@article{4024,
abstract = {We have developed general modeling software for a Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE); one of its applications is modeling 3D protein structures, generating both outside-in and inside-out views of geometric models. An advantage of the CAVE over other virtual environments is that multiple viewers can observe the same scene at the same time and place. Our software is scalable-from high-end virtual environments such as the CAVE, to mid-range immersive desktop systems, down to low-end graphics workstations. In the current configuration, a parallel Silicon Graphics Power Challenge supercomputer architecture performs the computationally intensive construction of surface patches remotely, and sends the results through the I-WAY (Information Wide Area Year) using VBNS (Very-high-Bandwidth Network Systems) to the graphics machines that drive the CAVE and our graphics visualization software, Valvis (Virtual ALpha shapes VISualizer).},
author = {Akkiraju, Nataraj and Edelsbrunner, Herbert and Fu, Ping and Qian, Jiang},
issn = {0018-9162},
journal = {IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications},
number = {4},
pages = {58 -- 61},
publisher = {IEEE},
title = {{Viewing geometric protein structures from inside a CAVE}},
doi = {10.1109/38.511855},
volume = {16},
year = {1996},
}
@article{4025,
abstract = {Questions of chemical reactivity can often be cast as questions of molecular geometry. Common geometric models for proteins and other molecules are the space-filling diagram, the solvent accessible surface and the molecular surface. In this paper we present a new approach to triangulating the surface of a molecule under the three models, which is fast, robust, and results in topologically correct triangulations. Our computations are based on a simplicial complex dual to the molecule models. All proposed algorithms are parallelizable.},
author = {Akkiraju, Nataraj and Edelsbrunner, Herbert},
issn = {0166-218X},
journal = {Discrete Applied Mathematics},
number = {1-3},
pages = {5 -- 22},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Triangulating the surface of a molecule}},
doi = {10.1016/S0166-218X(96)00054-6},
volume = {71},
year = {1996},
}
@article{4026,
abstract = {A set of n weighted points in general position in R(d) defines a unique regular triangulation. This paper proves that if the points are added one by one, then flipping in a topological order will succeed in constructing this triangulation. If, in addition, the points are added in a random sequence and the history of the flips is used for locating the next point, then the algorithm takes expected time at most O(n log n + n(inverted left perpendicular d/2 inverted right perpendicular)). Under the assumption that the points and weights are independently and identically distributed, the expected running time is between proportional to and a factor log n more than the expected size of the regular triangulation. The expectation is over choosing the points and over independent coin-flips performed by the algorithm.},
author = {Edelsbrunner, Herbert and Shah, Nimish},
issn = {0178-4617},
journal = {Algorithmica},
number = {3},
pages = {223 -- 241},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Incremental topological flipping works for regular triangulations}},
doi = {10.1007/BF01975867},
volume = {15},
year = {1996},
}
@article{3635,
abstract = {Experiments on Drosophila suggest that genetic recombination may result in lowered fitness of progeny (a 'recombination load'). This has been interpreted as evidence either for a direct effect of recombination on fitness, or for the maintenance of linkage disequilibria by epistatic selection. Here we show that such a recombination load is to be expected even if selection favours increased genetic recombination. This is because of the fact that, although a modifier may suffer an immediate loss of fitness if it increases recombination, it eventually becomes associated with a higher additive genetic variance in fitness, which allows a faster response to direction selection. This argument applies to mutation-selection balance with synergistic epistasis, directional selection on quantitative traits, and ectopic exchange among transposable elements. Further experiments are needed to determine whether the selection against recombination due to the immediate load is outweighed by the increased additive variance in fitness produced by recombination.},
author = {Charlesworth, Brian and Barton, Nicholas H},
issn = {0016-6723},
journal = {Genetical Research},
number = {1},
pages = {27 -- 41},
publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
title = {{Recombination load associated with selection for increased recombination}},
doi = {10.1017/S0016672300033450},
volume = {67},
year = {1996},
}
@article{3634,
abstract = {The evolutionary processes responsible for adaptation and speciation on islands differ in several ways from those on the mainland. Most attention has been given to the random genetic drift that arises when a population is founded from just a few colonizing genomes. Theoretical obstacles to 'founder effect speciation' are discussed, together with recent proposals for avoiding them. It is argued that although certain kinds of epistasis can facilitate the evolution of strong reproductive isolation, this favours divergence by selection as much as by random drift.},
author = {Barton, Nicholas H and Mallet, James},
issn = {0962-8436},
journal = {Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences},
number = {1341},
pages = {785 -- 795},
publisher = {Royal Society of London},
title = {{Natural selection and random genetic drift as causes of evolution on islands}},
doi = {10.1098/rstb.1996.0073},
volume = {351},
year = {1996},
}
@inproceedings{3553,
abstract = {Virtual environments open up new opportunities and challenges for geometric modeling systems. A general approach to geometric modeling suitable for the Cave Automatic Virtual Environment is described. The approach is based on alpha complexes, and some of its capabilities are demonstrated by applying it to the study of biomolecules.},
author = {Edelsbrunner, Herbert and Fu, Ping and Quian, Jiang},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology},
isbn = {9780897918251},
location = {Hong Kong},
pages = {35--41 and -- 193--194},
publisher = {ACM},
title = {{Geometric modeling in CAVE}},
doi = {10.1145/3304181.3304190},
year = {1996},
}
@article{3462,
author = {Melcher, Thorsten and Geiger, Jörg and Jonas, Peter M and Monyer, Hannah},
issn = {0197-0186},
journal = {Neurochemistry International},
number = {2},
pages = {141 -- 144},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Analysis of molecular determinants in native AMPA receptors}},
doi = {10.1016/0197-0186(95)00077-1},
volume = {28},
year = {1996},
}
@article{2726,
abstract = {We investigate whether the eigenfunctions of the two-dimensional magnetic Schrödinger operator have a Gaussian decay of type exp(-Cx2) at infinity (the magnetic field is rotationally symmetric). We establish this decay if the energy (E) of the eigenfunction is below the bottom of the essential spectrum (B), and if the angular Fourier components of the external potential decay exponentially (real analyticity in the angle variable). We also demonstrate that almost the same decay is necessary. The behavior of C in the strong field limit and in the small (B - E) limit is also studied.},
author = {Erdös, László},
issn = {1016-443X},
journal = {Geometric and Functional Analysis},
number = {2},
pages = {231 -- 248},
publisher = {Birkhäuser},
title = {{Gaussian decay of the magnetic eigenfunctions}},
doi = {10.1007/BF02247886},
volume = {6},
year = {1996},
}
@article{2574,
abstract = {lonotropic and metabotropic (mGluR1a) glutamate receptors were reported to be segregated from each other within the postsynaptic membrane at individual synapses. In order to establish whether this pattern of distribution applies to the hippocampal principal cells and to other postsynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors, the mGluR1a/b/c and mGluR5 subtypes were localized by immunocytochemistry. Principal cells in all hippocampal fields were reactive for mGluR5, the strata oriens and radiatum of the CA1 area being most strongly immunolabelled. Labelling for mGluR1b/c was strongest on some pyramids in the CA3 area, weaker on granule cells and absent on CA1 pyramids. Subpopulations of non-principal cells showed strong mGluR1 or mGluR5 immunoreactivity. Electron microscopic pre-embedding immunoperoxidase and both pre- and postembedding immunogold methods consistently revealed the extrasynaptic location of both mGluRs in the somatic and dendritic membrane of pyramidal and granule cells. The density of immunolabelling was highest on dendritic spines. At synapses, immunoparticles for both mGluR1 and mGluR5 were found always outside the postsynaptic membrane specializations. Receptors were particularly concentrated in a perisynaptic annulus around type 1 synaptic junctions, including the invaginations at 'perforated' synapses. Measurements of immunolabelling on dendritic spines showed decreasing levels of receptor as a function of distance from the edge of the synaptic specialization. We propose that glutamatergic synapses with an irregular edge develop in order to increase the circumference of synaptic junctions leading to an increase in the metabotropic to ionotropic glutamate receptor ratio at glutamate release sites. The perisynaptic position of postsynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors appears to be a general feature of glutamatergic synaptic organization and may apply to other G-protein-coupled receptors. © European Neuroscience Association.},
author = {Luján, Rafael and Nusser, Zoltán and Roberts, John and Shigemoto, Ryuichi and Somogyi, Péter},
issn = {0953-816X},
journal = {European Journal of Neuroscience},
number = {7},
pages = {1488 -- 1500},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{ Perisynaptic location of metabotropic glutamate receptors mGluR1 and mGluR5 on dendrites and dendritic spines in the rat hippocampus}},
doi = {10.1111/j.1460-9568.1996.tb01611.x},
volume = {8},
year = {1996},
}
@article{2573,
abstract = {Developmental changes of the distribution pattern of substance P receptor (SPR) were investigated immunohistochemically in the rat striatum. The SPR immunoreactivity in the striatum first emerged at postnatal day 1 and transiently showed a patchy pattern of distribution until it displayed the adult pattern of homogeneous distribution by the end of the third postnatal week. The SPR-immunoreactive patches were most marked in the medial and dorsolateral parts of the striatum, as well as in the subcallosal streak. They matched tyrosine hydroxylase-enriched areas and, conversely, avoided calbindin-enriched zones. No neurons within the SPR-immunoreactive patches contained either choline acetyltransferase or somatostatin, which is known to be contained in intrinsic neurons in the striatum. The vast majority of SPR-immunoreactive patch neurons also contained DARPP-32, a phosphoprotein that is expressed in striatal projection neurons with D1 dopamine receptor. The results indicate that SPR-immunoreactive patches which appear transiently in the developing striatum are in register with the striatal patch compartment, and that SPR immunoreactivity within these patches may be expressed on projection neurons rather than intrinsic neurons. Such SPR immunoreactivity in projection neurons in striatal patches may fade out in adulthood.},
author = {Tokuno, Hironobu and Takada, Masahiko and Kaneko, Takeshi and Shigemoto, Ryuichi and Mizuno, Noboru},
issn = {0165-3806},
journal = {Developmental Brain Research},
number = {1},
pages = {107 -- 117},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Patchy distribution of substance P receptor immunoreactivity in the developing rat striatum}},
doi = {10.1016/0165-3806(96)00080-6},
volume = {95},
year = {1996},
}
@article{2572,
abstract = {The distribution of the mRNA for a pituitary adenylate cyclase- activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptor (PACAP-R) was examined in the rat brain, and also in the hypophysis and pineal gland, by in situ hybridization with a specific 35S-labeled riboprobe which was generated from a rat PACAP-R cDNA clone. In the brain, expression of PACAP-R mRNA was most prominent in the periglomerular and granule cells of the olfactory bulb, granule cells of the dentate gyrus, supraoptic nucleus, and area postrema. The expression was also intense in the piriform, cingulate, and retrosplenial cortices, pyramidal cells in CA2, non-pyramidal cells in CA1- CA3, neuronal cells in the hilus of the dentate gyrus, lateral septal nucleus, intercalated amygdaloid nucleus, anterodorsal thalamic nucleus, most of the midline and intralaminar thalamic nuclei, many regions of the hypothalamus, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve, hypoglossal nucleus, and lateral reticular nucleus. No significant expression was detected in the mitral and tufted cells in the olfactory bulb, pyramidal cells in CA1 and CA3, posterior nuclear group of the thalamus, dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, and Purkinje, Golgi, and granule cells in the cerebellar cortex. Moderate-to-weak expression was further observed in many other regions of the brain. In the cerebellar cortex, presumed Bergmann gila cells showed moderate expression. In the hypophysis, the expression was moderate in the anterior lobe, and weak to moderate in the posterior lobe; no significant expression was observed in the intermediate lobe. In the pineal gland, the expression was very weak, if any. Thus, the expression of PACAP-R was detected not only on neuronal cells but also on some particular glial cells. The present study has shown, for the first time, the exact site of PACAP-R expression in the brain and hypophysis. Although the functional significance of PACAP and PACAP-R in the brain still remains to be clarified, the present results are considered to provide some direction for future functional studies.},
author = {Hashimoto, Hitoshi and Nogi, Hiroyuki and Mori, Kensaku and Ohishi, Hitoshi and Shigemoto, Ryuichi and Yamamoto, Kyohei and Matsuda, Toshio and Mizuno, Noboru and Nagata, Shigekazu and Baba, Akemichi},
issn = {0021-9967},
journal = {Journal of Comparative Neurology},
number = {4},
pages = {567 -- 577},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{Distribution of the mRNA for a pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptor in the rat brain: An in situ hybridization study}},
doi = {10.1002/(SICI)1096-9861(19960805)371:4<567::AID-CNE6>3.3.CO;2-M},
volume = {371},
year = {1996},
}
@article{2571,
abstract = {Subtype 2 of the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2) is expressed in the presynaptic elements of hippocampal mossy fiber-CA3 synapses. Knockout mice deficient in mGluR2 showed no histological changes and no alterations in basal synaptic transmission, paired-pulse facilitation, or tetanus-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) at the mossy fiber-CA3 synapses. Long-term depression (LTD) induced by low-frequency stimulation, however, was almost fully abolished. The mutant mice performed normally in water maze learning tasks. Thus, the presynaptic mGluR2 is essential for inducing LTD at the mossy fiber-CA3 synapses, but this hippocampal LTD does not seem to be required for spatial learning.},
author = {Yokoi, Mineto and Kobayashi, Kazuto and Manabe, Toshiya and Takahashi, Tomoyuki and Sakaguchi, Isako and Katsuura, Goro and Shigemoto, Ryuichi and Ohishi, Hitoshi and Nomura, Sakashi and Nakamura, Kenji and Nakao, Kazuki and Katsuki, Motoya and Nakanishi, Shigetada},
issn = {0036-8075},
journal = {Science},
pages = {645 -- 647},
publisher = {American Association for the Advancement of Science},
title = {{Impairment of hippocampal mossy fiber LTD in mice lacking mGluR2}},
doi = {10.1126/science.273.5275.645},
volume = {273},
year = {1996},
}
@article{2570,
abstract = {The probability of synaptic neurotransmitter release from nerve terminals is regulated by presynaptic receptors responding to transmitters released from the same nerve terminal or from terminals of other neurons. The release of glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter, is suppressed by presynaptic auto receptors. Here we show that a metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR7) in the rat hippocampus is restricted to the presynaptic grid, the site of synaptic vesicle fusion. Pyramidal cell terminals presynaptic to mGluR1α-expressing interneurons have at least a ten-fold higher level of presynaptic mGluR7 than terminals making synapses with pyramidal cells and other types of interneuron. Distinct levels of mGluR7 are found at different synapses made by individual pyramidal axons or even single boutons. These results raise the possibility that presynaptic neurons could regulate the probability of transmitter release at individual synapses according to the postsynaptic target},
author = {Shigemoto, Ryuichi and Kulik, Ákos and Roberts, John and Ohishi, Hitoshi and Nusser, Zoltán and Kaneko, Takeshi and Somogyi, Péter},
issn = {0028-0836},
journal = {Nature},
number = {6582},
pages = {523 -- 525},
publisher = {Nature Publishing Group},
title = {{Target-cell-specific concentration of a metabotropic glutamate receptor in the presynaptic active zone}},
doi = {10.1038/381523a0},
volume = {381},
year = {1996},
}
@article{2569,
abstract = {Morphological substrates for interactions between γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and substance P upon neurons expressing substance Preceptor (SPR) in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) were investigated by immunocytochemical electron microscopy. In the NST of the rat, many GABA-like immunoreactive axon terminals were in symmetric synaptic contacts with dendritic profiles; they were observed on nearly a half of the SPR-like immunoreactive dendritic profiles in the medial part of the caudal half of the NST.},
author = {Jia, Hong and Wang, Bai and Rao, Zhi and Shi, Ji and Shigemoto, Ryuichi and Kaneko, Takeshi and Mizuno, Noboru},
issn = {0304-3940},
journal = {Neuroscience Letters},
number = {1},
pages = {49 -- 52},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{GABAergic synapses upon neurons expressing substance P receptors in the nucleus of the solitary tract: An immunocytochemical electron microscope study in the rat}},
doi = {10.1016/0304-3940(96)12654-9},
volume = {210},
year = {1996},
}
@article{2567,
abstract = {Trigeminothalamic and spinothalamic-tact neurons provided with substance P receptor (SPR) were examined in the rat by SPR immunofluorescence histochemistry combined with Fluoro-Gold (FG) fluorescent retrograde labeling. After FG injection in the thalamic regions, FG-labeled cells with SPR-like immunoreactivity were seen mainly in laminae I and m of the medullary and spinal dorsal horns and lateral spinal nucleus. In these regions, about one-fourth to one-third of FG-labeled cells showed SPR-like immunoreactivity.},
author = {Li, Jin and Ding, Yu and Shigemoto, Ryuichi and Mizuno, Noboru},
issn = {0006-8993},
journal = {Brain Research},
number = {1-2},
pages = {207 -- 212},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Distribution of trigeminothalamic and spinothalamic-tract neurons showing substance P receptor-like immunoreactivity in the rat}},
doi = {10.1016/0006-8993(96)00064-9},
volume = {719},
year = {1996},
}
@article{2564,
abstract = {The distribution of the neuromedin K receptor (NK3; NKR) in the central nervous system was investigated in the adult rat by using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical techniques. The rabbit anti-NKR antibody was raised against a bacterial fusion protein containing a C- terminal portion of NKR and affinity purified with a Sepharose 4B column conjugated to the fusion protein. Immunoblot analysis was performed to test the reactivity and specificity of the antibody. Crude membrane was prepared from cDNA-transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing each of the rat NKR, substance P receptor (NK1; SPR), and substance K receptor (NK2; SKR) and from the hypothalamus, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum. Immunoreactive bands were observed specifically in the NKR-CHO cells, hypothalamus, and cerebral cortex but not in the SPR- or SKR-CHO cells, nor in the cerebellum. Molecular weights of the immunoreactive bands ranged from 73 to 89 kDa and from 59 to 83 kDa in the NKR-CHO cells and tissues, respectively. The distribution of NKR-like immunoreactivity coincided with that of NKR mRNA. The expression of NKR was indicated on neuronal cell bodies and dendrites. NKR was found to be expressed intensely or moderately in neurons in the glomerular and granule cell layers of the main olfactory bulb; glomerular and mitral cell layers of the accessory olfactory bulb; layers IV and V of the cerebral neocortex; medial septal nucleus; nucleus of the diagonal band; bed nucleus of the stria terminalis; globus pallidus; ventral pallidum; paraventricular nucleus; supraoptic nucleus; zona incerta; dorsal, lateral, and posterior hypothalamic areas; amygdaloid nuclei; medial habenular nucleus; ventral tegmental area; midbrain periaqueductal gray; interpeduncular nuclei; substantia nigra pars compacta; linear, median, dorsal, and pontine raphe nuclei; posteromedial tegmental nucleus; sphenoid nucleus; nucleus of the solitary tract; intermediate and rostroventrolateral reticular nuclei; and lamina II of the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus and spinal dorsal horn. These findings are discussed in relation to the physiological functions associated with neuromedin K.},
author = {Ding, Yu and Shigemoto, Ryuichi and Takada, Masahiko and Ohishi, Hitoshi and Nakanishi, Shigetada and Mizuno, Noboru},
issn = {0021-9967},
journal = {Journal of Comparative Neurology},
number = {2},
pages = {290 -- 310},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{Localization of the neuromedin K receptor (NK3) in the central nervous system of the rat}},
doi = {10.1002/(SICI)1096-9861(19960108)364:2<290::AID-CNE8>3.0.CO;2-0},
volume = {364},
year = {1996},
}
@article{2566,
abstract = {The present study indicated presynaptic localization of a metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR8, in projection neurons of the main olfactory bulb of rat. An antibody was produced by using a peptide corresponding to C-terminal 23 amino acids of mouse mGluR8. It was confirmed that the C-terminal 23 amino acids of rat mGluR8 were the same as those of mouse mGluR8 except for one, and that the antibody specifically recognized mGluR8 in the rat rhinencephalon. In layer Ia of the piriform cortex (a target area of projection fibers from the main olfactory bulb), mGluR8-like immunoreactivity (mGluR8-LI) was reduced after transection of the lateral olfactory tract, and mGluR8-LI was observed in axon terminals which were filled with round synaptic vesicles and made asymmetric synapses with dendritic spines.},
author = {Kinoshita, Ayae and Ohishi, Hitoshi and Neki, Akio and Nomura, Sakashi and Shigemoto, Ryuichi and Takada, Masahiko and Nakanishi, Shigetada and Mizuno, Noboru},
issn = {0304-3940},
journal = {Neuroscience Letters},
number = {1},
pages = {61 -- 64},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Presynaptic localization of a metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR8, in the rhinencephalic areas: A light and electron microscope study in the rat}},
doi = {10.1016/0304-3940(96)12489-7},
volume = {207},
year = {1996},
}
@article{2565,
abstract = {Immunoreactivity for the metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 (mGluR7) and that for phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG) were examined in the trigeminal (TG), dorsal root (DRG), nodose (NG), superior cervical, celiac, and pelvic ganglia of the rat. Virtually all neuronal cell bodies showed mGluR7-like immunoreactivity (mGluR7-LI) in these ganglia. On the other hand, PAG-like immunoreactivity (PAG) was seen in almost all neuronal cell bodies in the TG, DRG and NG, but not in the other ganglia. Co-existence of mGluR7- and PAG-LI in the TG, DRG and NG was confirmed by a double-immunofluorescence immunohistochemical method. The results indicate that virtually all sensory ganglion neurons are glutamatergic and equipped with mGluR7.},
author = {Li, Jin and Ohishi, Hitoshi and Kaneko, Takeshi and Shigemoto, Ryuichi and Neki, Akio and Nakanishi, Shigetada and Mizuno, Noboru},
issn = {0304-3940},
journal = {Neuroscience Letters},
number = {1-2},
pages = {9 -- 12},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Immunohistochemical localization of a metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR7, in ganglion neurons of the rat; with special reference to the presence in glutamatergic ganglion neurons}},
doi = {10.1016/0304-3940(95)12299-0},
volume = {204},
year = {1996},
}
@article{2568,
abstract = {Localization of a metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR4a, was immunohistochemically examined in the rat cerebellum with an antibody, which was produced by using a synthetic peptide corresponding to a C-terminal sequence of rat mGluR4a. Marked mGluR4a-like immunoreactivity (mGluRLta-LI) was seen in neuropil of the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex. Electron microscopically, mGluR4a-LI was observed in many axon terminals in the molecular layer. These axon terminals showing mGluR4a-LI were filled with round synaptic vesicles and were in asymmetric synaptic contacts most frequently with dendritic spines. The results indicate that mGluR4a are located presynaptically in the parallel fibers arising from the granule cells in the cerebellar cortex.},
author = {Kinoshita, Ayae and Ohishi, Hitoshi and Nomura, Sakashi and Shigemoto, Ryuichi and Nakanishi, Shigetada and Mizuno, Noboru},
issn = {0304-3940},
journal = {Neuroscience Letters},
number = {3},
pages = {199 -- 202},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Presynaptic localization of a metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR4a, in the cerebellar cortex: A light and electron microscope study in the rat}},
doi = {10.1016/0304-3940(96)12519-2},
volume = {207},
year = {1996},
}
@article{2492,
abstract = {The metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes mGluR2 and mGluR5, which are thought to be coupled respectively to the inhibitory cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) cascade and the phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis/Ca2+ cascade, are known to be expressed on Golgi cells in the granular layer of the rat cerebellar cortex. In the present immunohistochemical study with a monoclonal antibody against mGluR2 and a polyclonal antibody for mGluR5, we examined whether or not mGluR2- and mGluR5-like immunoreactivities were both present in single Golgi cells in the rat cerebellar cortex. In double immunofluorescence histochemistry, no Golgi cells showed mGluR2- and mGluR5-like immunoreactivities simultaneously. Of the total number of Golgi cells immunoreactive for mGluR2 or mGluR5, about 90% were mGluR2-like immunoreactive, and about 10% were mGluR5-like immunoreactive. Golgi cells with mGluR2-like immunoreactivity were distributed evenly in the granular layer of all the cerebellar regions, while those with mGluR5-like immunoreactivity were distributed more frequently in the I, II, VII-X lobules of the vermis and the copula pyramidis of the hemisphere than in other cerebellar regions. The results indicate that Golgi cells containing mGluR2 are segregated from those possessing mGluR5. These two populations of Golgi cells, each equipped with a different metabolic glutamate receptor coupled to a different intracellular signal transduction system, may play different roles in the glutamatergic neuronal circuits in the cerebellar cortex.},
author = {Neki, Akio and Ohishi, Hitoshi and Kaneko, Takeshi and Shigemoto, Ryuichi and Nakanishi, Shigetada and Mizuno, Noboru},
issn = {0306-4522},
journal = {Neuroscience},
number = {3},
pages = {815 -- 826},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Metabotropic glutamate receptors mGluR2 and mGluR5 are expressed in two non-overlapping populations of Golgi cells in the rat cerebellum}},
doi = {10.1016/0306-4522(96)00316-8},
volume = {75},
year = {1996},
}
@article{2562,
abstract = {A monoclonal antibody against a metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR2, was produced by using a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein containing an N-terminal sequence of rat mGluR2. Intense mGluR2-like immunoreactivity (mGluR2-LI) was seen mainly in neuropil of the cerebral cortical regions, hippocampus, olfactory bulb, some diencephalic nuclei, dorsal cochlear nucleus and cerebellar cortex. In the cerebellar cortex, mGluR2-LI was seen only in Golgi cells. In Ammon's hem, mGluR2-LI was marked in the stratum lucidum of CA3 and the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of CA1-CA3, but not detected in the stratum pyramidale. The results indicate that mGluR2 is located not only presynaptically but also postsynaptically.},
author = {Neki, Akio and Ohishi, Hitoshi and Kaneko, Takeshi and Shigemoto, Ryuichi and Nakanishi, Shigetada and Mizuno, Noboru},
issn = {0304-3940},
journal = {Neuroscience Letters},
number = {3},
pages = {197 -- 200},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Pre- and postsynaptic localization of a metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR2, in the rat brain: An immunohistochemical study with a monoclonal antibody}},
doi = {10.1016/0304-3940(95)12248-6},
volume = {202},
year = {1996},
}
@article{1951,
author = {Sazanov, Leonid A and Burrows, Paul and Nixon, Peter},
issn = {0300-5127},
journal = {Biochemical Society Transactions},
number = {3},
pages = {739 -- 743},
publisher = {Portland Press},
title = {{Detection and characterization of a complex I-like NADH-specific dehydrogenase from pea thylakoids}},
doi = {10.1042/bst0240739},
volume = {24},
year = {1996},
}
@article{1952,
abstract = {Two strains of Rhodospirillum rubrum were constructed in which, by a gene dosage effect, the transhydrogenase activity of isolated chromatophores was increased 7-10-fold and 15-20-fold, respectively. The H+/H- ratio (the ratio of protons translocated per hydride ion equivalent transferred from NADPH to an NAD+ analogue, acetyl pyridine adenine dinucleotide), determined by a spectroscopic technique, was approximately 1.0 for chromatophores from the over-expressing strains, but was only approximately 0.6 for wild-type chromatophores. Highly-coupled proteoliposomes were prepared containing purified transhydrogenase from beef-heart mitochondria. Using the same technique, the H+/H- ratio was close to 1.0 for these proteoliposomes. It is suggested that the mechanistic H+/H- ratio is indeed unity, but that a low ratio is obtained in wild-type chromatophores because of inhomogeneity in the vesicle population.},
author = {Bizouarn, Tania and Sazanov, Leonid A and Aubourg, Sébastien and Jackson, Julie},
issn = {0005-2728},
journal = {Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Bioenergetics},
number = {1},
pages = {4 -- 12},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Estimation of the H+/H- ratio of the reaction catalysed by the nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase in chromatophores from over-expressing strains of Rhodospirillum rubrum and in liposomes inlaid with the purified bovine enzyme}},
doi = {10.1016/0005-2728(95)00125-5},
volume = {1273},
year = {1996},
}
@article{11761,
abstract = {We prove that in an undirected graph there are at most O(n²) cuts of size strictly less than of the size of the minimum cut.},
author = {Henzinger, Monika H and Williamson, David P.},
issn = {0020-0190},
journal = {Information Processing Letters},
number = {1},
pages = {41--44},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{On the number of small cuts in a graph}},
doi = {10.1016/0020-0190(96)00079-8},
volume = {59},
year = {1996},
}
@inproceedings{11804,
abstract = {This paper shows how a general technique, called lock-step search, used in dynamic graph algorithms, can be used to improve the running time of two problems arising in program verification and communication protocol design.
(1)We consider the nonemptiness problem for Streett automata: We are given a directed graph G = (V, E) with n = ¦V¦ and m = ¦E¦, and a collection of pairs of subsets of vertices, called Streett pairs,〈L i , U i 〉, i = 1.k. The question is whether G has a cycle (not necessarily simple) which, for each 1 ≤ i ≤ k, if it contains a vertex from L i then it also contains a vertex of U i . Let b=Σ i=1..k |L i |+|U i |. The previously best algorithm takes time O((m + b) min{n, k}). We present an algorithm that takes time 𝑂(𝑚min{𝑚𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑛,‾‾‾‾‾‾√𝑘,𝑛}+𝑏𝑚𝑖𝑛{𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑛,𝑘}).
(2)In communication protocol pruning we are given a directed graph G = (V, E) with l special vertices. The problem is to efficiently maintain the strongly-connected components of the special vertices on a restricted set of edge deletions. Let m i be the number of edges in the strongly connected component of the ith special vertex. The previously best algorithm repeatedly recomputes the strongly-connected components which leads to a running time of O(Σ i m 2i). We present an algorithm with time 𝑂(𝑙√∑𝑖𝑚1.5𝑖).},
author = {Henzinger, Monika H and Telle, Jan Arne},
booktitle = {5th Scandinavian Workshop on Algorithm Theory},
isbn = {9783540614227},
issn = {1611-3349},
location = {Reykjavik, Iceland},
pages = {16–27},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{Faster algorithms for the nonemptiness of streett automata and for communication protocol pruning}},
doi = {10.1007/3-540-61422-2_117},
volume = {1097},
year = {1996},
}
@inproceedings{11910,
abstract = {We state a new sampling lemma and use it to improve the running time of dynamic graph algorithms.
For the dynamic connectivity problem the previously best randomized algorithm takes expected time O(log3 n) per update, amortized over Ω(m) updates. Using the new sampling lemma, we improve its running time to O(log2 n). There exists a lower bound in the cell probe model for the time per operation of Ω(log n/ log log n) for this problem.
Similarly improved running times are achieved for 2-edge connectivity, k-weight minimum spanning tree, and bipartiteness.},
author = {Henzinger, Monika H and Thorup, Mikkel},
booktitle = {23rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming},
isbn = {9783540614401},
issn = {1611-3349},
location = {Paderborn, Germany},
pages = {290--299},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{Improved sampling with applications to dynamic graph algorithms}},
doi = {10.1007/3-540-61440-0_136},
volume = {1099},
year = {1996},
}
@article{6162,
abstract = {The tra-1 gene is the terminal global selector of somatic sex in Caenorhabditis elegans: High tra-1 activity elicits female somatic development while low tra-1 activity elicits male development. Previous genetic studies defined a cascade of negatively interacting genes that regulates tra-1 activity in response to the primary sex-determining signal. Here, we investigate the last step in this regulatory cascade, by studying rare gain-of-function (gf) mutations of tra-1 that direct female somatic development irrespective of the upstream sex-determining signal. These mutations appear to abolish negative regulation of tra-1 in male tissues. We identify the lesions associated with 29 of these mutations and find that all affect a short stretch of amino acid residues present in both protein products of the tra-1 gene. Twenty-six alleles are associated with single nonconservative amino acid substitutions. Two alleles affect tra-1 RNA splicing and generate messages that omit part or all of the exon encoding this short stretch. These results suggest that sexual regulation of tra-1 is achieved post-translationally, by an inhibitory protein-protein interaction. The amino acid stretch altered by the tra-1(gf) mutations may define a site of interaction for negative regulators of tra-1. The stretch includes a potential phosphorylation site for glycogen synthase kinase 3 and may be conserved in the human gene GLI3, a homolog of tra-1 identified previously.},
author = {de Bono, Mario and Zarkower, D. and Hodgkin, J.},
issn = {08909369},
journal = {Genes and Development},
number = {2},
pages = {155--167},
publisher = {CSH Press},
title = {{Dominant feminizing mutations implicate protein-protein interactions as the main mode of regulation of the nematode sex-determining gene tra-1}},
doi = {10.1101/gad.9.2.155},
volume = {9},
year = {1995},
}
@inproceedings{4502,
abstract = {Hybrid automata model systems with both digital and analog components, such as embedded control programs. Many verification tasks for such programs can be expressed as reachability problems for hybrid automata. By improving on previous decidability and undecidability results, we identify the precise boundary between decidability and undecidability of the reachability problem for hybrid automata.
On the positive side, we give an (optimal) PSPACE reachability algorithm for the case of initialized rectangular automata, where all analog variables follow trajectories within piecewise-linear envelopes and are reinitialized whenever the envelope changes. Our algorithm is based on the construction of a timed automaton that contains all reachability information about a given initialized rectangular automaton. The translation has practical significance for verification, because it guarantees the termination of symbolic procedures for the reachability analysis of initialized rectangular automata. The translation also preserves the omega-languages of initialized rectangular automata with bounded nondeterminism.
On the negative side, we show that several slight generalizations of initialized rectangular automata lead to an undecidable reachability problem. In particular, we prove that the reachability problem is undecidable for timed automata augmented with a single stopwatch.},
author = {Henzinger, Thomas A and Kopke, Peter and Puri, Anuj and Varaiya, P.},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 27th annual ACM symposium on Theory of computing},
isbn = {9780897917186},
location = {Las Vegas, NV, United States of America},
pages = {373 -- 382},
publisher = {ACM},
title = {{What's decidable about hybrid automata?}},
doi = {10.1145/225058.225162},
year = {1995},
}
@inproceedings{4587,
abstract = {We argue that the standard constraints on liveness conditions in nonblocking trace models—machine closure for closed systems, and receptiveness for open systems—are unnecessarily weak and complex, and that liveness should, instead, be specified by augmenting transition systems with acceptance conditions that satisfy a locality constraint. First, locality implies machine closure and receptiveness, and thus permits the composition and modular verification of live transition systems. Second, while machine closure and receptiveness are based on infinite games, locality is based on repeated finite games, and thus easier to check. Third, no expressive power is lost by the restriction to local liveness conditions. We illustrate the appeal of local liveness using the model of Fair Reactive Systems, a nonblocking trace model of communicating processes.},
author = {Alur, Rajeev and Henzinger, Thomas A},
booktitle = {7th International Conference on Computer Aided Verification},
isbn = {978-3-540-60045-9},
location = {Liege, Belgium},
pages = {166 -- 179},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Local liveness for compositional modeling of fair reactive systems}},
doi = {10.1007/3-540-60045-0_49},
volume = {939},
year = {1995},
}
@inproceedings{4518,
abstract = {The analysis, verification, and control of hybrid automata with finite bisimulations can be reduced to finite-state problems. We advocate a time-abstract, phase-based methodology for checking if a given hybrid automaton has a finite bisimulation. First, we factor the automaton into two components, a boolean automaton with a discrete dynamics on the finite state space B m and a euclidean automaton with a continuous dynamics on the infinite state space n . Second, we investigate the phase portrait of the euclidean component. In this fashion, we obtain new decidability results for hybrid systems as well as new, uniform proofs of known decidability results.},
author = {Henzinger, Thomas A},
booktitle = {22nd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming },
isbn = {9783540600848},
location = {Szeged, Hungary},
pages = {324 -- 335},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Hybrid automata with finite bisimulations}},
doi = {10.1007/3-540-60084-1_85},
volume = {944},
year = {1995},
}
@article{4613,
abstract = {We present a general framework for the formal specification and algorithmic analysis of hybrid systems. A hybrid system consists of a discrete program with an analog environment. We model hybrid systems as finite automata equipped with variables that evolve continuously with time according to dynamical laws. For verification purposes, we restrict ourselves to linear hybrid systems, where all variables follow piecewise-linear trajectories. We provide decidability and undecidability results for classes of linear hybrid systems, and we show that standard program-analysis techniques can be adapted to linear hybrid systems. In particular, we consider symbolic model-checking and minimization procedures that are based on the reachability analysis of an infinite state space. The procedures iteratively compute state sets that are definable as unions of convex polyhedra in multidimensional real space. We also present approximation techniques for dealing with systems for which the iterative procedures do not converge.},
author = {Alur, Rajeev and Courcoubetis, Costas and Halbwachs, Nicolas and Henzinger, Thomas A and Ho, Pei and Nicollin, Xavier and Olivero, Alfredo and Sifakis, Joseph and Yovine, Sergio},
issn = {0304-3975},
journal = {Theoretical Computer Science},
number = {1},
pages = {3 -- 34},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{The algorithmic analysis of hybrid systems}},
doi = {10.1016/0304-3975(94)00202-T},
volume = {138},
year = {1995},
}
@inproceedings{4500,
abstract = {We investigate the expressive power of timing restrictions on labeled transition systems. In particular, we show how constraints on clock variables together with a uniform liveness condition—the divergence of time—can express Büchi, Muller, Streett, Rabin, and weak and strong fairness conditions on a given labeled transition system. We then consider the effect, on both timed and time-abstract expressiveness, of varying the following parameters: time domain (discrete or dense), number of clocks, number of states, and size of constants used in timing restrictions.},
author = {Henzinger, Thomas A and Kopke, Peter and Wong Toi, Howard},
booktitle = {22nd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming },
isbn = {9783540600848},
location = {Szeged, Hungary},
pages = {417 -- 428},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{The expressive power of clocks}},
doi = {10.1007/3-540-60084-1_93},
volume = {944},
year = {1995},
}
@inproceedings{4497,
abstract = {HyTech is a tool for the automated analysis of embedded systems. This document, designed for the first-time user of HyTech, guides the reader through the underlying system model, and through the input language for describing and analyzing systems. The guide gives several examples of usage, and some hints for gaining maximal computational efficiency from the tool.
The version of HyTech described in this guide was released in August 1995, and is available through anonymous ftp from ftp.cs.cornell.edu in the directory pub/tah/HyTech, and through the World-Wide Web via HyTech's home page http:/www.cs.cornell.edu/Info/People/tah/hytech.html.},
author = {Henzinger, Thomas A and Ho, Pei and Wong Toi, Howard},
booktitle = {1st International Workshop on Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems},
isbn = {9783540606307},
location = {Aarhus, Denmark},
pages = {41 -- 71},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{A user guide to HyTech}},
doi = {10.1007/3-540-60630-0_3},
volume = {1019},
year = {1995},
}
@inproceedings{4450,
abstract = {Hybrid systems model discrete programs that are embedded in continuous environments. Model-checking tools are available for the analysis of linear hybrid systems, whose continuous variables are bounded by piecewise-linear trajectories. Most embedded programs, however, operate in nonlinear environments. We present, analyze, and apply two algorithms for translating nonlinear hybrid systems into linear hybrid systems.
The clock translation replaces nonlinear variables by clock variables; the rate translation approximates nonlinear variables by piecewise-linear envelopes. Both translations are sound for reachability; that is, if we establish a safety property of the translated linear system, we may conclude that the original nonlinear system satisfies the property. The clock translation is also complete for reachability; that is, the original system and the translated system satisfy the same safety properties. The two translations apply to incomparable classes of nonlinear hybrid systems. From the clock translation we obtain a new decidability result for hybrid systems.
With the help of Hytech, a symbolic model checker for linear hybrid systems, we automatically verify a nonlinear railroad gate control program using the clock translation, and a nonlinear temperature control program using the rate translation.},
author = {Henzinger, Thomas A and Ho, Pei},
booktitle = {7th International Conference on Computer Aided Verification},
isbn = {9783540494133},
location = {Liege, Belgium},
pages = {225 -- 238},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Algorithmic analysis of nonlinear hybrid systems}},
doi = {10.1007/3-540-60045-0_53},
volume = {939},
year = {1995},
}
@inproceedings{4499,
abstract = {We describe a new implementation of HYTECH, a symbolic model checker for hybrid systems. Given a parametric description of an embedded system as a collection of communicating automata, HYTECH automatically computes the conditions on the parameters under which the system satisfies its safety and timing requirements. While the original HYTECH prototype was based on the symbolic algebra tool Mathematica, the new implementation is written in C++ and builds on geometric algorithms instead of formula manipulation. The new HYTECH offers a cleaner and more expressive input language, greater portability, superior performance (typically two to three orders of magnitude), and new features such as diagnostic error-trace generation. We illustrate the effectiveness of the new implementation by applying HYTECH to the automatic parametric analysis of the generic railroad crossing benchmark problem and to an active structure control algorithm},
author = {Henzinger, Thomas A and Ho, Pei and Wong Toi, Howard},
booktitle = {Proceedings 16th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium},
isbn = {0818673370},
location = {Pisa, Italy},
pages = {56 -- 65},
publisher = {IEEE},
title = {{HyTech: The next generation}},
doi = {10.1109/REAL.1995.495196 },
year = {1995},
}
@inproceedings{4448,
abstract = {We report on several abstract interpretation strategies that are designed to improve the performance of HyTech, a symbolic model checker for linear hybrid systems. We (1) simultaneously compute the target region from different directions, (2) conservatively approximate the target region by dropping constraints, and (3) iteratively refine the approximation until sufficient precision is obtained. We consider the standard abstract convex-hull operator and a novel abstract extrapolation operator.},
author = {Henzinger, Thomas A and Ho, Pei},
booktitle = {3rd International Hybrid Systems Workshop},
editor = {Panos, Antsaklis and Kohn, Wolf and Nerode, Anil and Sastry, Shankar},
isbn = {9783540604723},
location = {Ithaca, NY, United States of America},
pages = {252 -- 264},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{A note on abstract-interpretation strategies for hybrid automata}},
doi = {10.1007/3-540-60472-3_13},
volume = {999},
year = {1995},
}
@inproceedings{4447,
abstract = {This paper is addressed to potential users of HyTech, the Cornell Hybrid Technology Tool, an automatic tool for analyzing hybrid systems. We review the formal technologies that have been incorporated into HyTech, and we illustrate the use of HyTech with three nontrivial case studies.},
author = {Henzinger, Thomas A and Ho, Pei},
booktitle = {4th International Hybrid Systems Workshop},
editor = {Panos, Antsaklis and Kohn, Wolf and Nerode, Anil and Sastry, Shankar},
isbn = {9783540683346},
location = { New Brunswick, NJ, United States of America},
pages = {265 -- 293},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{HyTech: The Cornell Hybrid Technology Tool}},
doi = {10.1007/3-540-60472-3_14},
volume = {999},
year = {1995},
}
@article{4296,
abstract = {Three replicate lines of Drosophila melanogaster were cultured at each of two temperatures (16.5⚬C and 25⚬C) in population cages for 4 yr. The lifespans of both sexes and the fecundity and fertility of the females were then measured at both experimental temperatures. The characters showed evidence of adaptation; flies of both sexes from each selection regime showed higher longevity, and females showed higher fecundity and fertility, than flies from the other selection regime when they were tested at the experimental temperature at which they had evolved. Calculation of intrinsic rates of increase under different assumptions about the rate of population increase showed that the difference between the lines from the two selection regimes became less the higher the rate of population increase, because the lines were more similar in early adulthood than they were later. Despite the increased adaptation of the low-temperature lines to the low temperature, like the high temperature lines they produced progeny at a higher rate at the higher temperature. The lines may have independently evolved adaptations to their respective thermal regimes during the experiment, or there may have been a trade-off between adaptation to the two temperatures, or mutation pressure may have lowered adaptation to the temperature that the flies no longer encountered.},
author = {Partridge, Linda and Barrie, Brian and Barton, Nicholas H and Fowler, Kevin and French, Vernon},
issn = {0014-3820},
journal = {Evolution},
number = {3},
pages = {538 -- 544},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{Rapid laboratory evolution of adult life history traits in Drosophila melanogaster in response to temperature}},
doi = {10.1111/j.1558-5646.1995.tb02285.x},
volume = {49},
year = {1995},
}
@article{4297,
abstract = {The F5 (2n = 34) and FM2 (2n = 44-46) chromosome races of the Sceloporus grammicus complex form a parapatric hybrid zone in the Mexican state of Hidalgo, characterized by steep concordant clines among three diagnostic chromosome markers across a straight-line distance of about 2 km. Here, we show that this zone is actually structured into local patches in which hybridization extends over an extremely irregular front. The distribution of hybrid-index (HI) scores across the transect reveals some hybridization at almost all localities mapped in a central 7 km x 3 km area. Pooling the central samples produces both a strong heterozygote deficit for all diagnostic markers and strong linkage disequilibria between all pairwise combinations of these (unlinked) markers. Moreover, a highly significant association exists between the habitat on which each individual was caught and its karyotype (F5 chromosomes are more likely to be found on oak). Analysis of genotype frequencies over a range of spatial scales shows that there is no significant heterozygote deficit or habitat association within local areas of less than about 200 m; however, there is significant linkage disequilibrium over the smallest scales (R = D (pquv)1/2 = 0.29, support limits, 0.18-0.36) over 100 m. These patterns suggest that lizards mate and choose habitats randomly within local patches. This conclusion is supported by mark-recapture estimates of dispersal (≈ 80 m in a generation) and by inference of matings from embryo and maternal karyotypes. Closer examination of the two-dimensional pattern reveals a convoluted cline for all three markers, with a width of 830 m (support limits 770 m-930 m). This cline width, combined with the strength of local linkage disequilibrium, implies a dispersal rate of σ = 160 m in a generation and an effective selection pressure of 30% on each chromosome marker. The proportion of inviable embryos is greater in females from the center of the hybrid zone; this is caused by effects associated with both karyotype and location. The hybrid zone is likely to be maintained by selection against chromosomal heterozygotes, by other kinds of selection against hybrids, and by selection adapting the chromosome races to different habitats. The structure of the contact may be caused by both random drift and by selection in relation to habitat.},
author = {Sites, Jack and Barton, Nicholas H and Reed, Kent},
issn = {0014-3820},
journal = {Evolution},
number = {1},
pages = {9 -- 36},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{The genetic structure of a mosaic hybrid zone between two chromosome races of the Sceloporus grammicus complex (Sauria, Phrynosomatidae) in central Mexico}},
doi = {10.1111/j.1558-5646.1995.tb05955.x},
volume = {49},
year = {1995},
}
@article{4035,
abstract = {Let S be a set of n points in ℝd . A set W is a weak ε-net for (convex ranges of)S if, for any T⊆S containing εn points, the convex hull of T intersects W. We show the existence of weak ε-nets of size {Mathematical expression}, where β2=0, β3=1, and βd ≈0.149·2d-1(d-1)!, improving a previous bound of Alon et al. Such a net can be computed effectively. We also consider two special cases: when S is a planar point set in convex position, we prove the existence of a net of size O((1/ε) log1.6(1/ε)). In the case where S consists of the vertices of a regular polygon, we use an argument from hyperbolic geometry to exhibit an optimal net of size O(1/ε), which improves a previous bound of Capoyleas.},
author = {Chazelle, Bernard and Edelsbrunner, Herbert and Grigni, Michelangelo and Guibas, Leonidas and Sharir, Micha and Welzl, Emo},
issn = {0179-5376},
journal = {Discrete & Computational Geometry},
number = {1},
pages = {1 -- 15},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Improved bounds on weak ε-nets for convex sets}},
doi = {10.1007/BF02574025},
volume = {13},
year = {1995},
}
@inproceedings{4034,
abstract = {Any arbitrary polyhedron P contained as a subset within Rd can be written as algebraic sum of simple terms, each an integer multiple of the intersection of d or fewer half-spaces defined by facets of P. P can be non-convex and can have holes of any kind. Among the consequences of this result are a short boolean formula for P, a fast parallel algorithm for point classification, and a new proof of the Gram-Sommerville angle relation.},
author = {Edelsbrunner, Herbert},
booktitle = {Proceedings of IEEE 36th Annual Foundations of Computer Science},
issn = {0272-5428},
location = {Milwaukee, WI, United States of America},
pages = {248 -- 257},
publisher = {IEEE},
title = {{Algebraic decomposition of non-convex polyhedra}},
year = {1995},
}
@article{4153,
author = {Ransom, D. and Brownlie, Alison and Haffter, Pascal and Odenthal, Jörg and Kelsh, Robert and Brand, Michael and Furutani Seiki, Makoto and Granato, Michael and Hammerschmidt, Matthias and Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp J and Jiang, Yunjin and Kane, David and Mullins, Mary and Van Eden, Fredericus and Warga, Rachel and Nüsslein Volhard, Christiane and Zon, L.},
issn = {0006-4971},
journal = {Blood},
number = {10},
pages = {1912 -- 1912},
publisher = {American Society of Hematology},
title = {{Hematopoietic mutants identified in a saturation screen of the zebrafish genome}},
volume = {86},
year = {1995},
}
@article{3639,
abstract = {A general representation of multilocus selection is extended to allow recombination to depend on genotype. The equations simplify if modifier alleles have small effects on recombination. The evolution of such modifiers only depends on how they alter recombination between the selected loci, and does not involve dominance in modifier effects. The net selection on modifiers can be found explicitly if epistasis is weak relative to recombination. This analysis shows that recombination can be favoured in two ways: because it impedes the response to epistasis which fluctuates in sign, or because it facilitates the response to directional selection. The first mechanism is implausible, because epistasis must change sign over periods of a few generations: faster or slower fluctuations favour reduced recombination. The second mechanism requires weak negative epistasis between favourable alleles, which may either be increasing, or held in check by mutation. The selection (si) on recombination modifiers depends on the reduction in additive variance of log (fitness) due to linkage disequilibria (υ1 < 0), and on non-additive variance in log (fitness) (V′2, V′3,.. epistasis between 2, 3.. loci). For unlinked loci and pairwise epistasis, si = − (υ1 + 4V2/3)δr, where δr is the average increase in recombination caused by the modifier. The approximations are checked against exact calculations for three loci, and against Charlesworth's analyses of mutation/selection balance (1990), and directional selection (1993). The analysis demonstrates a general relation between selection on recombination and observable components of fitness variation, which is open to experimental test.},
author = {Barton, Nicholas H},
issn = {0016-6723},
journal = {Genetical Research},
number = {2},
pages = {123 -- 144},
publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
title = {{A general model for the evolution of recombination}},
doi = {10.1017/S0016672300033140},
volume = {65},
year = {1995},
}
@article{3640,
abstract = {The probability of fixation of a favorable mutation is reduced if selection at other loci causes inherited variation in fitness. A general method for calculating the fixation probability of an allele that can find itself in a variety of genetic backgrounds is applied to find the effect of substitutions, fluctuating polymorphisms, and deleterious mutations in a large population. With loose linkage, r, the effects depend on the additive genetic variance in relative fitness, var(W), and act by reducing effective population size by (N/Ne) = 1 + var(W)/2r2. However, tightly linked loci can have a substantial effect not predictable from Ne. Linked deleterious mutations reduce the fixation probability of weakly favored alleles by exp (-2U/R), where U is the total mutation rate and R is the map length in Morgans. Substitutions can cause a greater reduction: an allele with advantage s < scrit = (pi 2/6) loge (S/s) [var(W)/R] is very unlikely to be fixed. (S is the advantage of the substitution impeding fixation.) Fluctuating polymorphisms at many (n) linked loci can also have a substantial effect, reducing fixation probability by exp [square root of 2Kn var(W)/R] [K = -1/E((u-u)2/uv) depending on the frequencies (u,v) at the selected polymorphisms]. Hitchhiking due to all three kinds of selection may substantially impede adaptation that depends on weakly favored alleles.},
author = {Barton, Nicholas H},
issn = {0016-6731},
journal = {Genetics},
number = {2},
pages = {821 -- 841},
publisher = {Genetics Society of America},
title = {{Linkage and the limits to natural selection}},
doi = {http://www.genetics.org/content/140/2/821.long},
volume = {140},
year = {1995},
}
@article{4029,
abstract = {A general and direct method for computing the Betti numbers of a finite simplicial complex in Bd is given. This method is complete for d less than or equal to 3, where versions of this method run in time O(n alpha(n)) and O(n), n the number of simplices. An implementation of the algorithm is applied to alpha shapes, which is a novel geometric modeling tool.},
author = {Delfinado, Cecil and Edelsbrunner, Herbert},
issn = {0167-8396},
journal = {Computer Aided Geometric Design},
number = {7},
pages = {771 -- 784},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{An incremental algorithm for Betti numbers of simplicial complexes on the 3-sphere}},
doi = {10.1016/0167-8396(95)00016-Y},
volume = {12},
year = {1995},
}
@article{3636,
abstract = {Observations on the means, variances, and covariances of quantitative traits across hybrid zones can give information similar to that from Mendelian markers. In addition, they can identify particular traits through which the cline is maintained. We describe a survey of six traits across the hybrid zone between Bombina bombina and Bombina variegata (Amphibia: Discoglossidae) near Pescenica in Croatia. We obtained laboratory measuments of the belly pattern, skin thickness, mating call, skeletal form, egg size, and the developmental time of tadpoles. Although offspring from hybrid populations showed no evidence of reduced viability, a third of the F1 families failed completely, irrespective of the direction of the cross. All traits differed significantly between the taxa. Clines in belly pattern, skin thickness, mating call, and skeletal form were closely concordant with clines in four diagnostic enzyme loci. However, the cline in developmental time was displaced towards bombina, and the cline in egg size was displaced towards variegata. This discordance could be because the traits are not inherited additively or because they are subject to different selection pressures. We favor the latter explanation in the case of developmental time. We show that moderate selection acting directly on a trait suffices to shift its position; rather stronger selection is needed to change its width appreciably. Within hybrid populations, there are significant associations among quantitative traits, and between traits and enzymes. Phenotypic variances also increase in hybrid populations. These observations can be explained by linkage disequilibria among the underlying loci. However, the average magnitude of the covariance between traits is about half that expected from the linkage disequilibria between enzyme loci. The discrepancy is not readily explained by nonadditive gene action. This puzzle is now unresolved and calls for further investigation.},
author = {Nürnberger, Beate and Barton, Nicholas H and Maccallum, Catriona and Gilchrist, Jason and Appleby, Michael},
issn = {0014-3820},
journal = {Evolution},
number = {6},
pages = {1224 -- 1238},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{Natural selection on quantitative traits in the Bombina hybrid zone}},
doi = {10.1111/j.1558-5646.1995.tb04449.x},
volume = {49},
year = {1995},
}
@article{3637,
abstract = {Hybridizing taxa remain distinct for two main reasons. Natural selection acts against hybrids either because of their incompatible genome, or because of differential adaptation of the pure types across an environmental gradient. Here, we provide experimental evidence that the location of the Bombina (Anura: Discoglossidae) hybrid zone in Croatia is, at least in part, determined by differential adaptation. B. bombina typically breeds in permanent water in the lowland, whereas B. variegata reproduces in puddles at higher elevations. In a reciprocal translocation, pure bombina and variegata tadpoles were introduced in equal proportions into lowland pond enclosures and upland puddles. After three weeks, variegata exceeded bombina in survival and growth in both habitats. The effect was most pronounced in puddles, where the few surviving bombina tadpoles had hardly grown at all. In comparison to variegata, the smaller hatchlings of bombina grew relatively faster in ponds, but remained smaller in absolute terms. Nevertheless, B. bombina appears better adapted to ponds than to puddles. The mechanisms by which variegata is excluded from ponds remain to be demonstrated. These data show that habitat dependent selection prevents the invasion of bombina tadpole traits into the variegata gene pool. Given the strong linkage disequilibria in hybrid populations, differential selection on tadpoles may be sufficient to maintain the integrity of the two gene pools.},
author = {Maccallum, Catriona and Nürnberger, Beate and Barton, Nicholas H},
issn = {0962-8452},
journal = {Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B Biological Sciences},
number = {1359},
pages = {257 -- 264},
publisher = {Royal Society of London},
title = {{Experimental evidence for habitat dependent selection in a Bombina hybrid zone}},
doi = {10.1098/rspb.1995.0089},
volume = {260},
year = {1995},
}
@article{3638,
abstract = {Any sample of genes traces back to a single common ancestor. Each gene also has other properties: its sequence, its geographic location and the phenotype and fitness of the organism that carries it. With sexual reproduction, different genes have different genealogies, which gives us much more information, but also greatly complicates population genetic analysis. We review the close relation between the distribution of genealogies and the classic theory of identity by descent in spatially structured populations, and develop a simple diffusion approximation to the distribution of coalescence times in a homogeneous two-dimensional habitat. This shows that when neighbourhood size is large (as in most populations) only a small fraction of pairs of genes are closely related, and only this fraction gives information about current rates of gene flow. The increase of spatial dispersion with lineage age is thus a poor estimator of gene flow. The bulk of the genealogy depends on the long-term history of the population; we discuss ways of inferring this history from the concordance between genealogies across loci.},
author = {Barton, Nicholas H and Wilson, I},
issn = {0962-8436},
journal = {Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences},
number = {1327},
pages = {49 -- 59},
publisher = {Royal Society, The},
title = {{Genealogies and geography}},
doi = {10.1098/rstb.1995.0090},
volume = {349},
year = {1995},
}
@inproceedings{3551,
abstract = {Common geometric models for proteins and other molecules are the space filling diagram, the solvent accessible surface, and the molecular surface. We describe software that computes metric properties of these models, including volume and surface area. It also measures voids or empty space enclosed by the protein, and it keeps track of surface area contributions of individual atoms. The software is based on 3-dimensional alpha complexes and on inclusion-exclusion formulas with terms derived from the simplices in this complex.},
author = {Edelsbrunner, Herbert and Facello, Michael and Fu, Ping and Liang, Jie},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 28th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences},
isbn = {0-8186-6930-6},
location = {Wailea, HI, United States of America},
pages = {256 -- 264},
publisher = {IEEE},
title = {{Measuring proteins and voids in proteins}},
doi = {10.1109/HICSS.1995.375331},
year = {1995},
}
@article{4028,
abstract = {Efficient algorithms are described for computing topological, combinatorial, and metric properties of the union of finitely many spherical balls in R(d) These algorithms are based on a simplicial complex dual to a decomposition of the union of balls using Voronoi cells, and on short inclusion-exclusion formulas derived from this complex. The algorithms are most relevant in R(3) where unions of finitely many balls are commonly used as models of molecules.},
author = {Edelsbrunner, Herbert},
issn = {0179-5376},
journal = {Discrete & Computational Geometry},
number = {1},
pages = {415 -- 440},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{The union of balls and its dual shape}},
doi = {10.1007/BF02574053},
volume = {13},
year = {1995},
}
@inproceedings{3552,
abstract = {The concept of an α-shape of a finite set of points in R^d, with weights, is defined and illustrated. An α-shape is a polytope which is not necessarily convex nor connected and can be derived from the (weighted) Delaunay triangulation of the point set, with a parameter controlling the desired level of detail. The set of all α values leads to a descrete family of shapes capturing the intuitive notion of ``crude'' versus ``fine'' shapes of a point set. Software that computes such shapes in R^2 and R^3 is available via anonymous ftp from:
ftp://ftp.ncsa.uiuc.edu/Visualization/Alpha-shape/ },
author = {Akkiraju, Nataraj and Edelsbrunner, Herbert and Facello, Michael and Fu, Ping and Mücke, Ernst and Varela, Carlos},
pages = {63 -- 66},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Alpha shapes: definition and software}},
year = {1995},
}
@misc{3597,
author = {Kirkpatrick, Mark and Barton, Nicholas H},
booktitle = {Nature},
issn = {0028-0836},
pages = {388 -- 389},
publisher = {Nature Publishing Group},
title = {{Déjà vu all over again}},
doi = {10.1038/377388a0},
volume = {377},
year = {1995},
}
@article{3481,
abstract = {1. The influence of intracellular factors on current rectification of different subtypes of native α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptors (AMPARs) was studied in rat brain slices by combining fast application of glutamate with patch pipette perfusion. 2. The peak current-voltage (I-V) relation of the AMPARs expressed in Bergmann glial cells of cerebellum and dentate gyrus (DG) basket cells of hippocampus was weakly rectifying in outside-out patches and nystatin-perforated vesicles, but showed a doubly rectifying shape with a region of reduced slope between 0 and +40 mV in nucleated patches. The I-V relation of AMPARs expressed in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurones was linear in all recording configurations. 3. Intracellular application of 2.5 μM spermine, a naturally occurring polyamine, blocked outward currents in outside-oat patches from Bergmann glial cells and DG basket cells in a voltage-dependent manner, generating I-V relations with a doubly rectifying shape which were similar to those recorded in nucleated patches. AMPARs in CA3 pyramidal cell patches were unaffected by 25 μM spermine. 4. The half-maximal blocking concentration of spermine at +40 mV was 0.3 μM in Bergmann glial cell patches and 1.5 μM in DG basket cell patches, whereas it was much higher (≥ 100 μM) for CA3 pyramidal. cell patches. Spermidine also affected current rectification, but with lower affinity. The block of outward current by polyamines following voltage jumps developed within < 0.5 ms. 5. We conclude that current rectification, rather than being an intrinsic property of the Ca2+ permeable AMPAR channel, is generated by polyamine block.},
author = {Koh, Duk and Burnashev, Nail and Jonas, Peter M},
issn = {0022-3751},
journal = {Journal of Physiology},
number = {Pt 2},
pages = {305 -- 312},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{Block of native Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors in rat brain by intracellular polyamines generates double rectification}},
doi = {10.1113/jphysiol.1995.sp020813},
volume = {486},
year = {1995},
}
@phdthesis{4428,
abstract = {Hybrid systems are real-time systems that react to both discrete and continuous activities (such as analog signals, time, temperature, and speed). Typical examples of hybrid systems are embedded systems, timing-based communication protocols, and digital circuits at the transistor level. Due to the rapid development of microprocessor technology, hybrid systems directly control much of what we depend on in our daily lives. Consequently, the formal specification and verification of hybrid systems has become an active area of research. This dissertation presents the first general framework for the formal specification and verification of hybrid systems, as well as the first hybrid-system analysis tool--HyTech. The framework consists of a graphical finite-state-machine-like language for modeling hybrid systems, a temporal logic for modeling the requirements of hybrid systems, and a computer procedure that verifies modeled hybrid systems against modeled requirements. The tool HyTech is the implementation of the framework using C++ and Mathematica.
More specifically, our hybrid-system modeling language, Hybrid Automata, is an extension of timed automata with discrete and continuous variables whose dynamics are governed by differential equations. Our requirement modeling language, ICTL, is a branching-time temporal logic, and is an extension of TCTL with stop-watch variables. Our verification procedure is a symbolic model-checking procedure that verifies linear hybrid automata against ICTL formulas. To make HyTech more efficient and effective, we use model-checking strategies and abstract operators that can expedite the verification process. To enable HyTech to verify nonlinear hybrid automata, we introduce two translations from nonlinear hybrid automata to linear hybrid automata. We have applied HyTech to analyze more than 30 hybrid-system benchmarks. In this dissertation, we present the application of HyTech to three nontrivial hybrid systems taken from the literature.},
author = {Ho, Pei},
pages = {1 -- 188},
publisher = {Cornell University},
title = {{Automatic analysis of hybrid systems}},
year = {1995},
}
@article{3478,
abstract = {1. Properties of dendritic glutamate receptor (GluR) channels were investigated using fast application of glutamate to outside-out membrane patches isolated from the apical dendrites of CA3 and CA1 pyramidal neurons in rat hippocampal slices. CA3 patches were formed (15-76 μm from the soma) in the region of messy fibre (MF) synapses, and CA1 patches (25-174 μm from the soma) in the region of Schaffer collateral (SC) innervation. 2. Dual-component responses consisting of a rapidly rising and decaying component followed by a second, substantially slower, component were elicited by 1 ms pulses of 1 mM glutamate in the presence of 10 μM glycine and absence of external Mg2+. The fast component was selectively blocked by 2-5 μM 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) and the slow component by 30 μM D-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (D-AP5), suggesting that the fast and slow components were mediated by the GluR channels of the L-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) and NMDA type, respectively. The peak amplitude ratio of the NMDA to AMPA receptor-mediated components varied between 0.03 and 0.62 in patches from both CA3 and CA1 dendrites. Patches lacking either component were rarely observed. 3. The peak current-voltage (I-V) relationship of the fast component was almost linear, whereas the I-V relationship of the slow component showed a region of negative slope in the presence of 1 mM external Mg2+. The reversal potential for both components was close to 0 mV. 4. Kainate-preferring GluR channels did not contribute appreciably to the response to glutamate. The responses to 100 ms pulses of 1 mM glutamate were mimicked by application of 1 mM AMPA, whereas 1 mM kainate produced much smaller, weakly desensitizing currents. This suggests that the fast component is primarily mediated by the action of glutamate on AMPA-preferring receptors. 5. The mean elementary conductance of AMPA receptor channels was about 10 pS, as estimated by non-stationary fluctuation analysis. The permeability of these channels to Ca2+ was low (~5% of the permeability to Cs+). 6. The elementary conductance of NMDA receptor channels was larger, with a main conductance state of about 45 pS. These channels were 3.6 times more permeable to Ca2+ than to Cs+. 7. AMPA receptor-mediated currents activated rapidly in response to 1 ms pulses of 1 mM glutamate and deactivated with a predominant, fast time constant and a smaller, slower component (τ1≃2 ms, τ2≃8 ms, contributing ~80 and ~20% to the total decay amplitude, respectively). Desensitization of the current during a 100 ms pulse was best fitted by two time constants (τ1≃10 ms, ~60%; τ2≃34 ms, ~40%). 8. NMDA receptor-mediated currents in response to 1 ms pulses of 1 mM glutamate activated and deactivated much more slowly than AMPA receptor-mediated currents. The time course could be described by a single exponential rising phase (τ≃7 ms) followed by a double exponential decay (τ1≃200 ms, ~80%; τ2≃1-3 s, ~20%). 9. Mg2+ blocked the NMDA component in a voltage-dependent manner, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 21 μM at -80 mV. At physiological Mg2+ concentrations, block of the NMDA component could be rapidly relieved with voltage jumps from negative to positive potentials. Block of the current upon return to negative potentials occurred almost instantaneously. 10. Zn2+ also selectively-blocked the NMDA receptor-mediated current with an IC50 of 22 μM, but this block differed from that of Mg2+ in that it showed little voltage dependence. Rapid application of Zn2+ together with glutamate produced partial block of the current. More block was observed if Zn2+ and glutamate were co-applied when NMDA receptor channels were already open. 11. The functional properties of dendritic GluRs were similar to those found at the soma. Knowledge of these properties facilitated simulations investigating the contribution of coactivated AMPA and NMDA receptors to synaptic depolarization and Ca2+ entry into dendritic spines. Because of its slow deactivation, the NMDA receptor-mediated current contributes substantially to depolarization and Ca2+ entry and is susceptible to modulation over a period of seconds, either by backpropagating action potentials or by the release of Zn2+ from presynaptic boutons.},
author = {Spruston, Nelson and Jonas, Peter M and Sakmann, Bert},
issn = {0022-3751},
journal = {Journal of Physiology},
number = {Pt 2},
pages = {325 -- 352},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{Dendritic glutamate receptor channels in rat hippocampal CA3 and CA1 pyramidal neurons}},
doi = {10.1113/jphysiol.1995.sp020521},
volume = {482},
year = {1995},
}
@article{3479,
abstract = {1. Glutamate receptor (GluR) channels were studied in basket cells in the dentate gyrus of rat hippocampal slices. Basket cells were identified by their location, dendritic morphology and high frequency of action potentials generated during sustained current injection. 2. Dual-component currents were activated by fast application of glutamate to outside-out membrane patches isolated from basket cell somata (10 μM glycine, no external Mg2+). The fast component was selectively blocked by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), the slow component by D-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (D-AP5). This suggests that the two components were mediated by α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptor (AMPAR)/kainate receptor and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) channels, respectively. The mean ratio of the peak current of the NMDAR component to that of the AMPAR/kainate receptor component was 0.22 (1 ms pulses of 10 mM glutamate). 3. The AMPAR/kainate receptor component, which was studied in isolation in the presence of D-AP5, was identified as AMPAR mediated on the basis of the preferential activation by AMPA as compared with kainate, the weak desensitization of kainate-activated currents, the cross-desensitization between AMPA and kainate, and the reduction of desensitization by cyclothiazide. 4. Deactivation of basket cell AMPARs following 1 ms pulses of glutamate occurred with a time constant (τ) of 1.2 ± 0.1 ms (mean ± S.E.M.). During 100 ms glutamate pulses, AMPARs desensitized with a τ of 3.7 ± 0.2 ms. 5. The peak current-voltage (I-V) relation of AMPAR-mediated currents in Na+-rich extracellular solution showed a reversal potential of -4.0 ± 2.6 mV and was characterized by a doubly rectifying shape. The conductance of single AMPAR channels was estimated as 22.6 ± 1.6 pS using non-stationary fluctuation analysis. AMPARs expressed in hippocampal basket cells mere highly Ca2+ permeable (P(Ca)/P(K) = 1.79). 6. NMDARs in hippocampal basket cells were studied in isolation in the presence of CNQX. Deactivation of NMDARs activated by glutamate pulses occurred bi-exponentially with mean τ values of 266 ± 23 ms (76%) and 2620 ± 383 ms (24%). 7. The peak I-V relation of the NMDAR-mediated component in Na+-rich extracellular solution showed a reversal potential of 1.5 ± 0.6 mV and a region of negative slope at negative membrane potentials in the presence of external Mg2+, due to voltage-dependent block by these ions. The conductance of single NMDAR channels in the main open state was 50.2 ± 1.8 pS. NMDARs in hippocampal basket cells were highly permeable to Ca2+ (P(Ca)/P(K) = 6.68). 8. AMPARs in hippocampal basket cells are characterized by about threefold faster kinetics and twentyfold higher Ca2+ permeability than AMPARs in hippocampal granule or pyramidal cells. Simulations show that the Ca2+ influx through basket cell AMPARs is comparable to that through NMDARs at negative membrane potentials with physiological concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+. This suggests a dual pathway of synaptically mediated Ca2+ entry into interneurones.},
author = {Koh, Duk and Geiger, Jörg and Jonas, Peter M and Sakmann, Bert},
issn = {0022-3751},
journal = {Journal of Physiology},
number = {Pt 2},
pages = {383 -- 402},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA and NMDA receptor channels in basket cells of rat hippocampal dentate gyrus}},
doi = {10.1113/jphysiol.1995.sp020737},
volume = {485},
year = {1995},
}
@article{3480,
abstract = {Recording of glutamate-activated currents in membrane patches was combine with RT-PCR-mediated AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunit mRNA analysis in single identified cells of rat brain slices. Analysis of AMPARs in principal neurons end interneurons of hippocampus and neocortex and in auditory relay neurons and Bergmann glial cells indicates that the GluR-B subunit in its flip version determines formation of receptors with relatively slow gating, whereas the GluR-D subunit promotes assembly of more rapidly gated receptors. The relation between Ca 2+ permeability of AMPAR channels and the relative GluR-B mRNA abundance is consistent with the dominance of this subunit in determining the Ca 2+ permeability of native receptors. The results suggest that differential expression of GluR-B and GluR-D subunit genes, as well as splicing end editing of their mRNAs, account for the differences in gating and Ca 2+ permeability of native AMPAR channels.},
author = {Geiger, Jörg and Melcher, Thorsten and Koh, Duk and Sakmann, Bert and Seeburg, Peter and Jonas, Peter M and Monyer, Hannah},
issn = {0896-6273},
journal = {Neuron},
number = {1},
pages = {193 -- 204},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Relative abundance of subunit mRNAs determines gating and Ca(2+) permeability of AMPA receptors in principal neurons and interneurons in rat CNS}},
doi = {10.1016/0896-6273(95)90076-4},
volume = {15},
year = {1995},
}
@inbook{3454,
abstract = {The study of gene expression and regulation in the central nervous system (CNS) is a daunting task because of the diversity of neuronal phenotypes and the complexity of many protein classes. Molecular cloning revealed the presence of a large number of different protein families in the CNS, each comprising several members. Ligand-gated ion channels may serve as an example to illustrate this point (for review, see Unwin, 1993). Heterologous expression combined with electrophysiological analysis suggests that ligand-gated channels are multimeric proteins with functional properties depending on the subunit composition. Very little is known, however, about how the functional properties of the recombinant and native receptors relate to each other. Thus, it is of eminent importance to elucidate the subunit expression profile in different types of neurons in the CNS and to correlate this with the functional properties of the native receptors.},
author = {Monyer, Hannah and Jonas, Peter M},
booktitle = {Single-channel recording},
editor = {Sakmann, Bert and Neher, Erwin},
isbn = {978-0-306-44870-6},
pages = {357 -- 373},
publisher = {Plenum},
title = {{Polymerase chain reaction analysis of ion channel expression in single neurons of brain slices}},
doi = {10.1007/978-1-4419-1229-9_16},
year = {1995},
}
@inbook{3455,
abstract = {At a synapse, the transmitter is stored in synaptic vesicles and is released into the synaptic cleft almost instantaneously upon fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane. Subsequently, the transmitter diffuses to ligand-gated ion channels in the postsynaptic density, binds to them, and thereby causes channel activation. Unfortunately, we have estimates neither of the exact amount of transmitter in the synaptic vesicle nor of the concentration in the synaptic cleft reaching the postsynaptic receptors, and in some cases even the identity of the transmitter is unknown. These questions may be addressed by modeling of release and diffusion. Such a theoretical approach, however, is based on several assumptions, some of which lack experimental evidence.},
author = {Jonas, Peter M},
booktitle = {Single-channel recording},
editor = {Sakmann, Bert and Neher, Erwin},
isbn = {978-0-306-44870-6},
pages = {231 -- 243},
publisher = {Plenum},
title = {{Fast application of agonists to isolated membrane patches}},
doi = {10.1007/978-1-4419-1229-9_10},
year = {1995},
}
@article{3461,
author = {Jonas, Peter M and Burnashev, Nail},
issn = {0896-6273},
journal = {Neuron},
number = {5},
pages = {987 -- 990},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Molecular mechanisms controlling calcium entry through AMPA-type glutamate receptor channels}},
doi = {10.1016/0896-6273(95)90087-X},
volume = {15},
year = {1995},
}
@article{4298,
author = {Barton, Nicholas H},
issn = {1558-5646},
journal = {Evolution},
number = {6},
pages = {1038 -- 1045},
publisher = {Wiley},
title = {{Appendix to "A simulation study of multilocus clines" by S J E Baird}},
doi = {10.1111/j.1558-5646.1995.tb04431.x},
volume = {49},
year = {1995},
}
@article{2559,
abstract = {Taking advantage of the restricted expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 6 (mGIuR6) in retinal ON bipolar cells, we generated knockout mice lacking mGIuR6 expression. The homozygous mutant mice showed a loss of ON responses but unchanged OFF responses to light. The mutant mice displayed no obvious changes in retinal cell organization nor in the projection of optic fibers to the brain. Furthermore, the mGIuR6-deficient mice showed visual behavioral responses to light stimulation as examined by shuttle box avoidance behavior experiments using light exposure as a conditioned stimulus. The results demonstrate that mGIuR6 is essential in synaptic transmission to the ON bipolar cell and that the OFF response provides an important means for transmitting visual information.},
author = {Masu, Masayuki and Iwakabe, Hideki and Tagawa, Yoshiaki and Miyoshi, Tomomitsu and Yamashita, Masayuki and Fukuda, Yutaka and Sasaki, Hitoshi and Hiroi, Kano and Nakamura, Yasuhisa and Shigemoto, Ryuichi and Takada, Masahiko and Nakamura, Kenji and Nakao, Kazuki and Katsuki, Motoya and Nakanishi, Shigetada},
issn = {0092-8674},
journal = {Cell},
number = {5},
pages = {757 -- 765},
publisher = {Cell Press},
title = {{Specific deficit of the ON response in visual transmission by targeted disruption of the mGIuR6 gene}},
doi = {10.1016/0092-8674(95)90354-2},
volume = {80},
year = {1995},
}
@article{2561,
abstract = {An antibody which recognizes specifically a metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR7, was produced by using a trpE fusion protein containing a C-terminal sequence of rat mGluR7. Neuropil in laminae I and II of the dorsal horn of the rat, as well as many neuronal cell bodies in the dorsal root ganglion, showed mGluR7-like immunoreactivity; the immunoreactivity in neuropil was seen in axon terminals, which were filled with round synaptic vesicles and constituted axodendritic and axosomatic asymmetric synapses. The mGluR7-like immunoreactivity in laminae I and II in the dorsal horn was reduced after dorsal rhizotomy. The results indicate that some axon terminals of the primary afferent fibers to laminae I and II of the dorsal horn are provided with mGluR7.},
author = {Ohishi, Hitoshi and Nomura, Sakashi and Ding, Yu and Shigemoto, Ryuichi and Wada, Eiki and Kinoshita, Ayae and Li, Jin and Neki, Akio and Nakanishi, Shigetada and Mizuno, Noboru},
issn = {0304-3940},
journal = {Neuroscience Letters},
number = {1-2},
pages = {85 -- 88},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Presynaptic localization of a metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR7, in the primary afferent neurons: An immunohistochemical study in the rat}},
doi = {10.1016/0304-3940(95)12207-9},
volume = {202},
year = {1995},
}
@article{2560,
abstract = {Chemical irritation of the urinary bladder with formalin in the rat induced c-fos protein-like immunoreactivity in more than 80% of substance P receptor-like immunoreactive (SPR-LI) neurons of the dorsal commissural nucleus, sacral parasympathetic nucleus and lamina I in the 6th lumbar and 1st sacral cord segments. These neurons with SPR-LI may receive noxious information from the urinary bladder through the primary afferent fibers with substance P.},
author = {Lü, Yan and Jin, Shan and Xu, Tian and Qin, Bing and Li, Ji and Ding, Yu and Shigemoto, Ryuichi and Mizuno, Noboru},
issn = {0304-3940},
journal = {Neuroscience Letters},
number = {2},
pages = {139 -- 142},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Expression of c-fos protein in substance P receptor-like immunoreactive neurons in response to noxious stimuli on the urinary bladder: an observation in the lumbosacral cord segments of the rat}},
doi = {10.1016/0304-3940(95)11991-5},
volume = {198},
year = {1995},
}
@article{2563,
abstract = {By means of substance P receptor (SPR) immunofluorescence histochemistry combined with Fluoro-Gold fluorescent retrograde labeling, SPR-like immunoreactive neurons in the caudal subnucleus of the spinal trigeminal nucleus of the rat were observed to send their axons to the nucleus of Kolliker-Fuse and ventrolateral part of the lateral parabrachial nucleus bilaterally with a clear ipsilateral dominance. These neurons were distributed mainly in lamina I, and additionally in lamina III.},
author = {Ding, Yu and Takada, Masahiko and Shigemoto, Ryuichi and Mizuno, Noboru},
issn = {0168-0102},
journal = {Neuroscience Research},
number = {4},
pages = {415 -- 418},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Trigeminoparabrachial projection neurons showing substance P receptor-like immunoreactivity in the rat}},
doi = {10.1016/0168-0102(95)00961-R},
volume = {23},
year = {1995},
}
@inproceedings{2712,
abstract = {We study the generalizations of the well-known Lieb-Thirring inequality for the magnetic Schrödinger operator with a nonconstant magnetic field. We use stochastic methods to prove estimates on the moments of the negative eigenvalues.},
author = {Erdös, László},
location = {Holzhau, Germany},
pages = {127 -- 132},
publisher = {Birkhäuser},
title = {{Magnetic Lieb-Thirring inequalities and stochastic oscillatory integrals}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-0348-9092-2_13},
volume = {78},
year = {1995},
}
@article{2724,
abstract = {We study the generalizations of the well-known Lieb-Thirring inequality for the magnetic Schrödinger operator with nonconstant magnetic field. Our main result is the naturally expected magnetic Lieb-Thirring estimate on the moments of the negative eigenvalues for a certain class of magnetic fields (including even some unbounded ones). We develop a localization technique in path space of the stochastic Feynman-Kac representation of the heat kernel which effectively estimates the oscillatory effect due to the magnetic phase factor.},
author = {Erdös, László},
issn = {0010-3616},
journal = {Communications in Mathematical Physics},
number = {3},
pages = {629 -- 668},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Magnetic Lieb-Thirring inequalities}},
doi = {10.1007/BF02099152},
volume = {170},
year = {1995},
}
@article{1943,
abstract = {Transhydrogenase from beef-heart mitochondria was solubilised with Triton X-100 and purified by column chromatography. The detergent-dispersed enzyme catalysed the reduction of acetylpyridine adenine dinucleotide (AcPdAD+) by NADH, but only in the presence of NADP+. Experiments showed that this reaction was cyclic; NADP(H), whilst remaining bound to the enzyme, was alternately reduced by NADH and oxidised by AcPdAD+. A period of incubation of the enzyme with NADPH at pH 6.0 led to inhibition of the simple transhydrogenation reaction between AcPdAD+ and NADPH. However, after such treatment, transhydrogenase acquired the ability to catalyse the (NADPH-dependent) reduction of AcPdAD+ by NADH. It is suggested that this is a similar cycle to the one described above. Evidently, the binding affinity for NADP+ increases as a consequence of the inhibition process resulting from prolonged incubation with NADPH. The pH dependences of simple and cyclic transhydrogenation reactions are described. Though more complex than those in Escherichia coli transhydrogenase, they are consistent with the view [Hutton, M., Day, J.M., Bizouarn, T. and Jackson, J.B. (1994) Eur. J. Biochem. 219, 1041–10511] that, also in the mitochondrial enzyme, binding the release of NADP+ and NADP are accompanied by binding and release of a proton. The enzyme was successfully reconstituted into liposomes by a cholate dilution procedure. The proteoliposomes catalysed cyclic NADPH-dependent reduction of AcPdAD+ by NADH only when they were tightly coupled. However, they catalysed cyclic NADP+-dependent reduction of AcPdAD+ by NADH only when they were uncoupled eg. by addition of carbonylcyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl hydrazone. These observations are evidence that the proton binding and release which accompany NADP+ binding and release, respectively, take place on the inside of the vesicle, and that they are components of the electrogenic processes of the enzyme.},
author = {Sazanov, Leonid A and Jackson, Baz},
issn = {0005-2728},
journal = {Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Bioenergetics},
number = {3},
pages = {304 -- 312},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Cyclic reactions catalysed by detergent-dispersed and reconstituted transhydrogenase from beef heart mitochondria; implications for the mechanism of proton translocation}},
doi = {10.1016/0005-2728(95)00096-2},
volume = {1231},
year = {1995},
}
@article{2491,
abstract = {The distribution of mRNAs for metabotropic glutamate receptors, mGluR4 and mGluR7, which are highly sensitive for L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L- AP4), was examined in the central nervous system of the rat by in situ hybridization. In general, the hybridization signals of mGluR7 mRNA were more widely distributed than those of mGluR4 mRNA, and differential expression of mGluR4 mRNA and mGluR7 mRNA was clearly indicated in some brain regions. Intense or moderate expression of mGluR4 mRNA was detected in the granule cells of the olfactory bulb and cerebellum, whereas no significant expression of mGluR7 mRNA was found in these cells. In other neurons or regions where mGluR7 mRNA was intensely or moderately expressed, no significant expression of mGluR4 mRNA was observed. Such were the mitral and tufted cells of the olfactory bulb; anterior olfactory nucleus; neocortical regions; cingulate cortex; retrosplenial cortex; piriform cortex; perirhinal cortex; CA1; CA3; granule cells of the dentate gyrus; superficial layers of the subicular cortex; deep layers of the entorhinal, parasubicular, and presubicular cortices; ventral part of the lateral septal nucleus; septohippocampal nucleus; triangular septal nucleus; nuclei of the diagonal band; bed nucleus of the stria terminalis; ventral pallidum; claustrum; amygdaloid nuclei other than the intercalated nuclei; preoptic region; hypothalamic nuclei other than the medial mammillary nucleus; ventral lateral geniculate nucleus; locus coeruleus; Purkinje cells; many nuclei of the lower brainstem other than the superior colliculus, periaqueductal gray, interpeduncular nucleus, pontine nuclei, and dorsal cochlear nucleus; and dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Both mGluR4 mRNA and mGluR7 mRNA were moderately or intensely expressed in the olfactory tubercle, superficial layers of the entorhinal cortex, CA4, septofimbrial nucleus, intercalated nuclei of the amygdala, medial mammillary nucleus, many thalamic nuclei, and pontine nuclei. Intense expression of both mGluR4 mRNA and mGluR7 mRNA was further detected in the trigeminal ganglion and dorsal root ganglia, whereas no significant expression of them was found in the pterygopalatine ganglion and superior cervical ganglion. The results indicate differential roles of the L-AP4-sensitive metabotropic glutamate receptors in the glutamatergic nervous system.},
author = {Ohishi, Hitoshi and Akazawa, Chihiro and Shigemoto, Ryuichi and Nakanishi, Shigetada and Mizuno, Noboru},
issn = {0021-9967},
journal = {Journal of Comparative Neurology},
number = {4},
pages = {555 -- 570},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{Distributions of the mRNAs for L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate-sensitive metabotropic glutamate receptors, mGluR4 and mGluR7, in the rat brain}},
doi = {10.1002/cne.903600402},
volume = {360},
year = {1995},
}
@article{2558,
abstract = {Brain areas involved in the genesis and control of daily rhythms receive a prominent neural input that contains the neurotransmitter substance P (SP), a peptide putatively involved in the synchronization of circadian rhythms by environmental light. We investigated the localization of receptors to SP in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus (SCN) and in the intergeniculate leaflet of the thalamus (IGL) of the rat and hamster using in situ hybridization histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Consistently with that previously described in the rat, a neuronal population distributed along the lateral margin and at the dorso-latero-caudal aspect of the hamster SCN expresses moderately the mRNA encoding the SP receptor. In both rat and hamster, immunohistochemical data confirm the previous finding and reveal an almost complete absence of SP receptors in the ventral part of the SCN, which receives a direct projection from the retina. In the IGL of both species, numerous neurons prominently express the mRNA encoding the SP receptor. The immunostaining shows a high density of SP receptors on perikarya and dendrites throughout the nucleus. A dense staining is also observed on individual cells and processes bordering the lumen of blood vessels in the SCN and IGL.},
author = {Mick, Gérard and Shigemoto, Ryuichi and Kitahama, Kunio},
issn = {0764-4469},
journal = {Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences - Series III},
number = {2},
pages = {209 -- 217},
publisher = {Gauthier Villars Editeur},
title = {{Localization of substance P receptors in central neural structures controlling daily rhythms in nocturnal rodents}},
volume = {318},
year = {1995},
}
@article{2556,
abstract = {By using substance P receptor (SPR) immunofluorescence histochemistry combined with fluorescent retrograde labeling, SPR-like immunoreactive (SPR-LI) neurons sending their axons to the lateral parabrachial region were observed in the lumbar spinal cord of the rat. After injection of Fluoro-Gold into the lateral parabrachial region, retrogradely labeled neurons with SPR-LI were seen frequently in lamina I and the lateral spinal nucleus, and occasionally in laminae IV and V, with a predominantly contralateral distribution. Some of these neurons, especially those in lamina I, may convey nociceptive information to the lateral parabrachial region.},
author = {Ding, Yu and Takada, Masahiko and Shigemoto, Ryuichi and Mizuno, Noboru},
issn = {0006-8993},
journal = {Brain Research},
number = {2},
pages = {336 -- 340},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Spinoparabrachial tract neurons showing substance P receptor-like immunoreactivity in the lumbar spinal cord of the rat}},
doi = {10.1016/0006-8993(95)00022-I},
volume = {674},
year = {1995},
}
@inbook{2465,
abstract = {Auxins play a crucial role in the regulation of spatial and temporal aspects of plant growth and development1. As well as being required for the division, enlargement and differentiation of individual plant cells, auxins also function as signals between cells, tissues and organs. In this way they contribute to the coordination and integration of growth and development in the whole plant and to physiological responses of plants to environmental cues (63). At the individual cell level, fast changes or pulses in hormone concentration may function to initiate or to terminate a developmental process. In contrast, the maintenance of a stable concentration of the hormone (homeostasis) may be necessary to maintain the progress of a developmental event that has already been initiated.},
author = {Morris, David and Friml, Jirí and Zažímalová, Eva},
booktitle = {Plant Hormones: Biosynthesis, Signal Transduction, Action!},
editor = {Davies, Peter},
isbn = {978-1-4020-2684-3},
pages = {451 -- 484},
publisher = {Kluwer},
title = {{Auxin transport}},
doi = {10.1007/978-1-4020-2686-7_21},
year = {1995},
}
@article{11677,
abstract = {We present an algorithm for maintaining the biconnected components of a graph during a sequence of edge insertions and deletions. It requires linear storage and preprocessing time. The amortized running time for insertions and for deletions isO(m 2/3 ), wherem is the number of edges in the graph. Any query of the form ‘Are the verticesu andv biconnected?’ can be answered in timeO(1). This is the first sublinear algorithm for this problem. We can also output all articulation points separating any two vertices efficiently.
If the input is a plane graph, the amortized running time for insertions and deletions drops toO(√n logn) and the query time isO(log2 n), wheren is the number of vertices in the graph. The best previously known solution takes timeO(n 2/3 ) per update or query.},
author = {Henzinger, Monika H},
issn = {1432-0541},
journal = {Algorithmica},
number = {6},
pages = {503--538},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{Fully dynamic biconnectivity in graphs}},
doi = {10.1007/bf01189067},
volume = {13},
year = {1995},
}
@inproceedings{11684,
abstract = {This paper presents an algorithm for the fully dynamic biconnectivity problem whose running time is exponentially faster than all previously known solutions. It is the first dynamic algorithm that answers biconnectivity queries in time O(log/sup 2/n) in a n-node graph and can be updated after an edge insertion or deletion in polylogarithmic time. Our algorithm is a Las-Vegas style randomized algorithm with the update time amortized update time O(log/sup 4/n). Only recently the best deterministic result for this problem was improved to O(/spl radic/nlog/sup 2/n). We also give the first fully dynamic and a novel deletions-only transitive closure (i.e. directed connectivity) algorithms. These are randomized Monte Carlo algorithms. Let n be the number of nodes in the graph and let m/spl circ/ be the average number of edges in the graph during the whole update sequence: The fully dynamic algorithms achieve (1) query time O(n/logn) and update time O(m/spl circ//spl radic/nlog/sup 2/n+n); or (2) query time O(n/logn) and update time O(nm/spl circ//sup /spl mu/-1/)log/sup 2/n=O(nm/spl circ//sup 0.58/log/sup 2/n), where /spl mu/ is the exponent for boolean matrix multiplication (currently /spl mu/=2.38). The deletions-only algorithm answers queries in time O(n/logn). Its amortized update time is O(nlog/sup 2/n).},
author = {Henzinger, Monika H and King, V.},
booktitle = {Proceedings of IEEE 36th Annual Foundations of Computer Science},
isbn = {0-8186-7183-1},
issn = {0272-5428},
location = {Milwaukee, WI, United States},
pages = {664--672},
publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers},
title = {{Fully dynamic biconnectivity and transitive closure}},
doi = {10.1109/SFCS.1995.492668},
year = {1995},
}
@inproceedings{11806,
abstract = {This paper presents insertions-only algorithms for maintaining the exact and approximate size of the minimum edge cut and the minimum vertex cut of a graph. The algorithms output the approximate or exact size k in time O(1) or O(log n) and a cut of size k in time linear in its size. The amortized time per insertion is O(1/ε 2) for a (2+ε)-approximation, O((log λ)((log n)/ε)2) for a (1+ε)-approximation, and O(λ log n) for the exact size of the minimum edge cut, where n is the number of nodes in the graph, λ is the size of the minimum cut and ε>0. The (2+ε)-approximation algorithm and the exact algorithm are deterministic, the (1+ε)-approximation algorithm is randomized. The algorithms are optimal in the sense that the time needed for m insertions matches the time needed by the best static algorithm on a m-edge graph. We also present a static 2-approximation algorithm for the size κ of the minimum vertex cut in a graph, which takes time O(n 2 min(√n,κ)). This is a factor of κ faster than the best algorithm for computing the exact size, which takes time O(κ 2 n 2 +κ 3 n 1.5). We give an insertionsonly algorithm for maintaining a (2+ε)-approximation of the minimum vertex cut with amortized insertion time O(n(logκk)/ε).},
author = {Henzinger, Monika H},
booktitle = {22nd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming},
isbn = {9783540494256},
issn = {1611-3349},
location = {Szeged, Hungary},
pages = {280–291},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{Approximating minimum cuts under insertions}},
doi = {10.1007/3-540-60084-1_81},
volume = {944},
year = {1995},
}
@inproceedings{11805,
abstract = {In this paper, we present sparse certificates for biconnectivity together with algorithms for updating these certificates. We thus obtain fully-dynamic algorithms for biconnectivity in graphs that run in O(√n log n log⌈m/n⌉) amortized time per operation, where m is the number of edges and n is the number of nodes in the graph. This improves upon the results in [11], in which algorithms were presented running in O(√m) amortized time, and solves the open problem to find certificates to speed up biconnectivity, as stated in [2].},
author = {Henzinger, Monika H and Poutré, Han},
booktitle = {3rd Annual European Symposium on Algorithms},
isbn = {9783540603139},
issn = {1611-3349},
location = {Corfu, Greece},
pages = {171–184},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{Certificates and fast algorithms for biconnectivity in fully-dynamic graphs}},
doi = {10.1007/3-540-60313-1_142},
volume = {979},
year = {1995},
}
@article{6167,
abstract = {The tra-1 gene is the terminal regulator in the sex determination pathway in C. elegans, directing all aspects of somatic sexual differentiation. Recessive loss-of-function (lf) mutations in tra-1 masculinize XX animals (normally somatically female), while dominant gain-of-function mutations feminize XO animals (normally male). Most tra-1 (lf) mutations can be fitted into a simple allelic series of somatic masculinization, but a small number of lf alleles do not fit into this series. Here we show that three of these mutations are associated with DNA rearrangements 5' to the coding region. One allele is an inversion that may be subject to a position effect. We also report the isolation of a new class of tra-1 alleles that are responsive to mutations in the smg system of RNA surveillance. We show that two of these express RNAs of aberrant size. We suggest that the smg-sensitive mutations may identify a carboxy-terminal domain required for negative regulation of tra-1 activity.},
author = {Zarkower, David and de Bono, Mario and Aronoff, Rachel and Hodgkin, Jonathan},
issn = {0192-253X},
journal = {Developmental Genetics},
number = {3},
pages = {240--250},
publisher = {Wiley},
title = {{Regulatory rearrangements and smg-sensitive allels of the C. elegans sex-determining gene tra-1}},
doi = {10.1002/dvg.1020150306},
volume = {15},
year = {1994},
}
@inproceedings{2548,
abstract = {The induction mechanism of cerebellar long term depression (LTD) has been analysed in a cerebellar culture. Using nitr-5, a photolabile Ca chelator, we demonstrated that an increase in postsynaptic Ca together with glutamate application is sufficient to induce the LTD of glutamate responsiveness in Purkinje cells. It has also been shown that one subtype of genetically defined metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR1, is involved in the LTD induction. We raised antibodies which specifically recognized mGluR1 and inactivated its function. The antibodies suppressed the LTD induction in the cultured Purkinje cells.},
author = {Hirano, Tomoo and Kasono, Keizo and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Nakanishi, Shigetada},
number = {SUPPL. 1},
pages = {79 -- 81},
publisher = {Biomedical Research Foundation},
title = {{Induction mechanism of long term depression in cultured Purkinje neurons}},
volume = {15},
year = {1994},
}
@inproceedings{4615,
abstract = {We introduce the class of event- recording timed automata (ERA). An event-recording automaton contains, for every event a, a clock that records the time of the last occurrence of a. The class ERA is, on one hand, expressive enough to model (finite) timed transition systems and, on the other hand, determinizable and closed under all boolean operations. As a result, the language inclusion problem is decidable for event-recording automata. We present a translation from timed transition systems to event-recording automata, which leads to an algorithm for checking if two timed transition systems have the same set of timed behaviors. We also consider event-predicting timed automata (EPA), which contain clocks that predict the time of the next occurrence of an event. The class of event-clock automata (ECA), which contain both event-recording and event-predicting clocks, is a suitable specification language for real-time properties. We provide an algorithm for checking if a timed automaton meets a specification that is given as an event-clock automaton.},
author = {Alur, Rajeev and Fix, Limor and Henzinger, Thomas A},
booktitle = {International Conference on Computer Aided Verification},
isbn = {9783540484691},
location = {Stanford, CA, United States of America},
pages = {1 -- 13},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{A determinizable class of timed automata}},
doi = {10.1007/3-540-58179-0_39},
volume = {818},
year = {1994},
}
@inproceedings{4617,
abstract = {We extend the timed-automaton model for real-time systems [AD90] to a formal model for hybrid systems: while the continuous variables of a timed automaton are clocks that measure time, the continuous variables of a hybrid system are governed by arbitrary differential equations. We then adopt the verification methodology for timed automata [ACD90, ACD+92, HNSY92] to analyze hybrid systems: while the verification problem is decidable for timed automata, we obtain semidecision procedures for the class of hybrid systems whose continuous variables change in a piecewise linear fashion. },
author = {Alur, Rajeev and Courcoubetis, Costas and Henzinger, Thomas A and Ho, Pei and Nicollin, Xavier and Olivero, Alfredo and Sifakis, Joseph and Yovine, Sergio},
booktitle = {11th International Conference on Analysis and Optimization of Systems Discrete Event Systems},
isbn = {978-3-540-19896-3},
location = {Sophia-Antipolis, France},
pages = {331 -- 351},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{The algorithmic analysis of hybrid systems}},
doi = {10.1007/BFb0033565},
volume = {199},
year = {1994},
}
@inproceedings{4614,
abstract = {We develop a theory of equivalences for timed systems. Two systems are equivalent iff external observers cannot observe differences in their behavior. The notion of equivalence depends, therefore, on the distinguishing power of the observers. The power of an observer to measure time results in untimed, clock, and timed equivalences: an untimed observer cannot measure the time difference between events; a clock observer uses a clock to measure time differences with finite precision; a timed observer is able to measure time differences with arbitrary precision.
We show that the distinguishing power of clock observers grows with the number of observers, and approaches, in the limit, the distinguishing power of a timed observer. More precisely, given any equivalence for untimed systems, two timed systems are k-clock congruent, for a nonnegative integer k, iff their compositions with every environment that uses k clocks are untimed equivalent. Both k-clock bisimulation congruence and k-clock trace congruence form strict decidable hierarchies that converge towards the corresponding timed equivalences. Moreover, k-clock bisimulation congruence and k-clock trace congruence provide an adequate and abstract semantics for branching-time and linear-time logics with k clocks.
Our results impact on the verification of timed systems in two ways. First, our decision procedure for k-clock bisimulation congruence leads to a new, symbolic, decision procedure for timed bisimilarity. Second, timed trace equivalence is known to be undecidable. If the number of environment clocks is bounded, however, then our decision procedure for k-clock trace congruence allows the verification of timed systems in a trace model.},
author = {Alur, Rajeev and Courcoubetis, Costas and Henzinger, Thomas A},
booktitle = {5th International Conference on Concurrency Theory},
isbn = {3540583297},
location = {Uppsala, Sweden},
pages = {162 -- 177},
publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik},
title = {{The observational power of clocks}},
doi = {10.1007/BFb0015008},
volume = {836},
year = {1994},
}
@inproceedings{4440,
abstract = {We present a methodology for proving temporal properties of the divergent runs of reactive systems with real-valued clocks. A run diverges if time advances beyond any bound. Since the divergent runs of a system may satisfy liveness properties that are not satisfied by some convergent runs, the standard proof rules are incomplete if only divergent runs are considered. First, we develop a sound and complete proof calculus for divergence, which is based on translating clock systems into discrete systems. Then, we show that simpler proofs can be obtained for stronger divergence assumptions, such as unknown -divergence, which requires that all delays have a minimum duration of some unknown constant . We classify all real-time systems into an infinite hierarchy, according to how well they admit the translation of eventuality properties into equivalent safety properties.},
author = {Henzinger, Thomas A and Kopke, Peter},
booktitle = {3rd International Symposium on Formal Techniques in Real-Time and Fault-Tolerant Systems},
location = {Lübeck, Gernany},
pages = {351 -- 372},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Verification methods for the divergent runs of clock systems}},
doi = {10.1007/3-540-58468-4_173},
volume = {863},
year = {1994},
}
@inproceedings{4420,
abstract = {We propose a methodology for the specification, verification, and design of hybrid systems. The methodology consists of the computational model of Concrete Phase Transition Systems (cptss), the specification language of Hybrid Temporal Logic (htl), the graphical system description language of Hybrid Automata, and a proof system for verifying that hybrid automata satisfy their HTL specifications. The novelty of the approach lies in the continuous-time logic, which allows specification of both point-based and interval-based properties (i.e., properties which describe changes over an interval) and provides direct references to derivatives of variables, and in the proof system that supports verification of point-based and interval-based properties. The proof rules demonstrate that sound and convenient induction rules can be established for continuous-time logics. The proof rules are illustrated on several examples.},
author = {Kapur, Arjun and Henzinger, Thomas A and Manna, Zohar and Pnueli, Amir},
booktitle = {3rd International Symposium on Formal Techniques in Real-Time and Fault-Tolerant Systems},
location = {Lübeck, Germany},
pages = {431 -- 454},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Proving safety properties of hybrid systems}},
doi = {10.1007/3-540-58468-4_177},
volume = {863},
year = {1994},
}
@article{4501,
abstract = {We extend the specification language of temporal logic, the corresponding verification framework, and the underlying computational model to deal with real-;time properties of reactive systems. The abstract notion of timed transition systems generalizes traditional transition systems conservatively: qualitative fairness requirements are replaced (and superseded) by quantitative lower-bound and upper-bound timing constraints on transitions. This framework can model real-time systems that communicate either through shared variables or by message passing and real-time issues such as timeouts, process priorities (interrupts), and process scheduling. We exhibit two styles for the specification of real-time systems. While the first approach uses time-bounded versions of the temporal operators, the second approach allows explicit references to time through a special clock variable. Corresponding to the two styles of specification, we present and compare two different proof methodologies for the verification of timing requirements that are expressed in these styles. For the bounded-operator style, we provide a set of proof rules for establishing bounded-invariance and bounded-responce properties of timed transition systems. This approach generalizes the standard temporal proof rules for verifying invariance and response properties conservatively. For the explicit-clock style, we exploit the observation that every time-bounded property is a safety property and use the standard temporal proof rules for establishing safety properties.},
author = {Henzinger, Thomas A and Manna, Zohar and Pnueli, Amir},
issn = {0890-5401},
journal = {Information and Computation},
number = {2},
pages = {273 -- 337},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Temporal proof methodologies for timed transition systems}},
doi = {10.1006/inco.1994.1060},
volume = {112},
year = {1994},
}
@inbook{4590,
abstract = {We introduce a temporal logic for the specification of real-time systems. Our logic, TPTL, employs a novel quantifier construct for referencing time: the "freeze" quantifier binds a variable to the time of the local temporal context. TPTL is both a natural language for specification and a suitable formalism for verification. We present a tableau-based decision procedure and a model-checking algorithm for TPTL. Several generalizations of TPTL are shown to be highly undecidable.},
author = {Alur, Rajeev and Henzinger, Thomas A},
booktitle = {Theories and Experiences for Real-Time System Development},
editor = {Rus, Teodor and Rattray, Charles},
isbn = { 9789810219239},
keywords = {real-time systems, clock variables},
pages = {1 -- 29},
publisher = {World Scientific Publishing},
title = {{Real-time system = discrete system + clock variables}},
doi = {10.1142/9789812831583_0001},
volume = {2},
year = {1994},
}
@article{4503,
abstract = {We describe finite-state programs over real-numbered time in a guarded-command language with real-valued clocks or, equivalently, as finite automata with real-valued clocks. Model checking answers the question which states of a real-time program satisfy a branching-time specification (given in an extension of CTL with clock variables). We develop an algorithm that computes this set of states symbolically as a fixpoint of a functional on state predicates, without constructing the state space. For this purpose, we introduce a μ-calculus on computation trees over real-numbered time. Unfortunately, many standard program properties, such as response for all nonzeno execution sequences (during which time diverges), cannot be characterized by fixpoints: we show that the expressiveness of the timed μ-calculus is incomparable to the expressiveness of timed CTL. Fortunately, this result does not impair the symbolic verification of "implementable" real-time programs-those whose safety constraints are machine-closed with respect to diverging time and whose fairness constraints are restricted to finite upper bounds on clock values. All timed CTL properties of such programs are shown to be computable as finitely approximable fixpoints in a simple decidable theory.},
author = {Henzinger, Thomas A and Nicollin, Xavier and Sifakis, Joseph and Yovine, Sergio},
issn = {0890-5401},
journal = {Information and Computation},
number = {2},
pages = {193 -- 244},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Symbolic model checking for real-time systems}},
doi = {10.1006/inco.1994.1045},
volume = {111},
year = {1994},
}
@inproceedings{4586,
abstract = {Fairness is a mathematical abstraction: in a multiprogramming environment, fairness abstracts the details of admissible (“fair”) schedulers; in a distributed environment, fairness abstracts the speeds of independent processors. We argue that the standard definition of fairness often is unnecessarily weak and can be replaced by the stronger, yet still abstract, notion of finitary fairness. While standard weak fairness requires that no enabled transition is postponed forever, finitary weak fairness requires that for every run of a system there is an unknown bound k such that no enabled transition is postponed more than k consecutive times. In general, the finitary restriction fin(F) of any given fairness assumption F is the union of all w-regular safety properties that are contained in F. The adequacy of the proposed abstraction is demonstrated in two ways. Suppose that we prove a program property under the assumption of finitary fairness. In a multiprogramming environment, the program then satisfies the property for all fair finite-state schedulers. In a distributed environment, the program then satisfies the property for all choices of lower and upper bounds on the speeds (or timings) of processors},
author = {Alur, Rajeev and Henzinger, Thomas A},
booktitle = {Proceedings 9th Annual IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science},
issn = {0018-9162},
location = {Paris, France},
pages = {52 -- 61},
publisher = {IEEE},
title = {{Finitary fairness}},
doi = {10.1109/LICS.1994.316087 },
year = {1994},
}
@article{4591,
abstract = {We introduce a temporal logic for the specification of real-time systems. Our logic, TPTL, employs a novel quantifier construct for referencing time: the freeze quantifier binds a variable to the time of the local temporal context. TPTL is both a natural language for specification and a suitable formalism for verification. We present a tableau-based decision procedure and a model-checking algorithm for TPTL. Several generalizations of TPTL are shown to be highly undecidable.},
author = {Alur, Rajeev and Henzinger, Thomas A},
issn = {0004-5411},
journal = {Journal of the ACM},
number = {1},
pages = {181 -- 204},
publisher = {ACM},
title = {{A really temporal logic}},
doi = {10.1145/174644.174651},
volume = {41},
year = {1994},
}
@article{4179,
abstract = {Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) is a member of the neurotrophin gene family and is highly expressed in the developing rat cerebellum. Here we show that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) increased by approximately 10-fold the NT-3 mRNA levels in cultured cerebellar granule neurons isolated from postnatal rats, whereas nerve growth factor (NGF) and NT-3 itself had no effect. The effect of BDNF was additive to that of triiodothyronine (T3), which also increased NT-3 mRNA in these neurons. The drug K252a inhibited the BDNF-mediated stimulation of NT-3 expression, suggesting an involvement of trkB receptors. Nuclear run-on experiments showed that BDNF enhanced NT-3 transcription, whereas the stability of NT-3 mRNA remained unchanged. The data presented are the first demonstration that one neurotrophin regulates the expression of another and provide evidence that NT-3 production in granule neurons is regulated by both BDNF and T3.},
author = {Leingärtner, Axel and Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp J and Kolbeck, Roland and Thoenen, Hans and Lindholm, Dan},
issn = {1083-351X},
journal = {Journal of Biological Chemistry},
number = {2},
pages = {828 -- 830},
publisher = {American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology},
title = {{Brain-derived neurotrophic factor increases neurotrophin-3 expression in cerebellar granule neurons}},
doi = {10.1016/s0021-9258(17)42186-7},
volume = {269},
year = {1994},
}
@article{4202,
abstract = {NERVE growth factor (NGF) injected into the otherwise unlesioned adult rat septum induced sprouting of presumptive cholinergic fibres positive for p75(NGFR) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). These fibres did not stain for tyrosine hydroxylase and therefore did not represent sympathetic ingrowth. Neurofilament staining on adjacent sections revealed fibres with similar morphology, suggesting new outgrowth in the form of sprouting rather than the upregulation of p75(NGFR) and AChE in pre-existing fibres. Simultaneous injections of subneurotoxic doses of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) significantly potentiated the effect of NGF on cholinergic fibre sprouting and caused pronounced glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)positive astrocytosis. Application of NMDA alone did not elicit sprouting of this type. These findings indicate that NGF can induce the sprouting of uninjured adult rat septal cholinergic fibres in vivo and suggest that reactive astrocytes are not inhibitory to cholinergic axonal outgrowth, and might serve as a substrate for growing axons in the presence of NGF.},
author = {Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp J and Cooper, John and Berke, J and Sofroniew, Michael},
issn = {0959-4965},
journal = {Neuroreport},
number = {4},
pages = {413 -- 416},
publisher = {Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins},
title = {{NMDA potentiates NGF-induced sprouting of septal cholinergic fibres}},
doi = {10.1097/00001756-199401120-00010 },
volume = {5},
year = {1994},
}
@article{4038,
abstract = {We consider a variety of problems on the interaction between two sets of line segments in two and three dimensions. These problems range from counting the number of intersecting pairs between m blue segments and n red segments in the plane (assuming that two line segments are disjoint if they have the same color) to finding the smallest vertical distance between two nonintersecting polyhedral terrains in three-dimensional space. We solve these problems efficiently by using a variant of the segment tree. For the three-dimensional problems we also apply a variety of recent combinatorial and algorithmic techniques involving arrangements of lines in three-dimensional space, as developed in a companion paper.},
author = {Chazelle, Bernard and Edelsbrunner, Herbert and Guibas, Leonidas and Sharir, Micha},
issn = {0178-4617},
journal = {Algorithmica},
number = {2},
pages = {116 -- 132},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Algorithms for bichromatic line-segment problems and polyhedral terrains}},
doi = {10.1007/BF01182771},
volume = {11},
year = {1994},
}
@article{4037,
abstract = {Frequently, data in scientific computing is in its abstract form a finite point set in space, and it is sometimes useful or required to compute what one might call the `'shape” of the set. For that purpose, this article introduces the formal notion of the family of alpha-shapes of a finite point set in R3. Each shape is a well-defined polytope, derived from the Delaunay triangulation of the point set, with a parameter alpha is-an-element-of R controlling the desired level of detail. An algorithm is presented that constructs the entire family of shapes for a given set of size n in time O(n2), worst case. A robust implementation of the algorithm is discussed, and several applications in the area of scientific computing are mentioned.},
author = {Edelsbrunner, Herbert and Mücke, Ernst},
journal = {ACM Transactions on Graphics},
number = {1},
pages = {43 -- 72},
publisher = {ACM},
title = {{Three-dimensional alpha shapes}},
doi = {10.1145/174462.156635},
volume = {13},
year = {1994},
}
@article{4039,
abstract = {Let P be a simple polygon with n vertices. We present a simple decomposition scheme that partitions the interior of P into O(n) so-called geodesic triangles, so that any line segment interior to P crosses at most 2 log n of these triangles. This decomposition can be used to preprocess P in a very simple manner, so that any ray-shooting query can be answered in time O(log n). The data structure requires O(n) storage and O(n log n) preprocessing time. By using more sophisticated techniques, we can reduce the preprocessing time to O(n). We also extend our general technique to the case of ray shooting amidst k polygonal obstacles with a total of n edges, so that a query can be answered in O(√ log n) time.},
author = {Chazelle, Bernard and Edelsbrunner, Herbert and Grigni, Michelangelo and Guibas, Leonidas and Hershberger, John and Sharir, Micha and Snoeyink, Jack},
issn = {0178-4617},
journal = {Algorithmica},
number = {1},
pages = {54 -- 68},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Ray shooting in polygons using geodesic triangulations}},
doi = {10.1007/BF01377183},
volume = {12},
year = {1994},
}
@article{4032,
abstract = {Every collection of t≥2 n2 triangles with a total of n vertices in ℝ3 has Ω(t4/n6) crossing pairs. This implies that one of their edges meets Ω(t3/n6) of the triangles. From this it follows that n points in ℝ3 have only O(n8/3) halving planes.},
author = {Dey, Tamal and Edelsbrunner, Herbert},
issn = {0179-5376},
journal = {Discrete & Computational Geometry},
number = {1},
pages = {281 -- 289},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Counting triangle crossings and halving planes}},
doi = {10.1007/BF02574381},
volume = {12},
year = {1994},
}
@article{4033,
abstract = {A collection of geometric selection lemmas is proved, such as the following: For any set P of n points in three-dimensional space and any set S of m spheres, where each sphere passes through a distinct point pair in P. there exists a point x, not necessarily in P, that is enclosed by Ω(m2/(n2 log6 n2/m)) of the spheres in S. Similar results apply in arbitrary fixed dimensions, and for geometric bodies other than spheres. The results have applications in reducing the size of geometric structures, such as three-dimensional Delaunay triangulations and Gabriel graphs, by adding extra points to their defining sets.},
author = {Chazelle, Bernard and Edelsbrunner, Herbert and Guibas, Leonidas and Hershberger, John and Seidel, Raimund and Sharir, Micha},
issn = {0097-5397},
journal = {SIAM Journal on Computing},
number = {6},
pages = {1138 -- 1151},
publisher = {SIAM},
title = {{Selecting heavily covered points}},
doi = {10.1137/S0097539790179919 },
volume = {23},
year = {1994},
}
@article{3642,
abstract = {We develop a general population genetic framework for analyzing selection on many loci, and apply it to strong truncation and disruptive selection on an additive polygenic trait. We first present statistical methods for analyzing the infinitesimal model, in which offspring breeding values are normally distributed around the mean of the parents, with fixed variance. These show that the usual assumption of a Gaussian distribution of breeding values in the population gives remarkably accurate predictions for the mean and the variance, even when disruptive selection generates substantial deviations from normality. We then set out a general genetic analysis of selection and recombination. The population is represented by multilocus cumulants describing the distribution of haploid genotypes, and selection is described by the relation between mean fitness and these cumulants. We provide exact recursions in terms of generating functions for the effects of selection on non-central moments. The effects of recombination are simply calculated as a weighted sum over all the permutations produced by meiosis. Finally, the new cumulants that describe the next generation are computed from the non-central moments. Although this scheme is applied here in detail only to selection on an additive trait, it is quite general. For arbitrary epistasis and linkage, we describe a consistent infinitesimal limit in which the short-term selection response is dominated by infinitesimal allele frequency changes and linkage disequilibria. Numerical multilocus results show that the standard Gaussian approximation gives accurate predictions for the dynamics of the mean and genetic variance in this limit. Even with intense truncation selection, linkage disequilibria of order three and higher never cause much deviation from normality. Thus, the empirical deviations frequently found between predicted and observed responses to artificial selection are not caused by linkage-disequilibrium-induced departures from normality. Disruptive selection can generate substantial four-way disequilibria, and hence kurtosis; but even then, the Gaussian assumption predicts the variance accurately. In contrast to the apparent simplicity of the infinitesimal limit, data suggest that changes in genetic variance after 10 or more generations of selection are likely to be dominated by allele frequency dynamics that depend on genetic details.},
author = {Turelli, Michael and Barton, Nicholas H},
issn = {0016-6731},
journal = {Genetics},
number = {3},
pages = {913 -- 941},
publisher = {Genetics Society of America},
title = {{Genetic and statistical analyses of strong selection on polygenic traits: What, me normal?}},
doi = {10.1093/genetics/138.3.913},
volume = {138},
year = {1994},
}
@article{3476,
abstract = {Tight-seal whole-cell recordings were made from cleaned somata of CA3 pyramidal cells deep in hippocampal slices from 19–21-d-old rats. The cells were filled with biocytin, and their voltage responses to short current pulses were recorded. After washout of initial sag, responses scaled linearly with injected current and were stable over time. The dendritic and axonal arbors of four cells were reconstructed and measured using light microscopy. Dendritic spines and axonal boutons were counted and the additional membrane area was incorporated into the relevant segments. The morphology of each neuron was converted into a detailed branching cable model by assuming values for specific membrane capacitance Cm and resistance Rm, and cytoplasmic resistivity Ri. These parameters were optimized for each cell by directly matching the model's response to that of the real cell by means of a modified weighted least-squares fitting procedure. By comparing the deviations between model and experimental responses to control noise recordings, approximate 95% confidence intervals were established for each parameter. If a somatic shunt was allowed, a wide range of possible Rm values produced acceptable fits. With zero shunt, Cm was 0.7–0.8 microFcm-2, Ri was 170–340 omega cm, and Rm ranged between 120 and 200 k omega cm2. The electrotonic lengths of the basal and oblique dendrites were 0.2–0.3 space constants, and those of the apical tufts were 0.4–0.7 space constants. The steady-state electrical geometry of these cells was therefore compact; average dendritic tip/soma relative synaptic efficacies were > 93% for the basal and oblique dendrites, and > 81% for the tufts. With fast transient synaptic inputs, however, the models produced a wide range of postsynaptic potential shapes and marked filtering of voltage-clamp currents.},
author = {Major, Guy and Larkman, Alan and Jonas, Peter M and Sakmann, Bert and Jack, Julian},
issn = {0270-6474},
journal = {Journal of Neuroscience},
number = {8},
pages = {4613 -- 4638},
publisher = {Society for Neuroscience},
title = {{Detailed passive cable models of whole-cell recorded CA3 pyramidal neurons in rat hippocampal slices}},
doi = {10.1523/JNEUROSCI.14-08-04613.1994},
volume = {14},
year = {1994},
}
@article{3641,
abstract = {The probability of fixation of a mutation with selective advantage s will be reduced by substitutions at other loci. The effect of a single substitution, with selective advantage S0016672300032857inline1, can be approximated as a sudden reduction in the frequency of the favourable allele, by a fraction w = 1 −(s/S)r/s (where r is the recombination rate). An expression for the effect of a given sequence of such catastrophes is derived. This also applies to the ecological prxoblem of finding the probability that a small population will survive, despite occasional disasters. It is shown that if substitutions occur at a rate Δ, and are scattered randomly over a genetic map of length R, then an allele is unlikely to be fixed if its advantage is less than a critical value, Scrit = (π2/6)(2ΔS/(Rlog(S/s))). This threshold depends primarily on the variance in fitness per unit map length dueto substitutions, var(W)/R = 2ΔS/R. With no recombination, the fixation probability can be calculated for a finite population. If Δ > s, it is of the same order as for a neutral allele ( ≈ Δ/(2N(Δ−s))), whilst if S0016672300032857inline2, fixation probability is much higher than for a neutral allele, but much lower than in the absence of hitch-hiking S0016672300032857inline3. These results suggest that hitch-hiking may substantially impede the accumulation of weakly favoured adaptations.},
author = {Barton, Nicholas H},
issn = {0016-6723},
journal = {Genetical Research},
number = {3},
pages = {199 -- 208},
publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
title = {{The reduction in fixation probability caused by substitutions at linked loci}},
doi = {10.1017/S0016672300032857 },
volume = {64},
year = {1994},
}
@article{3477,
abstract = {Fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the CNS is mediated by AMPA-type glutamate receptor (GluR) channels. Heterologous expression suggested that the Ca2+ permeability of these receptors critically depends on the subunit composition. Using patch-clamp techniques in brain slices, we found that the Ca2+ permeability of native AMPA-type GluRs was markedly higher in nonpyramidal (P(Ca)/P(K) ≃ 0.63) than in pyramidal (P(Ca)/P(K) ≃ 0.05) neurons of rat neocortex. Analysis of mRNA in single cells indicated that the relative abundance of GluR-B-specific mRNA was significantly lower in nonpyramidal (GluR-B/GluR-non-B ≃ 0.3) than in pyramidal (GluR-B/GluR-non-B ≃ 3) cells. This suggests that differences in relative abundance of GluR-B- specific mRNA generate functional diversity of AMPA-type GluRs in neurons with respect to Ca2+ permeability.},
author = {Jonas, Peter M and Racca, Claudia and Sakmann, Bert and Seeburg, Peter and Monyer, Hannah},
issn = {0896-6273},
journal = {Neuron},
number = {6},
pages = {1281 -- 1289},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Differences in Ca(2+) permeability of AMPA-type glutamate receptor channels in neocortical neurons caused by differential GluR-B subunit expression}},
doi = {10.1016/0896-6273(94)90444-8},
volume = {12},
year = {1994},
}
@inproceedings{3550,
author = {Edelsbrunner, Herbert},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 6th Canadian Conference on Computational Geometry},
location = {Saskatoon, Canada},
pages = {36 -- 44},
title = {{Modeling with simplicial complexes (topology, geometry and algorithms)}},
year = {1994},
}