@article{7182,
abstract = {During infection pathogens secrete small molecules, termed effectors, to manipulate and control the interaction with their specific hosts. Both the pathogen and the plant are under high selective pressure to rapidly adapt and co-evolve in what is usually referred to as molecular arms race. Components of the host’s immune system form a network that processes information about molecules with a foreign origin and damage-associated signals, integrating them with developmental and abiotic cues to adapt the plant’s responses. Both in the case of nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat receptors and leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases interaction networks have been extensively characterized. However, little is known on whether pathogenic effectors form complexes to overcome plant immunity and promote disease. Ustilago maydis, a biotrophic fungal pathogen that infects maize plants, produces effectors that target hubs in the immune network of the host cell. Here we assess the capability of U. maydis effector candidates to interact with each other, which may play a crucial role during the infection process. Using a systematic yeast-two-hybrid approach and based on a preliminary pooled screen, we selected 63 putative effectors for one-on-one matings with a library of nearly 300 effector candidates. We found that 126 of these effector candidates interacted either with themselves or other predicted effectors. Although the functional relevance of the observed interactions remains elusive, we propose that the observed abundance in complex formation between effectors adds an additional level of complexity to effector research and should be taken into consideration when studying effector evolution and function. Based on this fundamental finding, we suggest various scenarios which could evolutionarily drive the formation and stabilization of an effector interactome.},
author = {Alcântara, André and Bosch, Jason and Nazari, Fahimeh and Hoffmann, Gesa and Gallei, Michelle C and Uhse, Simon and Darino, Martin A. and Olukayode, Toluwase and Reumann, Daniel and Baggaley, Laura and Djamei, Armin},
issn = {1664462X},
journal = {Frontiers in Plant Science},
number = {11},
publisher = {Frontiers},
title = {{Systematic Y2H screening reveals extensive effector-complex formation}},
doi = {10.3389/fpls.2019.01437},
volume = {10},
year = {2019},
}
@inproceedings{7183,
abstract = {A probabilistic vector addition system with states (pVASS) is a finite state Markov process augmented with non-negative integer counters that can be incremented or decremented during each state transition, blocking any behaviour that would cause a counter to decrease below zero. The pVASS can be used as abstractions of probabilistic programs with many decidable properties. The use of pVASS as abstractions requires the presence of nondeterminism in the model. In this paper, we develop techniques for checking fast termination of pVASS with nondeterminism. That is, for every initial configuration of size n, we consider the worst expected number of transitions needed to reach a configuration with some counter negative (the expected termination time). We show that the problem whether the asymptotic expected termination time is linear is decidable in polynomial time for a certain natural class of pVASS with nondeterminism. Furthermore, we show the following dichotomy: if the asymptotic expected termination time is not linear, then it is at least quadratic, i.e., in Ω(n2).},
author = {Brázdil, Tomás and Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Kucera, Antonín and Novotný, Petr and Velan, Dominik},
booktitle = {International Symposium on Automated Technology for Verification and Analysis},
isbn = {9783030317836},
issn = {16113349},
location = {Taipei, Taiwan},
pages = {462--478},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{Deciding fast termination for probabilistic VASS with nondeterminism}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-31784-3_27},
volume = {11781},
year = {2019},
}
@article{7190,
abstract = {We investigate the ground-state energy of a one-dimensional Fermi gas with two bosonic impurities. We consider spinless fermions with no fermion-fermion interactions. The fermion-impurity and impurity-impurity interactions are modeled with Dirac delta functions. First, we study the case where impurity and fermion have equal masses, and the impurity-impurity two-body interaction is identical to the fermion-impurity interaction, such that the system is solvable with the Bethe ansatz. For attractive interactions, we find that the energy of the impurity-impurity subsystem is below the energy of the bound state that exists without the Fermi gas. We interpret this as a manifestation of attractive boson-boson interactions induced by the fermionic medium, and refer to the impurity-impurity subsystem as an in-medium bound state. For repulsive interactions, we find no in-medium bound states. Second, we construct an effective model to describe these interactions, and compare its predictions to the exact solution. We use this effective model to study nonintegrable systems with unequal masses and/or potentials. We discuss parameter regimes for which impurity-impurity attraction induced by the Fermi gas can lead to the formation of in-medium bound states made of bosons that repel each other in the absence of the Fermi gas.},
author = {Huber, D. and Hammer, H.-W. and Volosniev, Artem},
issn = {2643-1564},
journal = {Physical Review Research},
number = {3},
publisher = {APS},
title = {{In-medium bound states of two bosonic impurities in a one-dimensional Fermi gas}},
doi = {10.1103/physrevresearch.1.033177},
volume = {1},
year = {2019},
}
@article{72,
abstract = {We consider the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) with non-random initial condition having density ρ on ℤ− and λ on ℤ+, and a second class particle initially at the origin. For ρ<λ, there is a shock and the second class particle moves with speed 1−λ−ρ. For large time t, we show that the position of the second class particle fluctuates on a t1/3 scale and determine its limiting law. We also obtain the limiting distribution of the number of steps made by the second class particle until time t.},
author = {Ferrari, Patrick and Ghosal, Promit and Nejjar, Peter},
issn = {02460203},
journal = {Annales de l'institut Henri Poincare (B) Probability and Statistics},
number = {3},
pages = {1203--1225},
publisher = {IHP},
title = {{Limit law of a second class particle in TASEP with non-random initial condition}},
doi = {10.1214/18-AIHP916},
volume = {55},
year = {2019},
}
@article{7200,
abstract = {Recent scanning tunneling microscopy experiments in NbN thin disordered superconducting films found an emergent inhomogeneity at the scale of tens of nanometers. This inhomogeneity is mirrored by an apparent dimensional crossover in the paraconductivity measured in transport above the superconducting critical temperature Tc. This behavior was interpreted in terms of an anomalous diffusion of fluctuating Cooper pairs that display a quasiconfinement (i.e., a slowing down of their diffusive dynamics) on length scales shorter than the inhomogeneity identified by tunneling experiments. Here, we assume this anomalous diffusive behavior of fluctuating Cooper pairs and calculate the effect of these fluctuations on the electron density of states above Tc. We find that the density of states is substantially suppressed up to temperatures well above Tc. This behavior, which is closely reminiscent of a pseudogap, only arises from the anomalous diffusion of fluctuating Cooper pairs in the absence of stable preformed pairs, setting the stage for an intermediate behavior between the two common paradigms in the superconducting-insulator transition, namely, the localization of Cooper pairs (the so-called bosonic scenario) and the breaking of Cooper pairs into unpaired electrons due to strong disorder (the so-called fermionic scenario).},
author = {Brighi, Pietro and Grilli, Marco and Leridon, Brigitte and Caprara, Sergio},
issn = {24699969},
journal = {Physical Review B},
number = {17},
publisher = {APS},
title = {{Effect of anomalous diffusion of fluctuating Cooper pairs on the density of states of superconducting NbN thin films}},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.100.174518},
volume = {100},
year = {2019},
}