more robust than those that do not use it. We believe that this technique will become a standard tool in writing geometric software.},
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner and Mücke, Ernst P},
journal = {ACM Transactions on Graphics},
number = {1},
pages = {66 -- 104},
publisher = {ACM},
title = {{Simulation of simplicity: A technique to cope with degenerate cases in geometric algorithms}},
doi = {10.1145/77635.77639},
volume = {9},
year = {1990},
}
@article{4064,
abstract = {Given a set of data points pi = (xi, yi ) for 1 ≤ i ≤ n, the least median of squares regression line is a line y = ax + b for which the median of the squared residuals is a minimum over all choices of a and b. An algorithm is described that computes such a line in O(n 2) time and O(n) memory space, thus improving previous upper bounds on the problem. This algorithm is an application of a general method built on top of the topological sweep of line arrangements.},
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner and Souvaine, Diane L},
journal = {Journal of the American Statistical Association},
number = {409},
pages = {115 -- 119},
publisher = {American Statistical Association},
title = {{Computing least median of squares regression lines and guided topological sweep}},
doi = {10.1080/01621459.1990.10475313},
volume = {85},
year = {1990},
}
@article{4065,
abstract = {We prove that given n⩾3 convex, compact, and pairwise disjoint sets in the plane, they may be covered with n non-overlapping convex polygons with a total of not more than 6n−9 sides, and with not more than 3n−6 distinct slopes. Furthermore, we construct sets that require 6n−9 sides and 3n−6 slopes for n⩾3. The upper bound on the number of slopes implies a new bound on a recently studied transversal problem.},
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner and Robison, Arch D and Shen, Xiao-Jun},
journal = {Discrete Mathematics},
number = {2},
pages = {153 -- 164},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Covering convex sets with non-overlapping polygons}},
doi = {10.1016/0012-365X(90)90147-A},
volume = {81},
year = {1990},
}
@article{4066,
abstract = {We consider several problems involving points and planes in three dimensions. Our main results are: (i) The maximum number of faces boundingm distinct cells in an arrangement ofn planes isO(m 2/3 n logn +n 2); we can calculatem such cells specified by a point in each, in worst-case timeO(m 2/3 n log3 n+n 2 logn). (ii) The maximum number of incidences betweenn planes andm vertices of their arrangement isO(m 2/3 n logn+n 2), but this number is onlyO(m 3/5– n 4/5+2 +m+n logm), for any>0, for any collection of points no three of which are collinear. (iii) For an arbitrary collection ofm points, we can calculate the number of incidences between them andn planes by a randomized algorithm whose expected time complexity isO((m 3/4– n 3/4+3 +m) log2 n+n logn logm) for any>0. (iv) Givenm points andn planes, we can find the plane lying immediately below each point in randomized expected timeO([m 3/4– n 3/4+3 +m] log2 n+n logn logm) for any>0. (v) The maximum number of facets (i.e., (d–1)-dimensional faces) boundingm distinct cells in an arrangement ofn hyperplanes ind dimensions,d>3, isO(m 2/3 n d/3 logn+n d–1). This is also an upper bound for the number of incidences betweenn hyperplanes ind dimensions andm vertices of their arrangement. The combinatorial bounds in (i) and (v) and the general bound in (ii) are almost tight.},
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner and Guibas, Leonidas and Sharir, Micha},
journal = {Discrete & Computational Geometry},
number = {1},
pages = {197 -- 216},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{The complexity of many cells in arrangements of planes and related problems}},
doi = {10.1007/BF02187785},
volume = {5},
year = {1990},
}
@inproceedings{4067,
abstract = {This paper proves an O(m 2/3 n 2/3+m+n) upper bound on the number of incidences between m points and n hyperplanes in four dimensions, assuming all points lie on one side of each hyperplane and the points and hyperplanes satisfy certain natural general position conditions. This result has application to various three-dimensional combinatorial distance problems. For example, it implies the same upper bound for the number of bichromatic minimum distance pairs in a set of m blue and n red points in three-dimensional space. This improves the best previous bound for this problem.},
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner and Sharir, Micha},
pages = {419 -- 428},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{A hyperplane Incidence problem with applications to counting distances}},
doi = {10.1007/3-540-52921-7_91},
volume = {450},
year = {1990},
}
@article{4068,
abstract = {LetS be a collection ofn convex, closed, and pairwise nonintersecting sets in the Euclidean plane labeled from 1 ton. A pair of permutations
(i1i2in−1in)(inin−1i2i1)
is called ageometric permutation of S if there is a line that intersects all sets ofS in this order. We prove thatS can realize at most 2n–2 geometric permutations. This upper bound is tight.},
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner and Sharir, Micha},
journal = {Discrete & Computational Geometry},
number = {1},
pages = {35 -- 42},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{The maximum number of ways to stabn convex nonintersecting sets in the plane is 2n−2}},
doi = { 10.1007/BF02187778},
volume = {5},
year = {1990},
}
@article{4069,
abstract = {Let C be a cell complex in d-dimensional Euclidean space whose faces are obtained by orthogonal projection of the faces of a convex polytope in d + 1 dimensions. For example, the Delaunay triangulation of a finite point set is such a cell complex. This paper shows that the in front/behind relation defined for the faces of C with respect to any fixed viewpoint x is acyclic. This result has applications to hidden line/surface removal and other problems in computational geometry.},
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner},
journal = {Combinatorica},
number = {3},
pages = {251 -- 260},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{An acyclicity theorem for cell complexes in d dimension}},
doi = {10.1007/BF02122779},
volume = {10},
year = {1990},
}
@article{4070,
abstract = {Let S be a set of n closed intervals on the x-axis. A ranking assigns to each interval, s, a distinct rank, p(s) [1, 2,…,n]. We say that s can see t if p(s)<p(t) and there is a point ps∩t so that pu for all u with p(s)<p(u)<p(t). It is shown that a ranking can be found in time O(n log n) such that each interval sees at most three other intervals. It is also shown that a ranking that minimizes the average number of endpoints visible from an interval can be computed in time O(n 5/2). The results have applications to intersection problems for intervals, as well as to channel routing problems which arise in layouts of VLSI circuits.},
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner and Overmars, Mark H and Welzl, Emo and Hartman, Irith Ben-Arroyo and Feldman,Jack A},
journal = {International Journal of Computer Mathematics},
number = {3-4},
pages = {129 -- 144},
publisher = {Taylor & Francis},
title = {{Ranking intervals under visibility constraints}},
doi = {10.1080/00207169008803871},
volume = {34},
year = {1990},
}
@inproceedings{4071,
abstract = {We show that a triangulation of a set of n points in the plane that minimizes the maximum angle can be computed in time O(n2 log n) and space O(n). In the same amount of time and space we can also handle the constrained case where edges are prescribed. The algorithm iteratively improves an arbitrary initial triangulation and is fairly easy to implement.},
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner and Tan, Tiow Seng and Waupotitsch, Roman},
pages = {44 -- 52},
publisher = {ACM},
title = {{An O(n^2log n) time algorithm for the MinMax angle triangulation}},
doi = {10.1145/98524.98535},
year = {1990},
}
@article{4072,
abstract = {We show that the total number of edges ofm faces of an arrangement ofn lines in the plane isO(m 2/3– n 2/3+2 +n) for any>0. The proof takes an algorithmic approach, that is, we describe an algorithm for the calculation of thesem faces and derive the upper bound from the analysis of the algorithm. The algorithm uses randomization and its expected time complexity isO(m 2/3– n 2/3+2 logn+n logn logm). If instead of lines we have an arrangement ofn line segments, then the maximum number of edges ofm faces isO(m 2/3– n 2/3+2 +n (n) logm) for any>0, where(n) is the functional inverse of Ackermann's function. We give a (randomized) algorithm that produces these faces and takes expected timeO(m 2/3– n 2/3+2 log+n(n) log2 n logm).},
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner and Guibas, Leonidas J and Sharir, Micha},
journal = {Discrete & Computational Geometry},
number = {1},
pages = {161 -- 196},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{The complexity and construction of many faces in arrangements of lines and of segments}},
doi = { 10.1007/BF02187784},
volume = {5},
year = {1990},
}
@inproceedings{4073,
abstract = {A number of rendering algorithms in computer graphics sort three-dimensional objects by depth and assume that there is no cycle that makes the sorting impossible. One way to resolve the problem caused by cycles is to cut the objects into smaller pieces. The problem of estimating how many such cuts are always sufficient is addressed. A few related algorithmic and combinatorial geometry problems are considered},
author = {Chazelle, Bernard and Herbert Edelsbrunner and Guibas, Leonidas J and Pollack, Richard and Seidel, Raimund and Sharir, Micha and Snoeyink, Jack},
pages = {242 -- 251},
publisher = {IEEE},
title = {{Counting and cutting cycles of lines and rods in space}},
doi = {10.1109/FSCS.1990.89543},
year = {1990},
}
@article{4074,
author = {Clarkson, Kenneth L and Herbert Edelsbrunner and Guibas, Leonidas J and Sharir, Micha and Welzl, Emo},
journal = {Discrete & Computational Geometry},
number = {1},
pages = {99 -- 160},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Combinatorial complexity bounds for arrangements of curves and spheres}},
doi = {10.1007/BF02187783},
volume = {5},
year = {1990},
}
@article{4075,
abstract = {A key problem in computational geometry is the identification of subsets of a point set having particular properties. We study this problem for the properties of convexity and emptiness. We show that finding empty triangles is related to the problem of determining pairs of vertices that see each other in a star-shaped polygon. A linear-time algorithm for this problem which is of independent interest yields an optimal algorithm for finding all empty triangles. This result is then extended to an algorithm for finding empty convex r-gons (r> 3) and for determining a largest empty convex subset. Finally, extensions to higher dimensions are mentioned.},
author = {Dobkin, David P and Herbert Edelsbrunner and Overmars, Mark H},
journal = {Algorithmica},
number = {4},
pages = {561 -- 571},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Searching for empty convex polygons}},
doi = {10.1007/BF01840404},
volume = {5},
year = {1990},
}
@inproceedings{4076,
abstract = {We present an algorithm to compute a Euclidean minimum spanning tree of a given set S of n points in Ed in time O(Td(N, N) logd N), where Td(n, m) is the time required to compute a bichromatic closest pair among n red and m blue points in Ed. If Td(N, N) = Ω(N1+ε), for some fixed ε > 0, then the running time improves to O(Td(N, N)). Furthermore, we describe a randomized algorithm to compute a bichromatic closets pair in expected time O((nm log n log m)2/3+m log2 n + n log2 m) in E3, which yields an O(N4/3log4/3 N) expected time algorithm for computing a Euclidean minimum spanning tree of N points in E3.},
author = {Agarwal, Pankaj K and Herbert Edelsbrunner and Schwarzkopf, Otfried and Welzl, Emo},
pages = {203 -- 210},
publisher = {ACM},
title = {{ Euclidean minimum spanning trees and bichromatic closest pairs}},
doi = {10.1145/98524.98567},
year = {1990},
}
@inproceedings{4077,
abstract = {We prove that for any set S of n points in the plane and n3-α triangles spanned by the points of S there exists a point (not necessarily of S) contained in at least n3-3α/(512 log25 n) of the triangles. This implies that any set of n points in three - dimensional space defines at most 6.4n8/3 log5/3 n halving planes.},
author = {Aronov, Boris and Chazelle, Bernard and Herbert Edelsbrunner and Guibas, Leonidas J and Sharir, Micha and Wenger, Rephael},
pages = {112 -- 115},
publisher = {ACM},
title = {{Points and triangles in the plane and halving planes in space}},
doi = {10.1145/98524.98548},
year = {1990},
}
@inproceedings{4078,
abstract = {In this paper we derived combinatorial point selection results for geometric objects defined by pairs of points. In a nutshell, the results say that if many pairs of a set of n points in some fixed dimension each define a geometric object of some type, then there is a point covered by many of these objects. Based on such a result for three-dimensional spheres we show that the combinatorial size of the Delaunay triangulation of a point set in space can be reduced by adding new points. We believe that from a practical point of view this is the most important result of this paper.},
author = {Chazelle, Bernard and Herbert Edelsbrunner and Guibas, Leonidas J and Hershberger, John E and Seidel, Raimund and Sharir, Micha},
pages = {116 -- 127},
publisher = {ACM},
title = {{Slimming down by adding; selecting heavily covered points}},
doi = {10.1145/98524.98551},
year = {1990},
}
@misc{4310,
author = {Nicholas Barton and Jones, Steve},
booktitle = {Nature},
pages = {415 -- 416},
publisher = {Nature Publishing Group},
title = {{The language of the genes}},
doi = {10.1038/346415a0},
volume = {346},
year = {1990},
}
@inbook{4311,
author = {Nicholas Barton and Clark,A.},
booktitle = {Population biology: ecological and evolutionary viewpoints},
editor = {Wöhrmann, Klaus and Jain, Subodh K},
pages = {115 -- 174},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Population structure}},
year = {1990},
}
@inproceedings{4510,
abstract = {The interleaving model is both adequate and sufficiently abstract to allow for the practical specification and verification of many properties of concurrent systems. We incorporate real time into this model by defining the abstract notion of a real-time transition system as a conservative extension of traditional transition systems: qualitative fairness requirements are replaced (and superseded) by quantitative lower-bound and upper-bound real-time requirements for transitions.
We present proof rules to establish lower and upper real-time bounds for response properties of real-time transition systems. This proof system can be used to verify bounded-invariance and bounded-response properties, such as timely termination of shared-variables multi-process systems, whose semantics is defined in terms of real-time transition systems.},
author = {Thomas Henzinger and Manna, Zohar and Pnueli,Amir},
pages = {717 -- 730},
publisher = {IEEE},
title = {{An interleaving model for real time}},
year = {1990},
}
@inproceedings{4522,
author = {Thomas Henzinger},
pages = {281 -- 296},
publisher = {ACM},
title = {{Half-order modal logic: How to prove real-time properties}},
doi = {10.1145/93385.93429},
year = {1990},
}
@inproceedings{4597,
abstract = {A unifying framework for the study of real-time logics is developed. In analogy to the untimed case, the underlying classical theory of timed state sequences is identified, it is shown to be nonelementarily decidable, and its complexity and expressiveness are used as a point of reference. Two orthogonal extensions of PTL (timed propositional temporal logic and metric temporal logic) that inherit its appeal are defined: they capture elementary, yet expressively complete, fragments of the theory of timed state sequences, and thus are excellent candidates for practical real-time specification languages},
author = {Alur, Rajeev and Thomas Henzinger},
pages = {390 -- 401},
publisher = {IEEE},
title = {{Real-time logics: Complexity and expressiveness}},
doi = {10.1109/LICS.1990.113764},
year = {1990},
}
@article{3467,
abstract = {The effects of mast cell degranulating peptide (MCDP), a toxin from the honey bee, and of dendrotoxin (DTX), a toxin from the green mamba snake, were studied in voltage-clamped experiments with myelinated nerve fibres of Xenopus. MCDP and DTX blocked part of the K+ current. About 20% of the K+ current, however, was resistant to the toxins even in high concentrations. In Ringer solution half-maximal block was reached with concentrations of 33 nM MCDP and 11 nM DTX. In high-K+ solution the potency of both toxins was lower. β-Bungarotoxin (β-BuTX), another snake toxin, also blocked part of the K+ current, but was less potent than MCDP and DTX. Tail currents in high-K+ solution were analysed and three K+ current components were separated according to Dubois (1981b). Both MCDP and DTX selectively blocked a fast deactivating, slowly inactivating K+ current component which steeply activates between E = -60 mV and E = -40 mV (component f1). In concentrations around 100 nM, MCDP and DTX blocked neither the slow K+ current (component s) nor the fast deactivating, rapidly inactivating K+ current which activates between E = -40 mV and E = 20 mV (component f2). Similar results could be derived from K+ outward currents in Ringer solution. In high-K+, IC50 of MCDP for component f1 was 99 nM, whereas it was 7.6 μM for f2. Corresponding values for DTX are 68 nM and 1.8 μM. Binding studies with nerve fibre membranes of Xenopus reveal high-affinity binding sites for 125I-labelled DTX )K(D) = 22 pM in Ringer solution and 81 pM in high-K+ solution). 125I-labelled DTX can be displaced from its sites completely by unlabelled DTX, toxin I (black mamba toxin), MCDP, and partially by β-BuTX. Immunocytochemical staining demonstrates that binding sites for DTX are present in nodal and paranodal regions of the axonal membrane. The axonal membrane of motor and sensory nerve fibres is equipped with three types of well-characterized K+ channels and constitutes so far the best preparation to study MCDP- and DTX-sensitive K+ channels with electrophysiological and biochemical methods.},
author = {Bräu, Michael E and Dreyer, Florian W and Peter Jonas and Repp, Holger and Vogel, Werner},
journal = {Journal of Physiology},
pages = {365 -- 385},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{A K+ channel in Xenopus nerve fibres selectively blocked by bee and snake toxins: binding and voltage-clamp experiments}},
doi = {10.1113/jphysiol.1990.sp017918},
volume = {420},
year = {1990},
}
@inbook{3565,
author = {Dobkin, David P and Herbert Edelsbrunner and Yap, Chee K},
booktitle = {Autonomous Robot Vehicles},
editor = {Cox, Ingemar J and Wilfong, Gordon T},
pages = {328 -- 341},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Probing convex polytopes}},
doi = {10.1007/978-1-4613-8997-2_25},
year = {1990},
}
@article{3649,
abstract = {Selection on polygenic characters is generally analyzed by statistical methods that assume a Gaussian (normal) distribution of breeding values. We present an alternative analysis based on multilocus population genetics. We use a general representation of selection, recombination, and drift to analyze an idealized polygenic system in which all genetic effects are additive (i.e., both dominance and epistasis are absent), but no assumptions are made about the distribution of breeding values or the numbers of loci or alleles. Our analysis produces three results. First, our equations reproduce the standard recursions for the mean and additive variance if breeding values are Gaussian; but they also reveal how non-Gaussian distributions of breeding values will alter these dynamics. Second, an approximation valid for weak selection shows that even if genetic variance is attributable to an effectively infinite number of loci with only additive effects, selection will generally drive the distribution of breeding values away from a Gaussian distribution by creating multilocus linkage disequilibria. Long-term dynamics of means can depart substantially from the predictions of the standard selection recursions, but the discrepancy may often be negligible for short-term selection. Third, by including mutation, we show that, for realistic parameter values, linkage disequilibrium has little effect on the amount of additive variance maintained at an equilibrium between stabilizing selection and mutation. Each of these analytical results is supported by numerical calculations.},
author = {Turelli, Michael and Nicholas Barton},
journal = {Theoretical Population Biology},
number = {1},
pages = {1 -- 57},
publisher = {Academic Press},
title = {{Dynamics of polygenic characters under selection}},
doi = {10.1016/0040-5809(90)90002-D},
volume = {38},
year = {1990},
}
@article{3650,
abstract = {Hybrid zones can yield estimates of natural selection and gene flow. The width of a cline in gene frequency is approximately proportional to gene flow (σ) divided by the square root of per-locus selection ( &s). Gene flow also causes gametic correlations (linkage disequilibria) between genes that differ across hybrid zones. Correlations are stronger when the hybrid zone is narrow, and rise to a maximum roughly equal to s. Thus cline width and gametic correlations combine to give estimates of gene flow and selection. These indirect measures of σ and s are especially useful because they can be made from collections, and require no field experiments. The method was applied to hybrid zones between color pattern races in a pair of Peruvian Heliconius butterfly species. The species are Mullerian mimics of one another, and both show the same changes in warning color pattern across their respective hybrid zones. The expectations of cline width and gametic correlation were generated using simulations of clines stabilized by strong frequency-dependent selection. In the hybrid zone in Heliconius erato, clines at three major color pattern loci were between 8.5 and 10.2 km wide, and the pairwise gametic correlations peaked at R & 0.35. These measures suggest that s & 0.23 per locus, and that σ & 2.6 km. In erato, the shapes of the clines agreed with that expected on the basis of dominance. Heliconius melpomene has a nearly coincident hybrid zone. In this species, cline widths at four major color pattern loci varied between 11.7 and 13.4 km. Pairwise gametic correlations peaked near R & 1.00 for tightly linked genes, and at R & 0.40 for unlinked genes, giving s & 0.25 per locus and σ & 3.7 km. In melpomene, cline shapes did not perfectly fit theoretical shapes based on dominance; this deviation might be explained by long-distance migration and/or strong epistasis. Compared with erato, sample sizes in melpomene are lower and the genetics of its color patterns are less well understood. In spite of these problems, selection and gene flow are clearly of the same order of magnitude in the two species. The relatively high per locus selection coefficients agree with ``major gene'' theories for the evolution of Mullerian mimicry, but the genetic architecture of the color patterns does not. These results show that the genetics and evolution of mimicry are still only sketchily understood.},
author = {Mallet, James L and Nicholas Barton and Lamas,Gerado M and Santisteban, José C and Muedas, Manuel M and Eeley, Harriet},
journal = {Genetics},
number = {4},
pages = {921 -- 936},
publisher = {Genetics Society of America},
title = {{Estimates of selection and gene flow from measures of cline width and linkage disequilibrium in Heliconius hybrid zones}},
volume = {124},
year = {1990},
}
@article{3651,
abstract = {It is widely held that each gene typically affects many characters, and that each character is affected by many genes. Moreover, strong stabilizing selection cannot act on an indefinitely large number of independent traits. This makes it likely that heritable variation in any one trait is maintained as a side effect of polymorphisms which have nothing to do with selection on that trait. This paper examines the idea that variation is maintained as the pleiotropic side effect of either deleterious mutation, or balancing selection. If mutation is responsible, it must produce alleles which are only mildly deleterious (s & 10(-3)), but nevertheless have significant effects on the trait. Balancing selection can readily maintain high heritabilities; however, selection must be spread over many weakly selected polymorphisms if large responses to artificial selection are to be possible. In both classes of pleiotropic model, extreme phenotypes are less fit, giving the appearance of stabilizing selection on the trait. However, it is shown that this effect is weak (of the same order as the selection on each gene): the strong stabilizing selection which is often observed is likely to be caused by correlations with a limited number of directly selected traits. Possible experiments for distinguishing the alternatives are discussed.},
author = {Nicholas Barton},
journal = {Genetics},
number = {3},
pages = {773 -- 782},
publisher = {Genetics Society of America},
title = {{Pleiotropic models of quantitative variation}},
volume = {124},
year = {1990},
}
@article{2479,
abstract = {Distribution of putative glutamatergic neurons in the lower brainstem and cerebellum of the rat was examined immunocytochemically by using a monoclonal antibody against phosphate-activated glutaminase, which has been proposed to be a major synthetic enzyme of transmitter glutamate and so may serve as a marker for glutamatergic neurons in the central nervous system. Intensely-immunolabeled neuronal cell bodies were densely distributed in the main precerebellar nuclei sending mossy fibers to the cerebellum; in the pontine nuclei, pontine tegmental reticular nucleus of Bechterew, external cuneate nucleus, and lateral reticular nucleus of the medulla oblongata. Phosphate-activated glutaminase-immunoreactive granular deposits were densely seen in the brachium pontis and restiform body, suggesting the immunolabeling of mossy fibers of passage. In the cerebellum, neuropil within the granule cell layer of the cerebellar cortex displayed intense phosphate-activated glutaminase-immunoreactivity, and that within the deep cerebellar nuclei showed moderate immunoreactivity. These results indicate that many mossy fiber terminals originate from phosphate-activated glutaminase-containing neurons and utilize phosphate-activated glutaminase for the synthesis of transmitter glutamate. Intensely-immunostained neuronal cell bodies were further observed in other regions which have been reported to contain neurons sending mossy fibers to the cerebellum; in the dorsal part of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus, dorsomedial part of the oral subnucleus of the spinal trigeminal nucleus, interpolar subnucleus of the spinal trigeminal nucleus, paratrigeminal nucleus, supragenual nucleus, regions dorsal to the abducens nucleus and genu of the facial nerve, superior and medial vestibular nuclei, cell groups f, x and y, hypoglossal prepositus nucleus, intercalated nucleus, nucleus of Roller, reticular regions intercalated between the motor trigeminal and principal sensory trigeminal nuclei, linear nucleus, and gigantocellular and paramedian reticular formation. Neuronal cell bodies with intense phosphate-activated glutaminase-immunoreactivity were also found in other brainstem regions, such as the paracochlear glial substance, posterior ventral cochlear nucleus, and cell group e. Although it is still controversial whether all glutamatergic neurons use phosphate-activated glutaminase in a transmitter-related process and whether phosphate-activated glutaminase is involved in other metabolism-related processes, the neurons showing intense phosphate-activated glutaminase-immuno-reactivity in the present study were suggested to be putative glutamatergic neurons.},
author = {Kaneko, Takeshi and Itoh, Kazuo and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Mizuno, Noboru},
journal = {Neuroscience},
number = {1},
pages = {79 -- 98},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Glutaminase-like immunoreactivity in the lower brainstem and cerebellum of the adult rat}},
doi = {10.1016/0306-4522(89)90109-7},
volume = {32},
year = {1989},
}
@article{2525,
abstract = {This paper describes the amino acid sequence of the rat substance P receptor and its comparison with that of the rat substance K receptor on the basis of molecular cloning and sequence analysis. From a rat brain cDNA library constructed with an RNA expression vector, we identified a cDNA mixture containing a functional substance P receptor cDNA by examining electrophysiologically a receptor expression following injection of the mRNAs synthesized in vitro into Xenopus oocytes. A receptor cDNA clone was then isolated by cross-hybridization with the bovine substance K receptor DNA. The clone was confirmed by selective binding of substance P to the cloned receptor expressed in mammalian COS cells. The deduced amino acid sequence (407 amino acid residues) possesses seven putative membrane spanning domains and shows a sequence similarity to the members of G-protein-coupled receptors. The rat substance P and substance K receptor are very similar in both size and amino acid sequences, particularly in the putative transmembrane similarity is in marked contrast to the sequence divergence in the amino- and carboxyl-terminal regions and the third cytoplasmic loop. The observed sequence similarytity and divergence would thus contribute to the expression of similar but pharmacological regions and the first and second cytoplasmic loops. This distinguishable activities of the two tachykinin receptors.},
author = {Yokota, Yoshifumi and Sasai, Yoshiki and Tanaka, Kohichi and Fujiwara, Tsutomu and Tsuchida, Kunihiro and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Kakizuka, Akira and Ohkubo, Hiroaki and Nakanishi, Shigetada},
journal = {Journal of Biological Chemistry},
number = {30},
pages = {17649 -- 17652},
publisher = {American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology},
title = {{Molecular characterization of a functional cDNA for rat substance P receptor}},
volume = {264},
year = {1989},
}
@article{2526,
abstract = {When WGA-HRP (wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase conjugate) or HRP was injected into the regions around the superior central and/or the dorsal raphe nuclei in the cat, cell bodies of a number of non-pyramidal neurons were labeled in Ammon's horn. Thus the existence of direct projections from non-pyramidal neurons in Ammon's horn to the rostral raphe regions in the brainstem was suggested in the cat.},
author = {Ino, Tadashi and Itoh, Kazuo and Kamiya, Hiroto and Kaneko, Takeshi and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Akiguchi, Ichiro and Mizuno, Noboru},
journal = {Brain Research},
number = {1},
pages = {157 -- 161},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Direct projections from Ammon's horn to the rostral raphe regions in the brainstem of the cat}},
doi = {10.1016/0006-8993(89)91346-2},
volume = {479},
year = {1989},
}
@article{2527,
author = {Akimoto, Masumi and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Kawamura, Makiko and Yamagata, Hideharu and Kurihara, Takeshi and Takata, S and Miwa, Yoko and Akagami, N and Katsu, Kenichi and Yamauchi, D},
journal = {Japanese Journal of Gastroenterology},
number = {11},
publisher = {Japanese Society of Gastroenterology},
title = {{Effect of endothelin on gastric mucosal blood flow in rat}},
doi = {10.11405/nisshoshi1964.86.2627},
volume = {86},
year = {1989},
}