@inproceedings{10049,
abstract = {While messaging systems with strong security guarantees are widely used in practice, designing a protocol that scales efficiently to large groups and enjoys similar security guarantees remains largely open. The two existing proposals to date are ART (Cohn-Gordon et al., CCS18) and TreeKEM (IETF, The Messaging Layer Security Protocol, draft). TreeKEM is the currently considered candidate by the IETF MLS working group, but dynamic group operations (i.e. adding and removing users) can cause efficiency issues. In this paper we formalize and analyze a variant of TreeKEM which we term Tainted TreeKEM (TTKEM for short). The basic idea underlying TTKEM was suggested by Millican (MLS mailing list, February 2018). This version is more efficient than TreeKEM for some natural distributions of group operations, we quantify this through simulations.Our second contribution is two security proofs for TTKEM which establish post compromise and forward secrecy even against adaptive attackers. The security loss (to the underlying PKE) in the Random Oracle Model is a polynomial factor, and a quasipolynomial one in the Standard Model. Our proofs can be adapted to TreeKEM as well. Before our work no security proof for any TreeKEM-like protocol establishing tight security against an adversary who can adaptively choose the sequence of operations was known. We also are the first to prove (or even formalize) active security where the server can arbitrarily deviate from the protocol specification. Proving fully active security – where also the users can arbitrarily deviate – remains open.},
author = {Klein, Karen and Pascual Perez, Guillermo and Walter, Michael and Kamath Hosdurg, Chethan and Capretto, Margarita and Cueto Noval, Miguel and Markov, Ilia and Yeo, Michelle X and Alwen, Joel F and Pietrzak, Krzysztof Z},
booktitle = {2021 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy },
location = {San Francisco, CA, United States},
pages = {268--284},
publisher = {IEEE},
title = {{Keep the dirt: tainted TreeKEM, adaptively and actively secure continuous group key agreement}},
doi = {10.1109/sp40001.2021.00035},
year = {2021},
}
@inproceedings{10048,
abstract = {The security of cryptographic primitives and protocols against adversaries that are allowed to make adaptive choices (e.g., which parties to corrupt or which queries to make) is notoriously difficult to establish. A broad theoretical
framework was introduced by Jafargholi et al. [Crypto’17] for this purpose. In this paper we initiate the study of lower bounds on loss in adaptive security for certain cryptographic protocols considered in the framework. We prove lower
bounds that almost match the upper bounds (proven using the framework) for proxy re-encryption, prefix-constrained PRFs and generalized selective decryption, a security game that captures the security of certain group messaging and
broadcast encryption schemes. Those primitives have in common that their security game involves an underlying graph that can be adaptively built by the adversary. Some of our lower bounds only apply to a restricted class of black-box reductions which we term “oblivious” (the existing upper bounds are of this restricted type), some apply to the broader but still restricted class of non-rewinding reductions, while our lower bound for proxy re-encryption applies to all black-box reductions. The fact that some of our lower bounds seem to crucially rely on obliviousness or at least a non-rewinding reduction hints to the exciting possibility that the existing upper bounds can be improved by using more sophisticated reductions. Our main conceptual contribution is a two-player multi-stage game called the Builder-Pebbler Game. We can translate bounds on the winning probabilities for various instantiations of this game into cryptographic lower bounds for the above-mentioned primitives using oracle separation techniques.
},
author = {Kamath Hosdurg, Chethan and Klein, Karen and Pietrzak, Krzysztof Z and Walter, Michael},
booktitle = {19th Theory of Cryptography Conference 2021},
location = {Raleigh, NC, United States},
publisher = {International Association for Cryptologic Research},
title = {{The cost of adaptivity in security games on graphs}},
year = {2021},
}
@inproceedings{10044,
abstract = {We show that Yao’s garbling scheme is adaptively indistinguishable for the class of Boolean circuits of size S and treewidth w with only a S^O(w) loss in security. For instance, circuits with constant treewidth are as a result adaptively indistinguishable with only a polynomial loss. This (partially) complements a negative result of Applebaum et al. (Crypto 2013), which showed (assuming one-way functions) that Yao’s garbling scheme cannot be adaptively simulatable. As main technical contributions, we introduce a new pebble game that abstracts out our security reduction and then present a pebbling strategy for this game where the number of pebbles used is roughly O(d w log(S)), d being the fan-out of the circuit. The design of the strategy relies on separators, a graph-theoretic notion with connections to circuit complexity.},
author = {Kamath Hosdurg, Chethan and Klein, Karen and Pietrzak, Krzysztof Z},
booktitle = {19th Theory of Cryptography Conference 2021},
location = {Raleigh, NC, United States},
publisher = {International Association for Cryptologic Research},
title = {{On treewidth, separators and Yao's garbling}},
year = {2021},
}
@article{7956,
abstract = {When short-range attractions are combined with long-range repulsions in colloidal particle systems, complex microphases can emerge. Here, we study a system of isotropic particles, which can form lamellar structures or a disordered fluid phase when temperature is varied. We show that, at equilibrium, the lamellar structure crystallizes, while out of equilibrium, the system forms a variety of structures at different shear rates and temperatures above melting. The shear-induced ordering is analyzed by means of principal component analysis and artificial neural networks, which are applied to data of reduced dimensionality. Our results reveal the possibility of inducing ordering by shear, potentially providing a feasible route to the fabrication of ordered lamellar structures from isotropic particles.},
author = {Pȩkalski, J. and Rzadkowski, Wojciech and Panagiotopoulos, A. Z.},
issn = {10897690},
journal = {The Journal of chemical physics},
number = {20},
publisher = {AIP},
title = {{Shear-induced ordering in systems with competing interactions: A machine learning study}},
doi = {10.1063/5.0005194},
volume = {152},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7957,
abstract = {Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are a class of disorders affecting brain development and function and are characterized by wide genetic and clinical variability. In this review, we discuss the multiple factors that influence the clinical presentation of NDDs, with particular attention to gene vulnerability, mutational load, and the two-hit model. Despite the complex architecture of
mutational events associated with NDDs, the various proteins involved appear to converge on common pathways, such as synaptic plasticity/function, chromatin remodelers and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms behind these pathways will hopefully lead to the identification of candidates that could be targeted for treatment approaches.},
author = {Parenti, Ilaria and Garcia Rabaneda, Luis E and Schön, Hanna and Novarino, Gaia},
issn = {1878108X},
journal = {Trends in Neurosciences},
number = {8},
pages = {608--621},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Neurodevelopmental disorders: From genetics to functional pathways}},
doi = {10.1016/j.tins.2020.05.004},
volume = {43},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7960,
abstract = {Let A={A1,…,An} be a family of sets in the plane. For 0≤i2b be integers. We prove that if each k-wise or (k+1)-wise intersection of sets from A has at most b path-connected components, which all are open, then fk+1=0 implies fk≤cfk−1 for some positive constant c depending only on b and k. These results also extend to two-dimensional compact surfaces.},
author = {Kalai, Gil and Patakova, Zuzana},
issn = {14320444},
journal = {Discrete and Computational Geometry},
pages = {304--323},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{Intersection patterns of planar sets}},
doi = {10.1007/s00454-020-00205-z},
volume = {64},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7962,
abstract = {A string graph is the intersection graph of a family of continuous arcs in the plane. The intersection graph of a family of plane convex sets is a string graph, but not all string graphs can be obtained in this way. We prove the following structure theorem conjectured by Janson and Uzzell: The vertex set of almost all string graphs on n vertices can be partitioned into five cliques such that some pair of them is not connected by any edge (n→∞). We also show that every graph with the above property is an intersection graph of plane convex sets. As a corollary, we obtain that almost all string graphs on n vertices are intersection graphs of plane convex sets.},
author = {Pach, János and Reed, Bruce and Yuditsky, Yelena},
issn = {14320444},
journal = {Discrete and Computational Geometry},
number = {4},
pages = {888--917},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{Almost all string graphs are intersection graphs of plane convex sets}},
doi = {10.1007/s00454-020-00213-z},
volume = {63},
year = {2020},
}
@inproceedings{7966,
abstract = {For 1≤m≤n, we consider a natural m-out-of-n multi-instance scenario for a public-key encryption (PKE) scheme. An adversary, given n independent instances of PKE, wins if he breaks at least m out of the n instances. In this work, we are interested in the scaling factor of PKE schemes, SF, which measures how well the difficulty of breaking m out of the n instances scales in m. That is, a scaling factor SF=ℓ indicates that breaking m out of n instances is at least ℓ times more difficult than breaking one single instance. A PKE scheme with small scaling factor hence provides an ideal target for mass surveillance. In fact, the Logjam attack (CCS 2015) implicitly exploited, among other things, an almost constant scaling factor of ElGamal over finite fields (with shared group parameters).
For Hashed ElGamal over elliptic curves, we use the generic group model to argue that the scaling factor depends on the scheme's granularity. In low granularity, meaning each public key contains its independent group parameter, the scheme has optimal scaling factor SF=m; In medium and high granularity, meaning all public keys share the same group parameter, the scheme still has a reasonable scaling factor SF=√m. Our findings underline that instantiating ElGamal over elliptic curves should be preferred to finite fields in a multi-instance scenario.
As our main technical contribution, we derive new generic-group lower bounds of Ω(√(mp)) on the difficulty of solving both the m-out-of-n Gap Discrete Logarithm and the m-out-of-n Gap Computational Diffie-Hellman problem over groups of prime order p, extending a recent result by Yun (EUROCRYPT 2015). We establish the lower bound by studying the hardness of a related computational problem which we call the search-by-hypersurface problem.},
author = {Auerbach, Benedikt and Giacon, Federico and Kiltz, Eike},
booktitle = {Advances in Cryptology – EUROCRYPT 2020},
isbn = {9783030457266},
issn = {0302-9743},
pages = {475--506},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{Everybody’s a target: Scalability in public-key encryption}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-45727-3_16},
volume = {12107},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7968,
abstract = {Organic materials are known to feature long spin-diffusion times, originating in a generally small spin–orbit coupling observed in these systems. From that perspective, chiral molecules acting as efficient spin selectors pose a puzzle that attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Here, we revisit the physical origins of chiral-induced spin selectivity (CISS) and propose a simple analytic minimal model to describe it. The model treats a chiral molecule as an anisotropic wire with molecular dipole moments aligned arbitrarily with respect to the wire’s axes and is therefore quite general. Importantly, it shows that the helical structure of the molecule is not necessary to observe CISS and other chiral nonhelical molecules can also be considered as potential candidates for the CISS effect. We also show that the suggested simple model captures the main characteristics of CISS observed in the experiment, without the need for additional constraints employed in the previous studies. The results pave the way for understanding other related physical phenomena where the CISS effect plays an essential role.},
author = {Ghazaryan, Areg and Paltiel, Yossi and Lemeshko, Mikhail},
issn = {1932-7447},
journal = {The Journal of Physical Chemistry C},
number = {21},
pages = {11716--11721},
publisher = {American Chemical Society},
title = {{Analytic model of chiral-induced spin selectivity}},
doi = {10.1021/acs.jpcc.0c02584},
volume = {124},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7971,
abstract = {Multilayer graphene lattices allow for an additional tunability of the band structure by the strong perpendicular electric field. In particular, the emergence of the new multiple Dirac points in ABA stacked trilayer graphene subject to strong transverse electric fields was proposed theoretically and confirmed experimentally. These new Dirac points dubbed “gullies” emerge from the interplay between strong electric field and trigonal warping. In this work, we first characterize the properties of new emergent Dirac points and show that the electric field can be used to tune the distance between gullies in the momentum space. We demonstrate that the band structure has multiple Lifshitz transitions and higher-order singularity of “monkey saddle” type. Following the characterization of the band structure, we consider the spectrum of Landau levels and structure of their wave functions. In the limit of strong electric fields when gullies are well separated in momentum space, they give rise to triply degenerate Landau levels. In the second part of this work, we investigate how degeneracy between three gully Landau levels is lifted in the presence of interactions. Within the Hartree-Fock approximation we show that the symmetry breaking state interpolates between the fully gully polarized state that breaks C3 symmetry at high displacement field and the gully symmetric state when the electric field is decreased. The discontinuous transition between these two states is driven by enhanced intergully tunneling and exchange. We conclude by outlining specific experimental predictions for the existence of such a symmetry-breaking state.},
author = {Rao, Peng and Serbyn, Maksym},
issn = {2469-9950},
journal = {Physical Review B},
number = {24},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {{Gully quantum Hall ferromagnetism in biased trilayer graphene}},
doi = {10.1103/physrevb.101.245411},
volume = {101},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7985,
abstract = {The goal of limiting global warming to 1.5 °C requires a drastic reduction in CO2 emissions across many sectors of the world economy. Batteries are vital to this endeavor, whether used in electric vehicles, to store renewable electricity, or in aviation. Present lithium-ion technologies are preparing the public for this inevitable change, but their maximum theoretical specific capacity presents a limitation. Their high cost is another concern for commercial viability. Metal–air batteries have the highest theoretical energy density of all possible secondary battery technologies and could yield step changes in energy storage, if their practical difficulties could be overcome. The scope of this review is to provide an objective, comprehensive, and authoritative assessment of the intensive work invested in nonaqueous rechargeable metal–air batteries over the past few years, which identified the key problems and guides directions to solve them. We focus primarily on the challenges and outlook for Li–O2 cells but include Na–O2, K–O2, and Mg–O2 cells for comparison. Our review highlights the interdisciplinary nature of this field that involves a combination of materials chemistry, electrochemistry, computation, microscopy, spectroscopy, and surface science. The mechanisms of O2 reduction and evolution are considered in the light of recent findings, along with developments in positive and negative electrodes, electrolytes, electrocatalysis on surfaces and in solution, and the degradative effect of singlet oxygen, which is typically formed in Li–O2 cells.},
author = {Kwak, WJ and Sharon, D and Xia, C and Kim, H and Johnson, LR and Bruce, PG and Nazar, LF and Sun, YK and Frimer, AA and Noked, M and Freunberger, Stefan Alexander and Aurbach, D},
issn = {0009-2665},
journal = {Chemical Reviews},
number = {14},
pages = {6626--6683},
publisher = {American Chemical Society},
title = {{Lithium-oxygen batteries and related systems: Potential, status, and future}},
doi = {10.1021/acs.chemrev.9b00609},
volume = {120},
year = {2020},
}
@inproceedings{7989,
abstract = {We prove general topological Radon-type theorems for sets in ℝ^d, smooth real manifolds or finite dimensional simplicial complexes. Combined with a recent result of Holmsen and Lee, it gives fractional Helly theorem, and consequently the existence of weak ε-nets as well as a (p,q)-theorem. More precisely: Let X be either ℝ^d, smooth real d-manifold, or a finite d-dimensional simplicial complex. Then if F is a finite, intersection-closed family of sets in X such that the ith reduced Betti number (with ℤ₂ coefficients) of any set in F is at most b for every non-negative integer i less or equal to k, then the Radon number of F is bounded in terms of b and X. Here k is the smallest integer larger or equal to d/2 - 1 if X = ℝ^d; k=d-1 if X is a smooth real d-manifold and not a surface, k=0 if X is a surface and k=d if X is a d-dimensional simplicial complex. Using the recent result of the author and Kalai, we manage to prove the following optimal bound on fractional Helly number for families of open sets in a surface: Let F be a finite family of open sets in a surface S such that the intersection of any subfamily of F is either empty, or path-connected. Then the fractional Helly number of F is at most three. This also settles a conjecture of Holmsen, Kim, and Lee about an existence of a (p,q)-theorem for open subsets of a surface.},
author = {Patakova, Zuzana},
booktitle = {36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry},
isbn = {9783959771436},
issn = {18688969},
location = {Zürich, Switzerland},
publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik},
title = {{Bounding radon number via Betti numbers}},
doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.61},
volume = {164},
year = {2020},
}
@inproceedings{7990,
abstract = {Given a finite point set P in general position in the plane, a full triangulation is a maximal straight-line embedded plane graph on P. A partial triangulation on P is a full triangulation of some subset P' of P containing all extreme points in P. A bistellar flip on a partial triangulation either flips an edge, removes a non-extreme point of degree 3, or adds a point in P ⧵ P' as vertex of degree 3. The bistellar flip graph has all partial triangulations as vertices, and a pair of partial triangulations is adjacent if they can be obtained from one another by a bistellar flip. The goal of this paper is to investigate the structure of this graph, with emphasis on its connectivity. For sets P of n points in general position, we show that the bistellar flip graph is (n-3)-connected, thereby answering, for sets in general position, an open questions raised in a book (by De Loera, Rambau, and Santos) and a survey (by Lee and Santos) on triangulations. This matches the situation for the subfamily of regular triangulations (i.e., partial triangulations obtained by lifting the points and projecting the lower convex hull), where (n-3)-connectivity has been known since the late 1980s through the secondary polytope (Gelfand, Kapranov, Zelevinsky) and Balinski’s Theorem. Our methods also yield the following results (see the full version [Wagner and Welzl, 2020]): (i) The bistellar flip graph can be covered by graphs of polytopes of dimension n-3 (products of secondary polytopes). (ii) A partial triangulation is regular, if it has distance n-3 in the Hasse diagram of the partial order of partial subdivisions from the trivial subdivision. (iii) All partial triangulations are regular iff the trivial subdivision has height n-3 in the partial order of partial subdivisions. (iv) There are arbitrarily large sets P with non-regular partial triangulations, while every proper subset has only regular triangulations, i.e., there are no small certificates for the existence of non-regular partial triangulations (answering a question by F. Santos in the unexpected direction).},
author = {Wagner, Uli and Welzl, Emo},
booktitle = {36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry},
isbn = {9783959771436},
issn = {18688969},
location = {Zürich, Switzerland},
publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik},
title = {{Connectivity of triangulation flip graphs in the plane (Part II: Bistellar flips)}},
doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.67},
volume = {164},
year = {2020},
}
@inproceedings{7991,
abstract = {We define and study a discrete process that generalizes the convex-layer decomposition of a planar point set. Our process, which we call homotopic curve shortening (HCS), starts with a closed curve (which might self-intersect) in the presence of a set P⊂ ℝ² of point obstacles, and evolves in discrete steps, where each step consists of (1) taking shortcuts around the obstacles, and (2) reducing the curve to its shortest homotopic equivalent. We find experimentally that, if the initial curve is held fixed and P is chosen to be either a very fine regular grid or a uniformly random point set, then HCS behaves at the limit like the affine curve-shortening flow (ACSF). This connection between HCS and ACSF generalizes the link between "grid peeling" and the ACSF observed by Eppstein et al. (2017), which applied only to convex curves, and which was studied only for regular grids. We prove that HCS satisfies some properties analogous to those of ACSF: HCS is invariant under affine transformations, preserves convexity, and does not increase the total absolute curvature. Furthermore, the number of self-intersections of a curve, or intersections between two curves (appropriately defined), does not increase. Finally, if the initial curve is simple, then the number of inflection points (appropriately defined) does not increase.},
author = {Avvakumov, Sergey and Nivasch, Gabriel},
booktitle = {36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry},
isbn = {9783959771436},
issn = {18688969},
location = {Zürich, Switzerland},
publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik},
title = {{Homotopic curve shortening and the affine curve-shortening flow}},
doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.12},
volume = {164},
year = {2020},
}
@inproceedings{7992,
abstract = {Let K be a convex body in ℝⁿ (i.e., a compact convex set with nonempty interior). Given a point p in the interior of K, a hyperplane h passing through p is called barycentric if p is the barycenter of K ∩ h. In 1961, Grünbaum raised the question whether, for every K, there exists an interior point p through which there are at least n+1 distinct barycentric hyperplanes. Two years later, this was seemingly resolved affirmatively by showing that this is the case if p=p₀ is the point of maximal depth in K. However, while working on a related question, we noticed that one of the auxiliary claims in the proof is incorrect. Here, we provide a counterexample; this re-opens Grünbaum’s question. It follows from known results that for n ≥ 2, there are always at least three distinct barycentric cuts through the point p₀ ∈ K of maximal depth. Using tools related to Morse theory we are able to improve this bound: four distinct barycentric cuts through p₀ are guaranteed if n ≥ 3.},
author = {Patakova, Zuzana and Tancer, Martin and Wagner, Uli},
booktitle = {36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry},
isbn = {9783959771436},
issn = {18688969},
location = {Zürich, Switzerland},
publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik},
title = {{Barycentric cuts through a convex body}},
doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.62},
volume = {164},
year = {2020},
}
@inproceedings{7994,
abstract = {In the recent study of crossing numbers, drawings of graphs that can be extended to an arrangement of pseudolines (pseudolinear drawings) have played an important role as they are a natural combinatorial extension of rectilinear (or straight-line) drawings. A characterization of the pseudolinear drawings of K_n was found recently. We extend this characterization to all graphs, by describing the set of minimal forbidden subdrawings for pseudolinear drawings. Our characterization also leads to a polynomial-time algorithm to recognize pseudolinear drawings and construct the pseudolines when it is possible.},
author = {Arroyo Guevara, Alan M and Bensmail, Julien and Bruce Richter, R.},
booktitle = {36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry},
isbn = {9783959771436},
issn = {18688969},
location = {Zürich, Switzerland},
publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik},
title = {{Extending drawings of graphs to arrangements of pseudolines}},
doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.9},
volume = {164},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7995,
abstract = {When divergent populations are connected by gene flow, the establishment of complete reproductive isolation usually requires the joint action of multiple barrier effects. One example where multiple barrier effects are coupled consists of a single trait that is under divergent natural selection and also mediates assortative mating. Such multiple‐effect traits can strongly reduce gene flow. However, there are few cases where patterns of assortative mating have been described quantitatively and their impact on gene flow has been determined. Two ecotypes of the coastal marine snail, Littorina saxatilis , occur in North Atlantic rocky‐shore habitats dominated by either crab predation or wave action. There is evidence for divergent natural selection acting on size, and size‐assortative mating has previously been documented. Here, we analyze the mating pattern in L. saxatilis with respect to size in intensively sampled transects across boundaries between the habitats. We show that the mating pattern is mostly conserved between ecotypes and that it generates both assortment and directional sexual selection for small male size. Using simulations, we show that the mating pattern can contribute to reproductive isolation between ecotypes but the barrier to gene flow is likely strengthened more by sexual selection than by assortment.},
author = {Perini, Samuel and Rafajlović, Marina and Westram, Anja M and Johannesson, Kerstin and Butlin, Roger K.},
issn = {15585646},
journal = {Evolution},
number = {7},
pages = {1482--1497},
publisher = {Wiley},
title = {{Assortative mating, sexual selection, and their consequences for gene flow in Littorina}},
doi = {10.1111/evo.14027},
volume = {74},
year = {2020},
}
@phdthesis{7996,
abstract = {Quantum computation enables the execution of algorithms that have exponential complexity. This might open the path towards the synthesis of new materials or medical drugs, optimization of transport or financial strategies etc., intractable on even the fastest classical computers. A quantum computer consists of interconnected two level quantum systems, called qubits, that satisfy DiVincezo’s criteria. Worldwide, there are ongoing efforts to find the qubit architecture which will unite quantum error correction compatible single and two qubit fidelities, long distance qubit to qubit coupling and
calability. Superconducting qubits have gone the furthest in this race, demonstrating an algorithm running on 53 coupled qubits, but still the fidelities are not even close to those required for realizing a single logical qubit. emiconductor qubits offer extremely good characteristics, but they are currently investigated across different platforms. Uniting those good characteristics into a single platform might be a big step towards the quantum computer realization.
Here we describe the implementation of a hole spin qubit hosted in a Ge hut wire double quantum dot. The high and tunable spin-orbit coupling together with a heavy hole state character is expected to allow fast spin manipulation and long coherence times. Furthermore large lever arms, for hut wire devices, should allow good coupling to superconducting resonators enabling efficient long distance spin to spin coupling and a sensitive gate reflectometry spin readout. The developed cryogenic setup (printed circuit board sample holders, filtering, high-frequency wiring) enabled us to perform low temperature spin dynamics experiments. Indeed, we measured the fastest single spin qubit Rabi frequencies reported so far, reaching 140 MHz, while the dephasing times of 130 ns oppose the long decoherence predictions. In order to further investigate this, a double quantum dot gate was connected directly to a lumped element
resonator which enabled gate reflectometry readout. The vanishing inter-dot transition signal, for increasing external magnetic field, revealed the spin nature of the measured quantity.},
author = {Kukucka, Josip},
issn = {2663-337X},
pages = {178},
publisher = {IST Austria},
title = {{Implementation of a hole spin qubit in Ge hut wires and dispersive spin sensing}},
doi = {10.15479/AT:ISTA:7996},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7999,
abstract = {Linking epigenetic marks to clinical outcomes improves insight into molecular processes, disease prediction, and therapeutic target identification. Here, a statistical approach is presented to infer the epigenetic architecture of complex disease, determine the variation captured by epigenetic effects, and estimate phenotype-epigenetic probe associations jointly. Implicitly adjusting for probe correlations, data structure (cell-count or relatedness), and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker effects, improves association estimates and in 9,448 individuals, 75.7% (95% CI 71.70–79.3) of body mass index (BMI) variation and 45.6% (95% CI 37.3–51.9) of cigarette consumption variation was captured by whole blood methylation array data. Pathway-linked probes of blood cholesterol, lipid transport and sterol metabolism for BMI, and xenobiotic stimuli response for smoking, showed >1.5 times larger associations with >95% posterior inclusion probability. Prediction accuracy improved by 28.7% for BMI and 10.2% for smoking over a LASSO model, with age-, and tissue-specificity, implying associations are a phenotypic consequence rather than causal. },
author = {Trejo Banos, D and McCartney, DL and Patxot, M and Anchieri, L and Battram, T and Christiansen, C and Costeira, R and Walker, RM and Morris, SW and Campbell, A and Zhang, Q and Porteous, DJ and McRae, AF and Wray, NR and Visscher, PM and Haley, CS and Evans, KL and Deary, IJ and McIntosh, AM and Hemani, G and Bell, JT and Marioni, RE and Robinson, Matthew Richard},
issn = {2041-1723},
journal = {Nature Communications},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{Bayesian reassessment of the epigenetic architecture of complex traits}},
doi = {10.1038/s41467-020-16520-1},
volume = {11},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8001,
abstract = {Post-tetanic potentiation (PTP) is an attractive candidate mechanism for hippocampus-dependent short-term memory. Although PTP has a uniquely large magnitude at hippocampal mossy fiber-CA3 pyramidal neuron synapses, it is unclear whether it can be induced by natural activity and whether its lifetime is sufficient to support short-term memory. We combined in vivo recordings from granule cells (GCs), in vitro paired recordings from mossy fiber terminals and postsynaptic CA3 neurons, and “flash and freeze” electron microscopy. PTP was induced at single synapses and showed a low induction threshold adapted to sparse GC activity in vivo. PTP was mainly generated by enlargement of the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles, allowing multiplicative interaction with other plasticity forms. PTP was associated with an increase in the docked vesicle pool, suggesting formation of structural “pool engrams.” Absence of presynaptic activity extended the lifetime of the potentiation, enabling prolonged information storage in the hippocampal network.},
author = {Vandael, David H and Borges Merjane, Carolina and Zhang, Xiaomin and Jonas, Peter M},
issn = {10974199},
journal = {Neuron},
number = {3},
pages = {509--521},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Short-term plasticity at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses is induced by natural activity patterns and associated with vesicle pool engram formation}},
doi = {10.1016/j.neuron.2020.05.013},
volume = {107},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8011,
abstract = {Relaxation to a thermal state is the inevitable fate of nonequilibrium interacting quantum systems without special conservation laws. While thermalization in one-dimensional systems can often be suppressed by integrability mechanisms, in two spatial dimensions thermalization is expected to be far more effective due to the increased phase space. In this work we propose a general framework for escaping or delaying the emergence of the thermal state in two-dimensional arrays of Rydberg atoms via the mechanism of quantum scars, i.e., initial states that fail to thermalize. The suppression of thermalization is achieved in two complementary ways: by adding local perturbations or by adjusting the driving Rabi frequency according to the local connectivity of the lattice. We demonstrate that these mechanisms allow us to realize robust quantum scars in various two-dimensional lattices, including decorated lattices with nonconstant connectivity. In particular, we show that a small decrease of the Rabi frequency at the corners of the lattice is crucial for mitigating the strong boundary effects in two-dimensional systems. Our results identify synchronization as an important tool for future experiments on two-dimensional quantum scars.},
author = {Michailidis, Alexios and Turner, C. J. and Papić, Z. and Abanin, D. A. and Serbyn, Maksym},
issn = {2643-1564},
journal = {Physical Review Research},
number = {2},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {{Stabilizing two-dimensional quantum scars by deformation and synchronization}},
doi = {10.1103/physrevresearch.2.022065},
volume = {2},
year = {2020},
}
@inproceedings{8012,
abstract = {Asynchronous programs are notoriously difficult to reason about because they spawn computation tasks which take effect asynchronously in a nondeterministic way. Devising inductive invariants for such programs requires understanding and stating complex relationships between an unbounded number of computation tasks in arbitrarily long executions. In this paper, we introduce inductive sequentialization, a new proof rule that sidesteps this complexity via a sequential reduction, a sequential program that captures every behavior of the original program up to reordering of coarse-grained commutative actions. A sequential reduction of a concurrent program is easy to reason about since it corresponds to a simple execution of the program in an idealized synchronous environment, where processes act in a fixed order and at the same speed. We have implemented and integrated our proof rule in the CIVL verifier, allowing us to provably derive fine-grained implementations of asynchronous programs. We have successfully applied our proof rule to a diverse set of message-passing protocols, including leader election protocols, two-phase commit, and Paxos.},
author = {Kragl, Bernhard and Enea, Constantin and Henzinger, Thomas A and Mutluergil, Suha Orhun and Qadeer, Shaz},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 41st ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation},
isbn = {9781450376136},
location = {London, United Kingdom},
pages = {227--242},
publisher = {Association for Computing Machinery},
title = {{Inductive sequentialization of asynchronous programs}},
doi = {10.1145/3385412.3385980},
year = {2020},
}
@phdthesis{8032,
abstract = {Algorithms in computational 3-manifold topology typically take a triangulation as an input and return topological information about the underlying 3-manifold. However, extracting the desired information from a triangulation (e.g., evaluating an invariant) is often computationally very expensive. In recent years this complexity barrier has been successfully tackled in some cases by importing ideas from the theory of parameterized algorithms into the realm of 3-manifolds. Various computationally hard problems were shown to be efficiently solvable for input triangulations that are sufficiently “tree-like.”
In this thesis we focus on the key combinatorial parameter in the above context: we consider the treewidth of a compact, orientable 3-manifold, i.e., the smallest treewidth of the dual graph of any triangulation thereof. By building on the work of Scharlemann–Thompson and Scharlemann–Schultens–Saito on generalized Heegaard splittings, and on the work of Jaco–Rubinstein on layered triangulations, we establish quantitative relations between the treewidth and classical topological invariants of a 3-manifold. In particular, among other results, we show that the treewidth of a closed, orientable, irreducible, non-Haken 3-manifold is always within a constant factor of its Heegaard genus.},
author = {Huszár, Kristóf},
isbn = {978-3-99078-006-0},
issn = {2663-337X},
pages = {xviii+120},
publisher = {IST Austria},
title = {{Combinatorial width parameters for 3-dimensional manifolds}},
doi = {10.15479/AT:ISTA:8032},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8036,
abstract = {When tiny soft ferromagnetic particles are placed along a liquid interface and exposed to a vertical magnetic field, the balance between capillary attraction and magnetic repulsion leads to self-organization into well-defined patterns. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that precessing magnetic fields induce metachronal waves on the periphery of these assemblies, similar to the ones observed in ciliates and some arthropods. The outermost layer of particles behaves like an array of cilia or legs whose sequential movement causes a net and controllable locomotion. This bioinspired many-particle swimming strategy is effective even at low Reynolds number, using only spatially uniform fields to generate the waves.},
author = {Collard, Ylona and Grosjean, Galien M and Vandewalle, Nicolas},
issn = {23993650},
journal = {Communications Physics},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{Magnetically powered metachronal waves induce locomotion in self-assemblies}},
doi = {10.1038/s42005-020-0380-9},
volume = {3},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8037,
abstract = {Genetic perturbations that affect bacterial resistance to antibiotics have been characterized genome-wide, but how do such perturbations interact with subsequent evolutionary adaptation to the drug? Here, we show that strong epistasis between resistance mutations and systematically identified genes can be exploited to control spontaneous resistance evolution. We evolved hundreds of Escherichia coli K-12 mutant populations in parallel, using a robotic platform that tightly controls population size and selection pressure. We find a global diminishing-returns epistasis pattern: strains that are initially more sensitive generally undergo larger resistance gains. However, some gene deletion strains deviate from this general trend and curtail the evolvability of resistance, including deletions of genes for membrane transport, LPS biosynthesis, and chaperones. Deletions of efflux pump genes force evolution on inferior mutational paths, not explored in the wild type, and some of these essentially block resistance evolution. This effect is due to strong negative epistasis with resistance mutations. The identified genes and cellular functions provide potential targets for development of adjuvants that may block spontaneous resistance evolution when combined with antibiotics.},
author = {Lukacisinova, Marta and Fernando, Booshini and Bollenbach, Mark Tobias},
issn = {20411723},
journal = {Nature Communications},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{Highly parallel lab evolution reveals that epistasis can curb the evolution of antibiotic resistance}},
doi = {10.1038/s41467-020-16932-z},
volume = {11},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8038,
abstract = {Microelectromechanical systems and integrated photonics provide the basis for many reliable and compact circuit elements in modern communication systems. Electro-opto-mechanical devices are currently one of the leading approaches to realize ultra-sensitive, low-loss transducers for an emerging quantum information technology. Here we present an on-chip microwave frequency converter based on a planar aluminum on silicon nitride platform that is compatible with slot-mode coupled photonic crystal cavities. We show efficient frequency conversion between two propagating microwave modes mediated by the radiation pressure interaction with a metalized dielectric nanobeam oscillator. We achieve bidirectional coherent conversion with a total device efficiency of up to ~60%, a dynamic range of 2 × 10^9 photons/s and an instantaneous bandwidth of up to 1.7 kHz. A high fidelity quantum state transfer would be possible if the drive dependent output noise of currently ~14 photons s^−1 Hz^−1 is further reduced. Such a silicon nitride based transducer is in situ reconfigurable and could be used for on-chip classical and quantum signal routing and filtering, both for microwave and hybrid microwave-optical applications.},
author = {Fink, Johannes M and Kalaee, M. and Norte, R. and Pitanti, A. and Painter, O.},
issn = {20589565},
journal = {Quantum Science and Technology},
number = {3},
publisher = {IOP Publishing},
title = {{Efficient microwave frequency conversion mediated by a photonics compatible silicon nitride nanobeam oscillator}},
doi = {10.1088/2058-9565/ab8dce},
volume = {5},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8039,
abstract = {In the present work, we report a solution-based strategy to produce crystallographically textured SnSe bulk nanomaterials and printed layers with optimized thermoelectric performance in the direction normal to the substrate. Our strategy is based on the formulation of a molecular precursor that can be continuously decomposed to produce a SnSe powder or printed into predefined patterns. The precursor formulation and decomposition conditions are optimized to produce pure phase 2D SnSe nanoplates. The printed layer and the bulk material obtained after hot press displays a clear preferential orientation of the crystallographic domains, resulting in an ultralow thermal conductivity of 0.55 W m–1 K–1 in the direction normal to the substrate. Such textured nanomaterials present highly anisotropic properties with the best thermoelectric performance in plane, i.e., in the directions parallel to the substrate, which coincide with the crystallographic bc plane of SnSe. This is an unfortunate characteristic because thermoelectric devices are designed to create/harvest temperature gradients in the direction normal to the substrate. We further demonstrate that this limitation can be overcome with the introduction of small amounts of tellurium in the precursor. The presence of tellurium allows one to reduce the band gap and increase both the charge carrier concentration and the mobility, especially the cross plane, with a minimal decrease of the Seebeck coefficient. These effects translate into record out of plane ZT values at 800 K.},
author = {Zhang, Yu and Liu, Yu and Xing, Congcong and Zhang, Ting and Li, Mengyao and Pacios, Mercè and Yu, Xiaoting and Arbiol, Jordi and Llorca, Jordi and Cadavid, Doris and Ibáñez, Maria and Cabot, Andreu},
issn = {19448252},
journal = {ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces},
number = {24},
pages = {27104--27111},
publisher = {American Chemical Society},
title = {{Tin selenide molecular precursor for the solution processing of thermoelectric materials and devices}},
doi = {10.1021/acsami.0c04331},
volume = {12},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8042,
abstract = {We consider systems of N bosons in a box of volume one, interacting through a repulsive two-body potential of the form κN3β−1V(Nβx). For all 0<β<1, and for sufficiently small coupling constant κ>0, we establish the validity of Bogolyubov theory, identifying the ground state energy and the low-lying excitation spectrum up to errors that vanish in the limit of large N.},
author = {Boccato, Chiara and Brennecke, Christian and Cenatiempo, Serena and Schlein, Benjamin},
issn = {14359855},
journal = {Journal of the European Mathematical Society},
number = {7},
pages = {2331--2403},
publisher = {European Mathematical Society},
title = {{The excitation spectrum of Bose gases interacting through singular potentials}},
doi = {10.4171/JEMS/966},
volume = {22},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8043,
abstract = {With decreasing Reynolds number, Re, turbulence in channel flow becomes spatio-temporally intermittent and self-organises into solitary stripes oblique to the mean flow direction. We report here the existence of localised nonlinear travelling wave solutions of the Navier–Stokes equations possessing this obliqueness property. Such solutions are identified numerically using edge tracking coupled with arclength continuation. All solutions emerge in saddle-node bifurcations at values of Re lower than the non-localised solutions. Relative periodic orbit solutions bifurcating from branches of travelling waves have also been computed. A complete parametric study is performed, including their stability, the investigation of their large-scale flow, and the robustness to changes of the numerical domain.},
author = {Paranjape, Chaitanya S and Duguet, Yohann and Hof, Björn},
issn = {14697645},
journal = {Journal of Fluid Mechanics},
publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
title = {{Oblique stripe solutions of channel flow}},
doi = {10.1017/jfm.2020.322},
volume = {897},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8057,
abstract = {Water-in-salt electrolytes based on highly concentrated bis(trifluoromethyl)sulfonimide (TFSI) promise aqueous electrolytes with stabilities approaching 3 V. However, especially with an electrode approaching the cathodic (reductive) stability, cycling stability is insufficient. While stability critically relies on a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), the mechanism behind the cathodic stability limit remains unclear. Here, we reveal two distinct reduction potentials for the chemical environments of ‘free’ and ‘bound’ water and that both contribute to SEI formation. Free-water is reduced ~1V above bound water in a hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and responsible for SEI formation via reactive intermediates of the HER; concurrent LiTFSI precipitation/dissolution establishes a dynamic interface. The free-water population emerges, therefore, as the handle to extend the cathodic limit of aqueous electrolytes and the battery cycling stability.},
author = {Bouchal, Roza and Li, Zhujie and Bongu, Chandra and Le Vot, Steven and Berthelot, Romain and Rotenberg, Benjamin and Favier, Frederic and Freunberger, Stefan Alexander and Salanne, Mathieu and Fontaine, Olivier},
issn = {0044-8249},
journal = {Angewandte Chemie},
number = {37},
pages = {16047--16051},
publisher = {Wiley},
title = {{Competitive salt precipitation/dissolution during free‐water reduction in water‐in‐salt electrolyte}},
doi = {10.1002/ange.202005378},
volume = {132},
year = {2020},
}
@unpublished{8063,
abstract = {We present a generative model of images that explicitly reasons over the set
of objects they show. Our model learns a structured latent representation that
separates objects from each other and from the background; unlike prior works,
it explicitly represents the 2D position and depth of each object, as well as
an embedding of its segmentation mask and appearance. The model can be trained
from images alone in a purely unsupervised fashion without the need for object
masks or depth information. Moreover, it always generates complete objects,
even though a significant fraction of training images contain occlusions.
Finally, we show that our model can infer decompositions of novel images into
their constituent objects, including accurate prediction of depth ordering and
segmentation of occluded parts.},
author = {Anciukevicius, Titas and Lampert, Christoph and Henderson, Paul M},
booktitle = {arXiv},
title = {{Object-centric image generation with factored depths, locations, and appearances}},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8077,
abstract = {The projection methods with vanilla inertial extrapolation step for variational inequalities have been of interest to many authors recently due to the improved convergence speed contributed by the presence of inertial extrapolation step. However, it is discovered that these projection methods with inertial steps lose the Fejér monotonicity of the iterates with respect to the solution, which is being enjoyed by their corresponding non-inertial projection methods for variational inequalities. This lack of Fejér monotonicity makes projection methods with vanilla inertial extrapolation step for variational inequalities not to converge faster than their corresponding non-inertial projection methods at times. Also, it has recently been proved that the projection methods with vanilla inertial extrapolation step may provide convergence rates that are worse than the classical projected gradient methods for strongly convex functions. In this paper, we introduce projection methods with alternated inertial extrapolation step for solving variational inequalities. We show that the sequence of iterates generated by our methods converges weakly to a solution of the variational inequality under some appropriate conditions. The Fejér monotonicity of even subsequence is recovered in these methods and linear rate of convergence is obtained. The numerical implementations of our methods compared with some other inertial projection methods show that our method is more efficient and outperforms some of these inertial projection methods.},
author = {Shehu, Yekini and Iyiola, Olaniyi S.},
issn = {0168-9274},
journal = {Applied Numerical Mathematics},
pages = {315--337},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Projection methods with alternating inertial steps for variational inequalities: Weak and linear convergence}},
doi = {10.1016/j.apnum.2020.06.009},
volume = {157},
year = {2020},
}
@unpublished{8081,
abstract = {Here, we employ micro- and nanosized cellulose particles, namely paper fines and cellulose
nanocrystals, to induce hierarchical organization over a wide length scale. After processing
them into carbonaceous materials, we demonstrate that these hierarchically organized materials
outperform the best materials for supercapacitors operating with organic electrolytes reported
in literature in terms of specific energy/power (Ragone plot) while showing hardly any capacity
fade over 4,000 cycles. The highly porous materials feature a specific surface area as high as
2500 m2ˑg-1 and exhibit pore sizes in the range of 0.5 to 200 nm as proven by scanning electron
microscopy and N2 physisorption. The carbonaceous materials have been further investigated
by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and RAMAN spectroscopy. Since paper fines are an
underutilized side stream in any paper production process, they are a cheap and highly available
feedstock to prepare carbonaceous materials with outstanding performance in electrochemical
applications. },
author = {Hobisch, Mathias A. and Mourad, Eléonore and Fischer, Wolfgang J. and Prehal, Christian and Eyley, Samuel and Childress, Anthony and Zankel, Armin and Mautner, Andreas and Breitenbach, Stefan and Rao, Apparao M. and Thielemans, Wim and Freunberger, Stefan Alexander and Eckhart, Rene and Bauer, Wolfgang and Spirk, Stefan },
title = {{High specific capacitance supercapacitors from hierarchically organized all-cellulose composites}},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8084,
abstract = {Origin and functions of intermittent transitions among sleep stages, including brief awakenings and arousals, constitute a challenge to the current homeostatic framework for sleep regulation, focusing on factors modulating sleep over large time scales. Here we propose that the complex micro-architecture characterizing sleep on scales of seconds and minutes results from intrinsic non-equilibrium critical dynamics. We investigate θ- and δ-wave dynamics in control rats and in rats where the sleep-promoting ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) is lesioned (male Sprague-Dawley rats). We demonstrate that bursts in θ and δ cortical rhythms exhibit complex temporal organization, with long-range correlations and robust duality of power-law (θ-bursts, active phase) and exponential-like (δ-bursts, quiescent phase) duration distributions, features typical of non-equilibrium systems self-organizing at criticality. We show that such non-equilibrium behavior relates to anti-correlated coupling between θ- and δ-bursts, persists across a range of time scales, and is independent of the dominant physiologic state; indications of a basic principle in sleep regulation. Further, we find that VLPO lesions lead to a modulation of cortical dynamics resulting in altered dynamical parameters of θ- and δ-bursts and significant reduction in θ–δ coupling. Our empirical findings and model simulations demonstrate that θ–δ coupling is essential for the emerging non-equilibrium critical dynamics observed across the sleep–wake cycle, and indicate that VLPO neurons may have dual role for both sleep and arousal/brief wake activation. The uncovered critical behavior in sleep- and wake-related cortical rhythms indicates a mechanism essential for the micro-architecture of spontaneous sleep-stage and arousal transitions within a novel, non-homeostatic paradigm of sleep regulation.},
author = {Lombardi, Fabrizio and Gómez-Extremera, Manuel and Bernaola-Galván, Pedro and Vetrivelan, Ramalingam and Saper, Clifford B. and Scammell, Thomas E. and Ivanov, Plamen Ch.},
issn = {0270-6474},
journal = {Journal of Neuroscience},
number = {1},
pages = {171--190},
publisher = {Society for Neuroscience},
title = {{Critical dynamics and coupling in bursts of cortical rhythms indicate non-homeostatic mechanism for sleep-stage transitions and dual role of VLPO neurons in both sleep and wake}},
doi = {10.1523/jneurosci.1278-19.2019},
volume = {40},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8091,
abstract = {In the setting of the fractional quantum Hall effect we study the effects of strong, repulsive two-body interaction potentials of short range. We prove that Haldane’s pseudo-potential operators, including their pre-factors, emerge as mathematically rigorous limits of such interactions when the range of the potential tends to zero while its strength tends to infinity. In a common approach the interaction potential is expanded in angular momentum eigenstates in the lowest Landau level, which amounts to taking the pre-factors to be the moments of the potential. Such a procedure is not appropriate for very strong interactions, however, in particular not in the case of hard spheres. We derive the formulas valid in the short-range case, which involve the scattering lengths of the interaction potential in different angular momentum channels rather than its moments. Our results hold for bosons and fermions alike and generalize previous results in [6], which apply to bosons in the lowest angular momentum channel. Our main theorem asserts the convergence in a norm-resolvent sense of the Hamiltonian on the whole Hilbert space, after appropriate energy scalings, to Hamiltonians with contact interactions in the lowest Landau level.},
author = {Seiringer, Robert and Yngvason, Jakob},
issn = {15729613},
journal = {Journal of Statistical Physics},
pages = {448--464},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Emergence of Haldane pseudo-potentials in systems with short-range interactions}},
doi = {10.1007/s10955-020-02586-0},
volume = {181},
year = {2020},
}
@inbook{8092,
abstract = {Image translation refers to the task of mapping images from a visual domain to another. Given two unpaired collections of images, we aim to learn a mapping between the corpus-level style of each collection, while preserving semantic content shared across the two domains. We introduce xgan, a dual adversarial auto-encoder, which captures a shared representation of the common domain semantic content in an unsupervised way, while jointly learning the domain-to-domain image translations in both directions. We exploit ideas from the domain adaptation literature and define a semantic consistency loss which encourages the learned embedding to preserve semantics shared across domains. We report promising qualitative results for the task of face-to-cartoon translation. The cartoon dataset we collected for this purpose, “CartoonSet”, is also publicly available as a new benchmark for semantic style transfer at https://google.github.io/cartoonset/index.html.},
author = {Royer, Amélie and Bousmalis, Konstantinos and Gouws, Stephan and Bertsch, Fred and Mosseri, Inbar and Cole, Forrester and Murphy, Kevin},
booktitle = {Domain Adaptation for Visual Understanding},
editor = {Singh, Richa and Vatsa, Mayank and Patel, Vishal M. and Ratha, Nalini},
isbn = {9783030306717},
pages = {33--49},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{XGAN: Unsupervised image-to-image translation for many-to-many mappings}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-30671-7_3},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8093,
author = {Hippe, Andreas and Braun, Stephan Alexander and Oláh, Péter and Gerber, Peter Arne and Schorr, Anne and Seeliger, Stephan and Holtz, Stephanie and Jannasch, Katharina and Pivarcsi, Andor and Buhren, Bettina and Schrumpf, Holger and Kislat, Andreas and Bünemann, Erich and Steinhoff, Martin and Fischer, Jens and Lira, Sérgio A. and Boukamp, Petra and Hevezi, Peter and Stoecklein, Nikolas Hendrik and Hoffmann, Thomas and Alves, Frauke and Sleeman, Jonathan and Bauer, Thomas and Klufa, Jörg and Amberg, Nicole and Sibilia, Maria and Zlotnik, Albert and Müller-Homey, Anja and Homey, Bernhard},
issn = {15321827},
journal = {British Journal of Cancer},
pages = {942--954},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{EGFR/Ras-induced CCL20 production modulates the tumour microenvironment}},
doi = {10.1038/s41416-020-0943-2},
volume = {123},
year = {2020},
}
@misc{8097,
abstract = {Antibiotics that interfere with translation, when combined, interact in diverse and difficult-to-predict ways. Here, we explain these interactions by "translation bottlenecks": points in the translation cycle where antibiotics block ribosomal progression. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms of drug interactions between translation inhibitors, we generate translation bottlenecks genetically using inducible control of translation factors that regulate well-defined translation cycle steps. These perturbations accurately mimic antibiotic action and drug interactions, supporting that the interplay of different translation bottlenecks causes these interactions. We further show that growth laws, combined with drug uptake and binding kinetics, enable the direct prediction of a large fraction of observed interactions, yet fail to predict suppression. However, varying two translation bottlenecks simultaneously supports that dense traffic of ribosomes and competition for translation factors account for the previously unexplained suppression. These results highlight the importance of "continuous epistasis" in bacterial physiology.},
author = {Kavcic, Bor},
keywords = {Escherichia coli, antibiotic combinations, translation, growth laws, drug interactions, bacterial physiology, translation inhibitors},
publisher = {IST Austria},
title = {{Analysis scripts and research data for the paper "Mechanisms of drug interactions between translation-inhibiting antibiotics"}},
doi = {10.15479/AT:ISTA:8097},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8099,
abstract = {Sewall Wright developed FST for describing population differentiation and it has since been extended to many novel applications, including the detection of homomorphic sex chromosomes. However, there has been confusion regarding the expected estimate of FST for a fixed difference between the X‐ and Y‐chromosome when comparing males and females. Here, we attempt to resolve this confusion by contrasting two common FST estimators and explain why they yield different estimates when applied to the case of sex chromosomes. We show that this difference is true for many allele frequencies, but the situation characterized by fixed differences between the X‐ and Y‐chromosome is among the most extreme. To avoid additional confusion, we recommend that all authors using FST clearly state which estimator of FST their work uses.},
author = {Gammerdinger, William J and Toups, Melissa A and Vicoso, Beatriz},
issn = {1755-098X},
journal = {Molecular Ecology Resources},
number = {6},
pages = {1517--1525},
publisher = {Wiley},
title = {{Disagreement in FST estimators: A case study from sex chromosomes}},
doi = {10.1111/1755-0998.13210},
volume = {20},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8101,
abstract = {By rigorously accounting for mesoscale spatial correlations in donor/acceptor surface properties, we develop a scale-spanning model for same-material tribocharging. We find that mesoscale correlations affect not only the magnitude of charge transfer but also the fluctuations—suppressing otherwise overwhelming charge-transfer variability that is not observed experimentally. We furthermore propose a generic theoretical mechanism by which the mesoscale features might emerge, which is qualitatively consistent with other proposals in the literature.},
author = {Grosjean, Galien M and Wald, Sebastian and Sobarzo Ponce, Juan Carlos A and Waitukaitis, Scott R},
journal = {Physical Review Materials},
keywords = {electric charge, tribocharging, soft matter, granular materials, polymers},
number = {8},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {{Quantitatively consistent scale-spanning model for same-material tribocharging}},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.4.082602},
volume = {4},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8105,
abstract = {Physical and biological systems often exhibit intermittent dynamics with bursts or avalanches (active states) characterized by power-law size and duration distributions. These emergent features are typical of systems at the critical point of continuous phase transitions, and have led to the hypothesis that such systems may self-organize at criticality, i.e. without any fine tuning of parameters. Since the introduction of the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) model, the paradigm of self-organized criticality (SOC) has been very fruitful for the analysis of emergent collective behaviors in a number of systems, including the brain. Although considerable effort has been devoted in identifying and modeling scaling features of burst and avalanche statistics, dynamical aspects related to the temporal organization of bursts remain often poorly understood or controversial. Of crucial importance to understand the mechanisms responsible for emergent behaviors is the relationship between active and quiet periods, and the nature of the correlations. Here we investigate the dynamics of active (θ-bursts) and quiet states (δ-bursts) in brain activity during the sleep-wake cycle. We show the duality of power-law (θ, active phase) and exponential-like (δ, quiescent phase) duration distributions, typical of SOC, jointly emerge with power-law temporal correlations and anti-correlated coupling between active and quiet states. Importantly, we demonstrate that such temporal organization shares important similarities with earthquake dynamics, and propose that specific power-law correlations and coupling between active and quiet states are distinctive characteristics of a class of systems with self-organization at criticality.},
author = {Lombardi, Fabrizio and Wang, Jilin W.J.L. and Zhang, Xiyun and Ivanov, Plamen Ch},
issn = {2100-014X},
journal = {EPJ Web of Conferences},
publisher = {EDP Sciences},
title = {{Power-law correlations and coupling of active and quiet states underlie a class of complex systems with self-organization at criticality}},
doi = {10.1051/epjconf/202023000005},
volume = {230},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8112,
author = {Barton, Nicholas H},
issn = {1471-2970},
journal = {Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. Series B: Biological Sciences},
number = {1806},
publisher = {The Royal Society},
title = {{On the completion of speciation}},
doi = {10.1098/rstb.2019.0530},
volume = {375},
year = {2020},
}
@unpublished{8125,
abstract = {Context, such as behavioral state, is known to modulate memory formation and retrieval, but is usually ignored in associative memory models. Here, we propose several types of contextual modulation for associative memory networks that greatly increase their performance. In these networks, context inactivates specific neurons and connections, which modulates the effective connectivity of the network. Memories are stored only by the active components, thereby reducing interference from memories acquired in other contexts. Such networks exhibit several beneficial characteristics, including enhanced memory capacity, high robustness to noise, increased robustness to memory overloading, and better memory retention during continual learning. Furthermore, memories can be biased to have different relative strengths, or even gated on or off, according to contextual cues, providing a candidate model for cognitive control of memory and efficient memory search. An external context-encoding network can dynamically switch the memory network to a desired state, which we liken to experimentally observed contextual signals in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Overall, our work illustrates the benefits of organizing memory around context, and provides an important link between behavioral studies of memory and mechanistic details of neural circuits.SIGNIFICANCEMemory is context dependent — both encoding and recall vary in effectiveness and speed depending on factors like location and brain state during a task. We apply this idea to a simple computational model of associative memory through contextual gating of neurons and synaptic connections. Intriguingly, this results in several advantages, including vastly enhanced memory capacity, better robustness, and flexible memory gating. Our model helps to explain (i) how gating and inhibition contribute to memory processes, (ii) how memory access dynamically changes over time, and (iii) how context representations, such as those observed in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, may interact with and control memory processes.},
author = {Podlaski, William F. and Agnes, Everton J. and Vogels, Tim P},
booktitle = {bioRxiv},
pages = {30},
publisher = {Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory},
title = {{Context-modular memory networks support high-capacity, flexible, and robust associative memories}},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8126,
abstract = {Cortical areas comprise multiple types of inhibitory interneurons with stereotypical connectivity motifs, but their combined effect on postsynaptic dynamics has been largely unexplored. Here, we analyse the response of a single postsynaptic model neuron receiving tuned excitatory connections alongside inhibition from two plastic populations. Depending on the inhibitory plasticity rule, synapses remain unspecific (flat), become anti-correlated to, or mirror excitatory synapses. Crucially, the neuron’s receptive field, i.e., its response to presynaptic stimuli, depends on the modulatory state of inhibition. When both inhibitory populations are active, inhibition balances excitation, resulting in uncorrelated postsynaptic responses regardless of the inhibitory tuning profiles. Modulating the activity of a given inhibitory population produces strong correlations to either preferred or non-preferred inputs, in line with recent experimental findings showing dramatic context-dependent changes of neurons’ receptive fields. We thus confirm that a neuron’s receptive field doesn’t follow directly from the weight profiles of its presynaptic afferents.},
author = {Agnes, Everton J. and Luppi, Andrea I. and Vogels, Tim P},
issn = {1529-2401},
journal = {The Journal of Neuroscience},
number = {50},
pages = {9634--9649},
publisher = {Society for Neuroscience},
title = {{Complementary inhibitory weight profiles emerge from plasticity and allow attentional switching of receptive fields}},
doi = {10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0276-20.2020},
volume = {40},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8127,
abstract = {Mechanistic modeling in neuroscience aims to explain observed phenomena in terms of underlying causes. However, determining which model parameters agree with complex and stochastic neural data presents a significant challenge. We address this challenge with a machine learning tool which uses deep neural density estimators—trained using model simulations—to carry out Bayesian inference and retrieve the full space of parameters compatible with raw data or selected data features. Our method is scalable in parameters and data features and can rapidly analyze new data after initial training. We demonstrate the power and flexibility of our approach on receptive fields, ion channels, and Hodgkin–Huxley models. We also characterize the space of circuit configurations giving rise to rhythmic activity in the crustacean stomatogastric ganglion, and use these results to derive hypotheses for underlying compensation mechanisms. Our approach will help close the gap between data-driven and theory-driven models of neural dynamics.},
author = {Gonçalves, Pedro J. and Lueckmann, Jan-Matthis and Deistler, Michael and Nonnenmacher, Marcel and Öcal, Kaan and Bassetto, Giacomo and Chintaluri, Chaitanya and Podlaski, William F. and Haddad, Sara A. and Vogels, Tim P and Greenberg, David S. and Macke, Jakob H.},
issn = {2050-084X},
journal = {eLife},
publisher = {eLife Sciences Publications},
title = {{Training deep neural density estimators to identify mechanistic models of neural dynamics}},
doi = {10.7554/eLife.56261},
volume = {9},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8130,
abstract = {We study the dynamics of a system of N interacting bosons in a disc-shaped trap, which is realised by an external potential that confines the bosons in one spatial dimension to an interval of length of order ε. The interaction is non-negative and scaled in such a way that its scattering length is of order ε/N, while its range is proportional to (ε/N)β with scaling parameter β∈(0,1]. We consider the simultaneous limit (N,ε)→(∞,0) and assume that the system initially exhibits Bose–Einstein condensation. We prove that condensation is preserved by the N-body dynamics, where the time-evolved condensate wave function is the solution of a two-dimensional non-linear equation. The strength of the non-linearity depends on the scaling parameter β. For β∈(0,1), we obtain a cubic defocusing non-linear Schrödinger equation, while the choice β=1 yields a Gross–Pitaevskii equation featuring the scattering length of the interaction. In both cases, the coupling parameter depends on the confining potential.},
author = {Bossmann, Lea},
issn = {0003-9527},
journal = {Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis},
number = {11},
pages = {541--606},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{Derivation of the 2d Gross–Pitaevskii equation for strongly confined 3d Bosons}},
doi = {10.1007/s00205-020-01548-w},
volume = {238},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8131,
abstract = {The possibility to generate construct valid animal models enabled the development and testing of therapeutic strategies targeting the core features of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). At the same time, these studies highlighted the necessity of identifying sensitive developmental time windows for successful therapeutic interventions. Animal and human studies also uncovered the possibility to stratify the variety of ASDs in molecularly distinct subgroups, potentially facilitating effective treatment design. Here, we focus on the molecular pathways emerging as commonly affected by mutations in diverse ASD-risk genes, on their role during critical windows of brain development and the potential treatments targeting these biological processes.},
author = {Basilico, Bernadette and Morandell, Jasmin and Novarino, Gaia},
issn = {18790380},
journal = {Current Opinion in Genetics and Development},
number = {12},
pages = {126--137},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Molecular mechanisms for targeted ASD treatments}},
doi = {10.1016/j.gde.2020.06.004},
volume = {65},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8132,
abstract = {The WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) is crucial for assembly of the peripheral branched actin network constituting one of the main drivers of eukaryotic cell migration. Here, we uncover an essential role of the hematopoietic-specific WRC component HEM1 for immune cell development. Germline-encoded HEM1 deficiency underlies an inborn error of immunity with systemic autoimmunity, at cellular level marked by WRC destabilization, reduced filamentous actin, and failure to assemble lamellipodia. Hem1−/− mice display systemic autoimmunity, phenocopying the human disease. In the absence of Hem1, B cells become deprived of extracellular stimuli necessary to maintain the strength of B cell receptor signaling at a level permissive for survival of non-autoreactive B cells. This shifts the balance of B cell fate choices toward autoreactive B cells and thus autoimmunity.},
author = {Salzer, Elisabeth and Zoghi, Samaneh and Kiss, Máté G. and Kage, Frieda and Rashkova, Christina and Stahnke, Stephanie and Haimel, Matthias and Platzer, René and Caldera, Michael and Ardy, Rico Chandra and Hoeger, Birgit and Block, Jana and Medgyesi, David and Sin, Celine and Shahkarami, Sepideh and Kain, Renate and Ziaee, Vahid and Hammerl, Peter and Bock, Christoph and Menche, Jörg and Dupré, Loïc and Huppa, Johannes B. and Sixt, Michael K and Lomakin, Alexis and Rottner, Klemens and Binder, Christoph J. and Stradal, Theresia E.B. and Rezaei, Nima and Boztug, Kaan},
issn = {24709468},
journal = {Science Immunology},
number = {49},
publisher = {AAAS},
title = {{The cytoskeletal regulator HEM1 governs B cell development and prevents autoimmunity}},
doi = {10.1126/sciimmunol.abc3979},
volume = {5},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8134,
abstract = {We prove an upper bound on the free energy of a two-dimensional homogeneous Bose gas in the thermodynamic limit. We show that for a2ρ ≪ 1 and βρ ≳ 1, the free energy per unit volume differs from the one of the non-interacting system by at most 4πρ2|lna2ρ|−1(2−[1−βc/β]2+) to leading order, where a is the scattering length of the two-body interaction potential, ρ is the density, β is the inverse temperature, and βc is the inverse Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless critical temperature for superfluidity. In combination with the corresponding matching lower bound proved by Deuchert et al. [Forum Math. Sigma 8, e20 (2020)], this shows equality in the asymptotic expansion.},
author = {Mayer, Simon and Seiringer, Robert},
issn = {00222488},
journal = {Journal of Mathematical Physics},
number = {6},
publisher = {AIP},
title = {{The free energy of the two-dimensional dilute Bose gas. II. Upper bound}},
doi = {10.1063/5.0005950},
volume = {61},
year = {2020},
}
@inproceedings{8135,
abstract = {Discrete Morse theory has recently lead to new developments in the theory of random geometric complexes. This article surveys the methods and results obtained with this new approach, and discusses some of its shortcomings. It uses simulations to illustrate the results and to form conjectures, getting numerical estimates for combinatorial, topological, and geometric properties of weighted and unweighted Delaunay mosaics, their dual Voronoi tessellations, and the Alpha and Wrap complexes contained in the mosaics.},
author = {Edelsbrunner, Herbert and Nikitenko, Anton and Ölsböck, Katharina and Synak, Peter},
booktitle = {Topological Data Analysis},
isbn = {9783030434076},
issn = {21978549},
pages = {181--218},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{Radius functions on Poisson–Delaunay mosaics and related complexes experimentally}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-43408-3_8},
volume = {15},
year = {2020},
}