@inproceedings{4408,
abstract = {This paper presents a complete axiomatization of fully decidable propositional real-time linear temporal logics with past: the Event Clock Logic (ECL) and the Metric Interval Temporal Logic with past (MITL). The completeness proof consists of an effective proof building procedure for ECL. From this result we obtain a complete axiomatization of MITL by providing axioms translating MITL formulae into ECL formulae, the two logics being equally expressive. Our proof is structured to yield a similar axiomatization and procedure for interesting fragments of these logics, such as the linear temporal logic of the real numbers (LTR).},
author = {Raskin, Jean-François and Schobbens, Pierre Y and Thomas Henzinger},
pages = {219 -- 236},
publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik},
title = {{Axioms for real-time logics}},
doi = {10.1007/BFb0055625},
volume = {1466},
year = {1998},
}
@inproceedings{4410,
abstract = {Rectangular automata are well suited for approximate modeling of continuous-discrete systems. The exact analysis of these automata is feasible for small examples but can encounter severe numerical problems for even medium-sized systems. This paper presents an analysis algorithm that uses conservative overapproximation to avoid these numerical problems. The algorithm is demonstrated on a simple benchmark system consisting of two connected tanks.
Supported by the German Research Council (DFG) under grant Ko1430/3 in the special program KONDISK (‘Continuous-discrete dynamics of technical systems’).},
author = {Preußig, Jörg and Kowalewski, Stefan and Wong-Toi, Howard and Thomas Henzinger},
pages = {228 -- 240},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{An algorithm for the approximative analysis of rectangular automata}},
doi = {10.1007/BFb0055350},
volume = {1486},
year = {1998},
}
@inproceedings{4429,
abstract = {We study the reachability problem for hybrid automata. Automatic approaches, which attempt to construct the reachable region by symbolic execution, often do not terminate. In these cases, we require the user to guess the reachable region, and we use a theorem prover (Pvs) to verify the guess. We classify hybrid automata according to the theory in which their reachable region can be defined finitely. This is the theory in which the prover needs to operate in order to verify the guess. The approach is interesting, because an appropriate guess can often be deduced by extrapolating from the first few steps of symbolic execution.},
author = {Thomas Henzinger and Rusu,Vlad},
pages = {190 -- 204},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Reachability verification for hybrid automata}},
doi = {10.1007/3-540-64358-3_40},
volume = {1386},
year = {1998},
}
@proceedings{4430,
author = {Thomas Henzinger and Sastry, Shankar},
booktitle = {HSCC: Hybrid Systems - Computation and Control},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{HSCC: Hybrid Systems—Computation and Control}},
doi = {1260},
volume = {1386},
year = {1998},
}
@inproceedings{4486,
abstract = {The simulation preorder on state transition systems is widely accepted as a useful notion of refinement, both in its own right and as an efficiently checkable sufficient condition for trace containment. For composite systems, due to the exponential explosion of the state space, there is a need for decomposing a simulation check of the form P< s Q into simpler simulation checks on the components of P and Q. We present an assume-guarantee rule that enables such a decomposition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first assume-guarantee rule that applies to a refinement relation different from trace containment. Our rule is circular, and its soundness proof requires induction on trace trees. The proof is constructive: given simulation relations that witness the simulation preorder between corresponding components of P and Q, we provide a procedure for constructing a witness relation for P< s Q. We also extend our assume-guarantee rule to account for fairness assumptions on transition systems},
author = {Thomas Henzinger and Qadeer,Shaz and Rajamani, Sriram K and Tasiran, Serdar},
pages = {421 -- 432},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{An assume-guarantee rule for checking simulation}},
doi = {10.1007/3-540-49519-3_27},
volume = {1522},
year = {1998},
}
@inproceedings{4488,
abstract = {Assume-guarantee reasoning has long been advertised as an important method for decomposing proof obligations in system verification. Refinement mappings (homomorphisms) have long been advertised as an important method for solving the language-inclusion problem in practice. When confronted with large verification problems, we therefore attempted to make use of both techniques. We soon found that rather than offering instant solutions, the success of assume-guarantee reasoning depends critically on the construction of suitable abstraction modules, and the success of refinement checking depends critically on the construction of suitable witness modules. Moreover, as abstractions need to be witnessed, and witnesses abstracted, the process must be iterated. We present here the main lessons we learned from our experiments, in limn of a systematic and structured discipline for the compositional verification of reactive modules. An infrastructure to support this discipline, and automate parts of the verification, has been implemented in the tool Mocha.},
author = {Thomas Henzinger and Qadeer,Shaz and Rajamani, Sriram K},
pages = {440 -- 451},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{You assume, we guarantee: Methodology and case studies}},
doi = { 10.1007/BFb0028765},
volume = {1427},
year = {1998},
}
@inproceedings{4489,
abstract = {Symbolic model checking, which enables the automatic verification of large systems, proceeds by calculating with expressions that represent state sets. Traditionally, symbolic model-checking tools arc based on backward state traversal; their basic operation is the function pre, which given a set of states, returns the set of all predecessor states. This is because specifiers usally employ formalisms with future-time modalities. which are naturally evaluated by iterating applications of pre. It has been recently shown experimentally that symbolic model checking can perform significantly better if it is based, instead, on forward state traversal; in this case, the basic operation is the function post, which given a set of states, returns the set of all successor states. This is because forward state traversal can ensure that only those parts of the state space are explored which are reachable from an initial state and relevant for satisfaction or violation of the specification; that is, errors can be detected as soon as possible.
In this paper, we investigate which specifications can be checked by symbolic forward state traversal. We formulate the problems of symbolic backward and forward model checking by means of two -calculi. The pre- calculus is based on the pre operation; the post- calculus, on the post operation. These two -calculi induce query logics, which augment fixpoint expressions with a boolean emptiness query. Using query logics, we are able to relate and compare the symbolic backward and forward approaches. In particular, we prove that all -regular (linear-time) specifications can be expressed as post- queries, and therefore checked using symbolic forward state traversal. On the other hand, we show that there are simple branching-time specifications that cannot be checked in this way.},
author = {Thomas Henzinger and Kupferman, Orna and Qadeer,Shaz},
pages = {195 -- 206},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{From pre-historic to post-modern symbolic model checking}},
doi = {10.1007/BFb0028745},
volume = {1427},
year = {1998},
}
@inproceedings{4490,
abstract = {A specification formalism for reactive systems defines a class of Ω-languages. We call a specification formalism fully decidable if it is constructively closed under boolean operations and has a decidable satisfiability (nonemptiness) problem. There are two important, robust classes of Ω-languages that are definable by fully decidable formalisms. The Ω -reqular languages are definable by finite automata, or equivalcntly, by the Sequential Calculus. The counter-free Ω-regular languages are definable by temporal logic, or equivalcntly, by the first-order fragment of the Sequential Calculus. The gap between both classes can be closed by finite counting (using automata connectives), or equivalently, by projection (existential second-order quantification over letters).
A specification formalism for real-time systems defines a class of timed Ω-langnages, whose letters have real-numbered time stamps. Two popular ways of specifying timing constraints rely on the use of clocks, and on the use of time bounds for temporal operators. However, temporal logics with clocks or time bounds have undecidable satisfiability problems, and finite automata with clocks (so-called timed automata) are not closed under complement. Therefore, two fully decidable restrictions of these formalisms have been proposed. In the first case, clocks are restricted to event clocks, which measure distances to immediately preceding or succeeding events only. In the second case, time bounds are restricted to nonsingular intervals, which cannot specify the exact punctuality of events. We show that the resulting classes of timed Ω-languages are robust, and we explain their relationship.
First, we show that temporal logic with event clocks defines the same class of timed Ω-languages as temporal logic with nonsingular time bounds, and we identify a first-order monadic theory that also defines this class. Second, we show that if the ability of finite counting is added to these formalisms, we obtain the class of timed Ω-languages that are definable by finite automata with event clocks, or equivalently, by a restricted second-order extension of the monadic theory. Third, we show that if projection is added, we obtain the class of timed Ω-languages that are definable by timed automata, or equivalently, by a richer second-order extension of the monadic theory. These results identify three robust classes of timed Ω-languages, of which the third, while popular, is not definable by a, fully decidable formalism. By contrast, the first two classes are definable by fully decidable formalisms from temporal logic, from automata theory, and from monadic logic. Since the gap between these two classes can be closed by finite counting, we dub them the timed Ω-regular languages and the timed counter-free Ω-rcgular languages, respectively.},
author = {Thomas Henzinger and Raskin, Jean-François and Schobbens, Pierre Y},
pages = {580 -- 591},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{The regular real-time languages}},
doi = {10.1007/BFb0055086},
volume = {1443},
year = {1998},
}
@article{4491,
abstract = {We present two methods for translating nonlinear hybrid systems into linear hybrid automata. Properties of the nonlinear systems can then be inferred from the automatic analysis of the translated linear hybrid automata. The first method, called clock translation, replaces constraints on nonlinear variables by constraints on clock variables. The second method, called linear phase-portrait approximation, conservatively overapproximates the phase portrait of a hybrid automaton using piecewise-constant polyhedral differential inclusions. Both methods are sound for safety properties. We illustrate both methods by using HYTECH, a symbolic model checker for linear hybrid automata, to automatically check properties of a nonlinear temperature controller and of a predator-prey ecology},
author = {Thomas Henzinger and Ho, Pei-Hsin and Wong-Toi, Howard},
journal = {IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control},
number = {4},
pages = {540 -- 554},
publisher = {IEEE},
title = {{Algorithmic analysis of nonlinear hybrid systems}},
doi = {10.1109/9.664156 },
volume = {43},
year = {1998},
}
@article{4492,
abstract = {Hybrid automata model systems with both digital and analog components, such as embedded control programs. Many verification tasks for such programs can be expressed as reachability problems for hybrid automata. By improving on previous decidability and undecidability results, we identify a boundary between decidability and undecidability for the reachability problem of hybrid automata. On the positive side, we give an (optimal) PSPACE reachability algorithm for the case of initialized rectangular automata, where all analog variables follow independent trajectories within piecewise-linear envelopes and are reinitialized whenever the envelope changes. Our algorithm is based on the construction of a timed automaton that contains all reachability information about a given initialized rectangular automaton. The translation has practical significance for verification, because it guarantees the termination of symbolic procedures for the reachability analysis of initialized rectangular automata. The translation also preserves theω-languages of initialized rectangular automata with bounded nondeterminism. On the negative side, we show that several slight generalizations of initialized rectangular automata lead to an undecidable reachability problem. In particular, we prove that the reachability problem is undecidable for timed automata augmented with a single stopwatch.},
author = {Thomas Henzinger and Kopke, Peter W and Puri, Anuj and Varaiya,P.},
journal = {Journal of Computer and System Sciences},
number = {1},
pages = {94 -- 124},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{What's decidable about hybrid automata?}},
doi = {10.1006/jcss.1998.1581},
volume = {57},
year = {1998},
}
@inproceedings{4515,
abstract = {We summarize and reorganize some of the last decade's research on real-time extensions of temporal logic. Our main focus is on tableau constructions for model checking linear temporal formulas with timing constraints. In particular, we find that a great deal of real-time verification can be performed in polynomial space, but also that considerable care must be exercised in order to keep the real-time verification problem in polynomial space, or even decidable.},
author = {Thomas Henzinger},
pages = {439 -- 454},
publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik},
title = {{It's about time: Real-time logics reviewed}},
doi = {10.1007/BFb0055640},
volume = {1466},
year = {1998},
}
@article{3487,
abstract = {It is widely accepted that individual neurons in the central nervous system release only a single fast transmitter. The possibility of corelease of fast neurotransmitters was examined by making paired recordings from synaptically connected neurons in spinal cord slices. Unitary inhibitory postsynaptic currents generated at interneuron-motoneuron synapses consisted of a strychnine-sensitive, glycine receptor-mediated component and a bicuculline-sensitive, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptor-mediated component. These results indicate that spinal interneurons release both glycine and GABA to activate functionally distinct receptors in their postsynaptic target cells. A subset of miniature synaptic currents also showed both components, consistent with corelease from individual synaptic vesicles.},
author = {Peter Jonas and Bischofberger, Joseph and Sandkühler, Jürgen},
journal = {Science},
number = {5375},
pages = {419 -- 424},
publisher = {American Association for the Advancement of Science},
title = {{Corelease of two fast neurotransmitters at a central synapse}},
doi = {10.1126/science.281.5375.419},
volume = {281},
year = {1998},
}
@article{3488,
abstract = {We have examined gating and pharmacological characteristics of somatic K+ channels in fast-spiking interneurons and regularly spiking principal neurons of hippocampal slices. In nucleated patches isolated from basket cells of the dentate gyrus, a fast delayed rectifier K+ current component that was highly sensitive to tetraethylammonium (TEA) and 4-aminopyridine (4- AP) (half-maximal inhibitory concentrations <0.1 mM) predominated, contributing an average of 58% to the total K+ current in these cells. By contrast, in pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region a rapidly inactivating A- type K+ current component that was TEA-resistant prevailed, contributing 61% to the total K+ current. Both types of neurons also showed small amounts of the K+ current component mainly found in the other type of neuron and, in addition, a slow delayed rectifier K+ current component with intermediate properties (sow inactivation, intermediate sensitivity to TEA). Single-cell RT-PCR analysis of mRNA revealed that Kv3 (Kv3.1, Kv3.2) subunit transcripts were expressed in almost all (89%) of the interneurons but only in 17% of the pyramidal neurons. In contrast, Kv4 (Kv4.2, Kv4.3) subunit mRNAs were present in 87% of pyramidal neurons but only in 55% of interneurons. Selective block of fast delayed rectifier K+ channels, presumably assembled from Kv3 subunits, by 4-AP reduced substantially the action potential frequency in interneurons. These results indicate that the differential expression of Kv3 and Kv4 subunits shapes the action potential phenotypes of principal neurons and interneurons in the cortex.},
author = {Martina, Marco and Schultz, Jobst Hendrik and Ehmke, Heimo and Monyer, Hannah and Peter Jonas},
journal = {Journal of Neuroscience},
number = {20},
pages = {8111 -- 8125},
publisher = {Society for Neuroscience},
title = {{Functional and molecular differences between voltage-gated K+ channels of fast-spiking interneurons and pyramidal neurons of rat hippocampus}},
volume = {18},
year = {1998},
}
@misc{3506,
abstract = {A method of geometric morphing between a first object having a first shape and a second object having a second shape. The method includes the steps of generating a first Delaunay complex corresponding to the first shape and a second Delaunay complex corresponding to the second shape and generating a plurality of intermediary Delaunay complexes defined by a continuous family of mixed shapes corresponding to a mixing of the first shape and the second shape. The method further includes the steps of constructing a first skin corresponding to the first Delaunay complex and a second skin corresponding to the second Delaunay complex and constructing a plurality of intermediary skins corresponding to the plurality of intermediary Delaunay complexes. The first skin, second skin and plurality of intermediary skins may be visually displayed on an output device.},
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner and Fu, Ping},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Apparatus and method for geometric morphing}},
doi = {US 5,850,229},
year = {1998},
}
@article{3521,
abstract = {Spike transmission probability between pyramidal cells and interneurons in the CA1 pyramidal layer was investigated in the behaving rat by the simultaneous recording of neuronal ensembles. Population synchrony was strongest during sharp wave (SPW) bursts. However, the increase was three times larger for pyramidal cells than for interneurons. The contribution of single pyramidal cells to the discharge of interneurons was often large (up to 0.6 probability), as assessed by the presence of significant (<3 ms) peaks in the cross-correlogram. Complex-spike bursts were more effective than single spikes. Single cell contribution was higher between SPW bursts than during SPWs or theta activity. Hence, single pyramidal cells can reliably discharge interneurons, and the probability of spike transmission is behavior dependent.},
author = {Jozsef Csicsvari and Hirase, Hajima and Czurkó, András and Buzsáki, György},
journal = {Neuron},
number = {1},
pages = {179 -- 189},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Reliability and state dependence of pyramidal cell-interneuron synapses in the hippocampus: an ensemble approach in the behaving rat}},
doi = {10.1016/S0896-6273(00)80525-5},
volume = {21},
year = {1998},
}
@article{3525,
author = {Nádasdy, Zoltán and Jozsef Csicsvari and Hirase, Hajima and Czurkó, András and Buzsáki, György},
journal = {European Journal of Neuroscience},
number = {Suppl. 10},
pages = {9409 -- 9409},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{Persistence and temporal compression of spike sequences during fast field oscillation in the hippocampus}},
volume = {10},
year = {1998},
}
@article{3527,
author = {Jozsef Csicsvari and Czurkó, András and Hirase, Hajima and Buzsáki, György},
journal = {European Journal of Neuroscience},
number = {Suppl. 10},
pages = {2553 -- 2553},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{Monosynaptic interactions between CA1 Pyramidal cells and interneuron in the behaving rat}},
volume = {10},
year = {1998},
}
@article{3535,
author = {Hirase, Hajima and Czurkó, András and Jozsef Csicsvari and Buzsáki, György},
journal = {European Journal of Neuroscience},
number = {Suppl. 10},
pages = {9932 -- 9932},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{Hippocampal pyramidal neutrons “space-clamped” in a running wheel task: Place cells or path integrators?}},
volume = {10},
year = {1998},
}
@inbook{3570,
abstract = {Visualization of high-dimensional or large geometric data sets is inherently difficult, so we experiment with the use of audio to display the shape and connectivity of these data sets. Sonification is used as both an addition to and a substitution for the visual display. We describe a new algorithm called wave traversal that provides a necessary intermediate step to sonification of the data; it produces an ordered sequence of subsets, called waves, that allows us to map the data to time. In this paper we focus in detail on the mathematics of wave traversal, in particular, how wave traversal can be used as a discrete Morse function.},
author = {Axen, Ulrike and Herbert Edelsbrunner},
booktitle = {Mathematical Visualization},
pages = {223 -- 236},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Auditory Morse analysis of triangulated manifolds}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-662-03567-2_17},
year = {1998},
}
@article{3627,
abstract = {When a favourable mutation sweeps to fixation, those genes initially linked to it increase in frequency; on average, this reduces diversity in the surrounding region of the genome. In the first analysis of this 'hitch-hiking' effect, Maynard-Smith and Haigh followed the increase of the neutral allele that chanced to be associated with the new mutation in the first generation, and assumed that the subsequent increase was deterministic. Later analyses, based on either coalescence arguments, or on diffusion equations for the mean and variance of allele frequency, have also made one or both of these assumptions. In the early generations, stochastic fluctuations in the frequency of the selected allele, and coalescence of neutral lineages, can be accounted for correctly by following relationships between genes conditional on the number of copies of the favourable allele. This analysis shows that the hitch-hiking effect is increased because an allele that is destined to fix tends to increase more rapidly than exponentially. However, the identity generated by the selective sweep has the same form as in previous work, h[r/s] (2 Ns)(-2r/s), where h[r/s] tends to 1 with tight linkage. This analysis is extended to samples of many genes; then, genes may trace back to several families of lineages, each related through a common ancestor early in the selective sweep. Simulations show that the number and sizes of these families can (in principle) be used to make separate estimates of r/s and Ns.},
author = {Nicholas Barton},
journal = {Genetical Research},
number = {2},
pages = {123 -- 133},
publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
title = {{The effect of hitch-hiking on neutral genealogies}},
doi = {10.1017/S0016672398003462},
volume = {72},
year = {1998},
}
@article{3628,
abstract = {Determining the way in which deleterious mutations interact in their effects on fitness is crucial to numerous areas in population genetics and evolutionary biology. For example, if each additional mutation leads to a greater decrease in log fitness than the last (synergistic epistasis), then the evolution of sex and recombination may be favored to facilitate the elimination of deleterious mutations. However, there is a severe shortage of relevant data. Three relatively simple experimental methods to test for epistasis between deleterious mutations in haploid species have recently been proposed. These methods involve crossing individuals and examining the mean and/or skew in log fitness of the offspring and parents. The main aim of this paper is to formalize these methods, and determine the most effective way in which tests for epistasis could be carried out. We show that only one of these methods is likely to give useful results: crossing individuals that have very different numbers of deleterious mutations, and comparing the mean log fitness of the parents with that of their offspring. We also reconsider experimental data collected on Chlamydomonas moewussi using two of the three methods. Finally, we suggest how the test could be applied to diploid species.},
author = {West, Stuart A and Peters, Andrew D and Nicholas Barton},
journal = {Genetics},
number = {1},
pages = {435 -- 444},
publisher = {Genetics Society of America},
title = {{Testing for epistasis between deleterious mutations}},
volume = {149},
year = {1998},
}
@article{3629,
abstract = {This paper demonstrates the effect of habitat heterogeneity and a habitat preference on the genetic structure of a hybrid zone between the toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata (Anura: Discoglossidae); 1613 toads from 85 sites across a transect near Pešćenica, Croatia, were scored for five unlinked diagnostic allozyme markers. These were found to be largely concordant. Aside from minor systematic deviations, there was little variance in allele frequency among loci within sites. Yet the allele frequencies did not follow a smooth cline, but formed a mosaic in the center, such that neighboring sites could differ markedly in their enzyme score. A detailed ecological survey revealed a correlation between this pattern and habitat. In keeping with the typical breeding sites of the parental taxa, B. bombina-like hybrids were found more often in ponds, whereas B. variegata-like hybrids were more common in puddles. In addition, there was significant heterozygote deficit (FIS) and strong linkage disequilibrium (R), both of which were stronger on the B. bombina side of the transect, and stronger in puddles than ponds. Mark-recapture data showed: (1) that the animals disperse beyond the scale of the habitat pattern; (2) frequent turn-over of individuals within sites; and (3) nonrandom movement between two sites of different habitat type. We conclude that an active habitat preference must contribute to the observed association between marker alleles and habitat. As a consequence, there is incomplete mixing of the two gene pools, which could explain the high level of FIS and R. The asymmetry in these parameters may reflect asymmetry in the preference or in the distribution of habitats across the zone. We discuss the implications of habitat preference for the dynamics of hybrid zones.},
author = {MacCallum, Catriona J and Nürnberger, Beate and Nicholas Barton and Szymura, Jacek M},
journal = {Evolution},
number = {1},
pages = {227 -- 239},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{Habitat preference in the Bombina hybrid zone in Croatia}},
volume = {52},
year = {1998},
}
@article{2493,
abstract = {A specific antiserum against substance P receptor (SPR) labels nonprincipal neurons in the cerebral cortex of the rat (T. Kaneko et al. [1994], Neuroscience 60:199-211; Y. Nakaya et al. [1994], J. Comp. Neurol. 347:249-274). In the present study, we aimed to identify the types of SPR- immunoreactive neurons in the hippocampus according to their content of neurochemical markers, which label interneuron populations with distinct termination patterns. Markers for perisomatic inhibitory cells, parvalbumin and cholecystokinin (CCK), colocalized with SPR in pyramidallike basket cells in the dentate gyrus and in large multipolar or bitufted cells within all hippocampal subfields respectively. A dense meshwork of SPR-immunoreactive spiny dendrites in the hilus and stratum lucidum of the CA3 region belonged largely to inhibitory cells terminating in the distal dendritic region of granule cells, as indicated by the somatostatin and neuropeptide Y (NPY) content. In addition, SPR and NPY were colocalized in numerous multipolar interneurons with dendrites branching close to the soma. Twenty-five percent of the SPR-immunoreactive cells overlapped with calretinin-positive neurons in all hippocampal subfields, showing that interneurons specialized to contact other gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic cells may also contain SPR. On the basis of the known termination pattern of the colocalized markers, we conclude that SPR-positive interneurons are functionally heterogeneous and participate in different inhibitory processes: (1) perisomatic inhibition of principal cells (CCK-containing cells, and parvalbumin-positive cells in the dentate gyrus), (2) feedback dendritic inhibition in the entorhinal termination zone (somatostatin and NPY-containing cells), and (3) innervation of other interneurons (calretinin-containing cells).},
author = {Acsády, László and Katona, István and Gulyás, Attila I and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Freund, Tamás F},
journal = {Journal of Comparative Neurology},
number = {3},
pages = {320 -- 336},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{Immunostaining for substance P receptor labels GABAergic cells with distinct termination patterns in the hippocampus}},
doi = {10.1002/(SICI)1096-9861(19970217)378:3<320::AID-CNE2>3.0.CO;2-5},
volume = {378},
year = {1997},
}
@article{2575,
abstract = {It was examined electron microscopically in the rat if a metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR7, might be localized in axon terminals of nociceptive, primary afferent fibers in laminae I and II of the spinal dorsal horn. Nociceptive nature of axon terminals showing mGluR7-like immunoreactivity (mGluR7-LI) was indicated by binding to the isolectin I-B4 from Griffonia simplicifolia (I-B4), or by substance P-like immunoreactivity (SP-LI). Axon terminals labeled with immunogold particles indicating mGluR7-LI were usually filled with round synaptic vesicles and were in asymmetric synaptic contact with dendritic or somatic profiles; occasionally they contained pleomorphic vesicles and were in symmetric synaptic contact with somatic profiles in lamina II. The double-labeling studies revealed that most of axon terminals with I-B4 labeling as well as a small population of axon terminals with SP-LI, showed mGluR7-LI. About one-third or much smaller population of axon terminals with mGluR7-LI in laminae I and II were labeled, respectively, with I-B4 or SP-LI; these were in asymmetric synaptic contact with dendritic profiles.},
author = {Li, He and Ohishi, Hitoshi and Kinoshita, Ayae and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Nomura, Sakashi and Mizuno, Noboru},
journal = {Neuroscience Letters},
number = {3},
pages = {153 -- 156},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Localization of a metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR7, in axon terminals of presumed nociceptive, primary afferent fibers in the superficial layers of the spinal dorsal horn: An electron microscope study in the rat}},
doi = {10.1016/S0304-3940(97)13429-2},
volume = {223},
year = {1997},
}
@article{2576,
abstract = {Primary afferent neurons containing substance P (SP) are apparently implicated in the transmission of noxious information from the periphery to the central nervous system, and SP released from primary afferent neurons acts on second-order neurons with the SP receptor (SPR). In the rat, nociceptive information reached the hypothalamus not only through indirect pathways but also directly through trigeminohypothalamic and spinohypothalamic pathways. Thus, in the present study, the distribution pattern of trigeminohypothalamic and spinohypothalamic tract neurons showing SPR-like immunoreactivity (SPR-LI) was examined in the rat by a retrograde tract-tracing method combined with immunofluorescence histochemistry for SPR. A substantial number of trigeminal and spinal neurons with SPR-LI were retrogradely labeled with Fluore-Gold (FG) injected into the hypothalamic regions. These neurons were distributed mainly in lamina I of the medullary and spinal dorsal horns, lateral spinal nucleus, regions around the central canal of the spinal cord, and the lateral aspect of the deep part of the spinal dorsal horn. A number of SPR-LI neurons in the spinal parasympathetic nucleus were labeled with FG injected into the area around the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus. Some SPR-LI neurons in the lateral spinal nucleus and the lateral aspect of the deep part of the spinal dorsal horn were also labeled with FG injected into the septal region. On the basis of the distribution areas of SPR-LI trigeminal and spinal neurons projecting to the hypothalamic and septal regions, it is likely that these neurons are involved in the transmission of somatic and/or visceral noxious information.},
author = {Li, Jin-Lian and Kaneko, Takeshi and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Mizuno, Noboru},
journal = {Journal of Comparative Neurology},
number = {4},
pages = {508 -- 521},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{Distribution of trigeminohypothalamic and spinohypothalamic tract neurons displaying substance P receptor-like immunoreactivity in the rat}},
doi = {10.1002/(SICI)1096-9861(19970224)378:4<508::AID-CNE6>3.0.CO;2-6},
volume = {378},
year = {1997},
}
@article{2577,
abstract = {The cloned cDNA for rat prostacyclin synthase was found to contain a 1503-bp open reading frame which encoded a 501-amino acid protein sharing 84% identity with the human enzyme. RNA blot analysis revealed that the rat prostacyclin synthase mRNA, as a single species of 2.1 kb, is expressed abundantly in the aorta and uterus. High levels of expression were also observed in the stomach, lung, heart, testis, liver, and skeletal muscle. Low but significant expression was also seen in the brain and kidney. Furthermore, the regional distribution and cellular localization of prostacyclin synthase mRNA were examined by in situ hybridization analysis of rat tissue sections. The definitive signals for the mRNA were localized in smooth muscle cells of the arteries, bronchi and uterus, and in the cells of the fibrous tunic surrounding the seminiferous tubules, which are characterized as smooth muscle cells. Besides smooth muscle cells, signal were also detected in the fibroblasts of the heart myocardium, lung parenchyma cells and kidney inner medulla tubules and interstitial cells.},
author = {Tone, Yoshinori and Inoue, Hiroyasu and Hara, Shuntaro and Yokoyama, Chieko and Hatae, Toshihisa and Oida, Hiroji and Narumiya, Shuh and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Yukawa, Susumu and Tanabe, Tadashi},
journal = {European Journal of Cell Biology},
number = {3},
pages = {268 -- 277},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{The regional distribution and cellular localization of mRNA encoding rat prostacyclin synthase}},
volume = {72},
year = {1997},
}
@article{2578,
abstract = {The distribution of immunoreactivity to the neurokinin3 receptor (NK3R) was examined in segments C7, T11-12, L1-2, and L4-6 of the rat spinal cord. NK3R immunoreactivity was visualized by using two antisera generated against sequences of amino acids contained in the C-terminal region of the NK3R. NK3R-immunoreactive cells were numerous in the substantia gelatinosa of all spinal segments examined as well as the dorsal commissural nucleus of spinal segments L1-2. Isolated, immunoreactive cells were scattered throughout other regions of the spinal cord. The relationship of NK3R-immunoreactivity with neurons was demonstrated by colocalization with microtubule associated protein 2-immunoreactivity in individual cells. Within neurons, NK3R- immunoreactivity was associated predominately with the plasma membrane of cell bodies and dendrites. Within the substantia gelatinosa, 86% of nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-immunoreactive neurons were also NK3R-immunoreactive. Although NOS-immunoreactive neurons were found throughout all other regions of the spinal cord in the segments examined, these were not NK3R- immunoreactive. When preganglionic sympathetic neurons in spinal segments T11-12 and L1-2 were visualized by intraperitoneal injection of Fluorogold, less than 1% of the Fluorogold-labeled neurons were also immunoreactive for NK3R. The large number of NK3R-immunoreactive neurons in the substantia gelatinosa suggests that some effects of tachykinins an somatosensation may be mediated by NK3R.},
author = {Seybold, Virginia S and Grković, Ivica and Portbury, Andrea L and Ding, Yu-Qiang and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Mizuno, Noboru and Furness, John B and Southwell, Bridget R},
journal = {Journal of Comparative Neurology},
number = {4},
pages = {439 -- 448},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{Relationship of NK3 receptor-immunoreactivity to subpopulations of neurons in rat spinal cord}},
doi = {10.1002/(SICI)1096-9861(19970519)381:4<439::AID-CNE4>3.0.CO;2-3},
volume = {381},
year = {1997},
}
@article{2579,
abstract = {The localisation of the neurokinin 3 receptor (NK3r) in the rat gastrointestinal tract has been studied by using a polyclonal antiserum against the C-terminal portion (amino acids 388-452) of the rat NK3r. In the oesophagus, immunoreactivity for the NK3r was found on smooth muscle cells of the muscularis mucosae. NK3r immunoreactivity was not present on muscle cells of other regions. Nerve cell bodies immunoreactive for NK3r were seen in the myenteric and submucous plexuses of the small and large intestine, but not in the stomach or oesophagus. Immunoreactivity was largely confined to nerve cell surfaces. The reaction product was on the cell soma and initial parts of axons. Reactivity was not seen on nerve terminals. Immunoreactive nerve cells had Dogiel Type II morphology. Patterns of co-localisation of NK3r and immunoreactivity for other markers were examined in the ileum, to provide a basis from which to deduce the functional identity of NK3r-immunoreactive nerve cells. Most of the NK3r-immunoreactive nerve cells were also immunoreactive for the calcium-binding proteins, calretinin and calbindin, and all were immunoreactive for the NK1 receptor (NK1r). Nerve cells that were immunoreactive for nitric oxide synthase were not immunoreactive for either NK3r or NK1r. The projections of the calbindin and calretinin neurons were determined by nerve lesion studies. Their morphology, projections to the mucosa and other ganglia and immunoreactivity for the calcium-binding proteins suggest that the NK3r-immunoreactive neurons are intrinsic sensory neurons.},
author = {Mann, Patricia T and Southwell, Bridget R and Ding, Yu-Qiang and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Mizuno, Noboru and Furness, John B},
journal = {Cell and Tissue Research},
number = {1},
pages = {1 -- 9},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Localisation of neurokinin 3 (NK3) receptor immunoreactivity in the rat gastrointestinal tract}},
doi = {10.1007/s004410050846},
volume = {289},
year = {1997},
}
@article{2580,
abstract = {Two group I metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes, mGluR1 and mGluR5, have been reported to occur in highest concentration in an annulus surrounding the edge of the postsynaptic membrane specialisation. In order to determine whether such a distribution is uniform amongst postsynaptic mGluRs, their distribution was compared quantitatively by a pre-embedding silver-intensified immunogold technique at electron microscopic level in hippocampal pyramidal cells (mGluR5), cerebellar Purkinje cells (mGluR1α) and Golgi cells (mGluR2). The results show that mGluR1α, mGluR5 and mGluR2 each have a distinct distribution in relation to the glutamatergic synaptic junctions. On dendritic spines, mGluRlα and mGluR5 showed the highest receptor density in a perisynaptic annulus (defined as within 60 nm of the edge of the synapse) followed by a decreasing extrasynaptic (60-900 nm) receptor level, but the gradient of decrease and the proportion of the perisynaptic pool (mGluR1α, ~ 50%; vs mGluR5, ~ 25%) were different for the two receptors. The distributions of mGluRlα and mGluR5 also differed significantly from simulated random distributions. In contrast, mGluR2 was not closely associated with glutamatergic synapses in the dendritic plasma membrane of cerebellar Golgi cells and its distribution relative to synapses is not different from simulated random distribution in the membrane. The somatic membrane, the axon and the synaptic boutons of the GABAergic Golgi cells also contained immunoreactive mGluR2 that is not associated with synaptic specialisations. In the hippocampal CA1 area the distribution of immunoparticles for mGluR5 on individual spines was established using serial sections. The results indicate that dendritic spines of pyramidal cells are heterogeneous with respect to the ratio of perisynaptic to extrasynaptic mGluR5 pools and about half of the immunopositive spines lack the perisynaptic pool. The quantitative comparison of receptor distributions demonstrates that mGluRlα and mGluR5, but not mGluR2, are highly compartmentalised in different plasma membrane domains. The unique distribution of each mGluR subtype may reflect requirements for different transduction and effector mechanisms between cell types and different domains of the same cell, and suggests that the precise placement of receptors is a crucial factor contributing to neuronal communication.},
author = {Luján, Rafael and Roberts, John D and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Ohishi, Hitoshi and Somogyi, Péter},
journal = {Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy},
number = {4},
pages = {219 -- 241},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Differential plasma membrane distribution of metabotropic glutamate receptors mGluR1α, mGluR2 and mGluR5, relative to neurotransmitter release sites}},
doi = {10.1016/S0891-0618(97)00051-3},
volume = {13},
year = {1997},
}
@article{2581,
abstract = {It is well known that striatonigral neurons produce substance P (SP); however, no SP receptor (SPR) has so far been found in the substantia nigra. On the other hand, a previous study in the rat striatum indicated that SPR was expressed only in cholinergic or somatostatinergic intrinsic neurons (Kaneko et al. [1993] Brain Res. 631:297-303). Thus, it was assumed that SP produced by striatenigral neurons might be released through their intrastriatal axon collaterals to act upon intrinsic neurons in the striatum. To confirm this assumption, the distribution of axon collaterals of striatonigral neurons was examined in the striatum of the rat. The experiments were performed on brain slices by combining retrograde labeling with tetramethylrhodamine-dextran amine, electrophysiological recording, intracellular staining with biocytin, and immunocytochemistry for SPR. The distribution of axons of cholinergic striatal neurons (a group of SP-negative intrinsic striatal neurons) was also examined. It was observed that 16% of varicosities of intrastriatal axon collaterals of striatonigral neurons, as well as 6% of axonal varicosities of cholinergic neurons, were in close apposition to dendrites and cell bodies of SPB-immunoreactive striatal neurons. Since SPR-immunoreactive striatal neurons constituted only 2.7% of the total population of striatal neurons (Kaneko et al. [1993] Brain Res. 631:297-303), it appeared that axonal varicosities of striatonigral neurons were preferentially apposed to SPR-immunoreactive striatal neurons and that the varicosities in close apposition to SPR-immunoreactive neurons were derived more frequently from striatonigral neurons than from cholinergic interneurons. Confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated that axonal varicosities in close apposition to SPR-immunoreactive cells showed synaptophysin immunoreactivity, a marker of synaptic vesicles. In intrastriatal axons of striatonigral neurons, it was further revealed from electron microscopy that axonal varicosities in close apposition to SPR- immunoreactive dendrites, at least a part of them, made synapses of the symmetric type. Striatonigral neurons might release SP preferentially around cholinergic or somatostatinergic intrinsic neurons to regulate them through SP-SPR interactions.},
author = {Lee, Teffy and Kaneko, Takeshi and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Nomura, Sakashi and Mizuno, Noboru},
journal = {Journal of Comparative Neurology},
number = {2},
pages = {250 -- 264},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{Collateral projections from striatonigral neurons to substance P receptor-expressing intrinsic neurons in the striatum of the rat}},
doi = {10.1002/(SICI)1096-9861(19971117)388:2<250::AID-CNE5>3.0.CO;2-0},
volume = {388},
year = {1997},
}
@article{2582,
abstract = {Neurotransmission in the hippocampus is modulated variously through presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). To establish the precise localization of presynaptic mGluRs in the rat hippocampus, we used subtype-specific antibodies for eight mGluRs (mGluR1-mGluR8) for immunohistochemistry combined with lesioning of the three major hippocampal pathways: the perforant path, mossy fiber, and Schaffer collateral. Immunoreactivity for group II (mGluR2) and group III (mGluR4a, mGluR7a, mGluR7b, and mGluR8) mGluRs was predominantly localized to presynaptic elements, whereas that for group I mGluRs (mGluR1 and mGluR5) was localized to postsynaptic elements. The medial perforant path was strongly immunoreactive for mGluR2 and mGluR7a throughout the hippocampus, and the lateral perforant path was prominently immunoreactive for mGluR8 in the dentate gyrus and CA3 area. The messy fiber was labeled for mGluR2, mGluR7a, and mGluR7b, whereas the Schaffer collateral was labeled only for mGluR7a. Electron microscopy further revealed the spatial segregation of group II and group III mGluRs within presynaptic elements. Immunolabeling for the group III receptors was predominantly observed in presynaptic active zones of asymmetrical and symmetrical synapses, whereas that for the group II receptor (mGluR2) was found in preterminal rather than terminal portions of axons. Target cell-specific segregation of receptors, first reported for mGluR7a (Shigemoto et al., 1996), was also apparent for the other group III mGluRs, suggesting that transmitter release is differentially regulated by 2-amino- 4-phosphonobutyrate-sensitive mGluRs in individual synapses on single axons according to the identity of postsynaptic neurons.},
author = {Ryuichi Shigemoto and Kinoshita, Ayae and Wada, Eiki and Nomura, Sakashi and Ohishi, Hitoshi and Takada, Masahiko and Flor, Peter J and Neki, Akio and Abe, Takaaki and Nakanishi, Shigetada and Mizuno, Noboru},
journal = {Journal of Neuroscience},
number = {19},
pages = {7503 -- 7522},
publisher = {Society for Neuroscience},
title = {{Differential presynaptic localization of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes in the rat hippocampus}},
volume = {17},
year = {1997},
}
@article{2727,
abstract = {Diamagnetism of the magnetic Schrödinger operator and paramagnetism of the Pauli operator are rigorously proven for nonhomogeneous magnetic fields in the large field, in the large temperature and in the semiclassical asymptotic regimes. New counterexamples are presented which show that neither dia-nor paramagnetism is true in a robust sense (without asymptotics). In particular, we demonstrate that the recent diamagnetic comparison result by Loss and Thaller [M. Loss and B. Thaller, Commun. Math. Phys. (submitted)] is essentially the best one can hope for.},
author = {László Erdös},
journal = {Journal of Mathematical Physics},
number = {3},
pages = {1289 -- 1317},
publisher = {American Institute of Physics},
title = {{Dia- and paramagnetism for nonhomogeneous magnetic fields}},
doi = {10.1063/1.531909},
volume = {38},
year = {1997},
}
@article{2729,
abstract = {We give the leading order semiclassical asymptotics for the sum of the negative eigenvalues of the Pauli operator (in dimension two and three) with a strong non-homogeneous magnetic field. As in [LSY-II] for homogeneous field, this result can be used to prove that the magnetic Thomas-Fermi theory gives the leading order ground state energy of large atoms. We develop a new localization scheme well suited to the anisotropic character of the strong magnetic field. We also use the basic Lieb-Thirring estimate obtained in our companion paper [ES-I].},
author = {László Erdös and Solovej, Jan P},
journal = {Communications in Mathematical Physics},
number = {3},
pages = {599 -- 656},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Semiclassical eigenvalue estimates for the Pauli operator with strong non-homogeneous magnetic fields, II. Leading order asymptotic estimates}},
doi = {10.1007/s002200050181},
volume = {188},
year = {1997},
}
@article{8527,
abstract = {We introduce a new potential-theoretic definition of the dimension spectrum of a probability measure for q > 1 and explain its relation to prior definitions. We apply this definition to prove that if and is a Borel probability measure with compact support in , then under almost every linear transformation from to , the q-dimension of the image of is ; in particular, the q-dimension of is preserved provided . We also present results on the preservation of information dimension and pointwise dimension. Finally, for and q > 2 we give examples for which is not preserved by any linear transformation into . All results for typical linear transformations are also proved for typical (in the sense of prevalence) continuously differentiable functions.},
author = {Hunt, Brian R and Kaloshin, Vadim},
issn = {0951-7715},
journal = {Nonlinearity},
keywords = {Mathematical Physics, General Physics and Astronomy, Applied Mathematics, Statistical and Nonlinear Physics},
number = {5},
pages = {1031--1046},
publisher = {IOP Publishing},
title = {{How projections affect the dimension spectrum of fractal measures}},
doi = {10.1088/0951-7715/10/5/002},
volume = {10},
year = {1997},
}
@article{8528,
abstract = {In the present paper, we give a definition of prevalent ("metrically prevalent" ) sets in nonlinear function
spaces. A subset of a Euclidean space is said to be metrically prevalent if its complement has measure zero.
There is no natural way to generalize the definition of a set of measure zero in a finite-dimensional space
to the infinite-dimensional case [6]. Therefore, it is necessary to give a special definition of a metrically
prevalent set (set of full measure) in an infinite-dimensional space. There are various ways to do so. We
suggest one of the possible ways to define the class of metrically prevalent sets in the space of smooth maps
of one smooth manifold into another. It is shown in this paper that the class of metrically prevalent sets
has natural properties; in particular, the intersection of finitely many metrically prevalent sets is metrically
prevalent. The main result of the paper is a prevalent version of Thorn's transversality theorem.
It is common practice in singularity theory and the theory of dynamical systems to say that a property
holds for "almost every" map (or flow) if it holds for a residual set, i.e., a set that contains a countable
intersection of open dense sets in the corresponding function space. However, even in finite-dimensional
spaces such a set can have arbitrarily small (say, zero) Lebesgue measure. We prove that Thorn's transversality theorem holds for an essentially "thicker" set than a residual set. It seems reasonable to revise from
the prevalent point of view the classical results of singularity theory and theory of dynamical systems,
including the multijet transversality theorem, Mather's stability theorem, Kupka-Smale's theorem for dynamical systems, etc. We shall do this elsewhere. The notion of prevalence in linear Banach spaces was
introduced and investigated in [8]. One of the possible ways to define a class of prevalent sets in the space
of smooth maps of manifolds, which essentially differs from that presented in this paper, is given in [7].
Definitions of typicalness based on the Lebesgue measure in a finite-dimensional space were suggested
by Kolmogorov [10] and Arnold [11]. These definitions were cited and discussed in [9]. Here we only point
out that the finite-dimensional analog of Arnold's definition allows prevalent sets to have arbitrarily small
measure, whereas the prevalent sets in the sense of the finite-dimensional analog of the definition given in
the present paper are necessarily of full measure. Our definition is a modification of that due to Arnold.
I wish to thank Yu. S. Illyashenko for constant attention to this work and useful discussions and
R. I. Bogdanov for help in the preparation of this paper. },
author = {Kaloshin, Vadim},
issn = {0016-2663},
journal = {Functional Analysis and Its Applications},
keywords = {Applied Mathematics, Analysis},
number = {2},
pages = {95--99},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{Prevalence in the space of finitely smooth maps}},
doi = {10.1007/bf02466014},
volume = {31},
year = {1997},
}
@inproceedings{4605,
abstract = {A hybrid system is a dynamical system whose behavior exhibits both discrete and continuous change. A hybrid automaton is a mathematical model for hybrid systems, which combines, in a single formalism, automaton transitions for capturing discrete change with differential equations for capturing continuous change. In this survey, we demonstrate symbolic algorithms for the verification of and controller synthesis for linear hybrid automata, a subclass of hybrid automata that can be analyzed automatically},
author = {Alur, Rajeev and Thomas Henzinger and Wong-Toi, Howard},
pages = {702 -- 707},
publisher = {IEEE},
title = {{Symbolic analysis of hybrid systems}},
doi = {10.1109/CDC.1997.650717 },
year = {1997},
}
@article{4607,
abstract = {We present a verification algorithm for duration properties of real-time systems. While simple real-time properties constrain the total elapsed time between events, duration properties constrain the accumulated satisfaction time of state predicates. We formalize the concept of durations by introducing duration measures for timed automata. A duration measure assigns to each finite run of a timed automaton a real number —the duration of the run— which may be the accumulated satisfaction time of a state predicate along the run. Given a timed automaton with a duration measure, an initial and a final state, and an arithmetic constraint, the duration-bounded reachability problem asks if there is a run of the automaton from the initial state to the final state such that the duration of the run satisfies the constraint. Our main result is an (optimal) PSPACE decision procedure for the duration-bounded reachability problem.},
author = {Alur, Rajeev and Courcoubetis, Costas and Thomas Henzinger},
journal = {Formal Methods in System Design},
number = {2},
pages = {137 -- 156},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Computing accumulated delays in real-time systems}},
doi = {10.1023/A:1008626013578},
volume = {11},
year = {1997},
}
@inproceedings{4608,
abstract = {State space explosion is a fundamental obstacle in formal verification of designs and protocols. Several techniques for combating this problem have emerged in the past few years, among which two are significant: partial-order reductions and symbolic state space search. In asynchronous systems, interleavings of independent concurrent events are equivalent, and only a representative interleaving needs to be explored to verify local properties. Partial-order methods exploit this redundancy and visit only a subset of the reachable states. Symbolic techniques, on the other hand, capture the transition relation of a system and the set of reachable states as boolean functions. In many cases, these functions can be represented compactly using binary decision diagrams (BDDs). Traditionally, the two techniques have been practiced by two different schools—partial-order methods with enumerative depth-first search for the analysis of asynchronous network protocols, and symbolic breadth-first search for the analysis of synchronous hardware designs. We combine both approaches and develop a method for using partial-order reduction techniques in symbolic BDD-based invariant checking. We present theoretical results to prove the correctness of the method, and experimental results to demonstrate its efficacy.},
author = {Alur, Rajeev and Brayton, Robert K and Thomas Henzinger and Qadeer,Shaz and Rajamani, Sriram K},
pages = {340 -- 351},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Partial-order reduction in symbolic state-space exploration}},
doi = {10.1007/3-540-63166-6_34},
volume = {1254},
year = {1997},
}
@inproceedings{4609,
abstract = {Temporal logic comes in two varieties: linear-time temporal logic assumes implicit universal quantification over all paths that are generated by system moves; branching-time temporal logic allows explicit existential and universal quantification over all paths. We introduce a third, more general variety of temporal logic: alternating-time temporal logic offers selective quantification over those paths that are possible outcomes of games, such as the game in which the system and the environment alternate moves. While linear-time and branching-time logics are natural specification languages for closed systems, alternating-time logics are natural specification languages for open systems. For example, by preceding the temporal operator “eventually” with a selective path quantifier, we can specify that in the game between the system and the environment, the system has a strategy to reach a certain state. Also the problems of receptiveness, realizability, and controllability can be formulated as model-checking problems for alternating-time formulas},
author = {Alur, Rajeev and Thomas Henzinger and Kupferman, Orna},
pages = {100 -- 109},
publisher = {IEEE},
title = {{Alternating-time temporal logic}},
doi = { 10.1109/SFCS.1997.646098 },
year = {1997},
}
@article{4018,
abstract = {Given a subspace X subset of or equal to R-d and a finite set S subset of or equal to R-d, we introduce the Delaunay complex, D-X, restricted by X. Its simplices are spanned by subsets T subset of or equal to S for which the common intersection of Voronoi cells meets X in a non-empty set. By the nerve theorem, boolean OR D-X and X are homotopy equivalent if all such sets are contractible. This paper proves a sufficient condition for boolean OR D-X and X be homeomorphic.},
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner and Shah, Nimish R},
journal = {International Journal of Computational Geometry and Applications},
number = {4},
pages = {365 -- 378},
publisher = {World Scientific Publishing},
title = {{Triangulating topological spaces}},
doi = {10.1142/S0218195997000223},
volume = {7},
year = {1997},
}
@article{4021,
abstract = {A homeomorphism from R-2 to itself distorts metric quantities, such as distance and area. We describe an algorithm that constructs homeomorphisms with prescribed area distortion. Such homeomorphisms can be used to generate cartograms, which are geographic maps purposely distorted so their area distributions reflects a variable different from area, as for example population density. The algorithm generates the homeomorphism through a sequence of local piecewise linear homeomorphic changes. Sample results produced by the preliminary implementation of the method are included.},
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner and Waupotitsch, Roman},
journal = {Computational Geometry: Theory and Applications},
number = {5-6},
pages = {343 -- 360},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{A combinatorial approach to cartograms}},
doi = {387910.1016/S0925-7721(96)00006-5},
volume = {7},
year = {1997},
}
@article{4022,
abstract = {A halving hyperplane of a set S of n points in R(d) contains d affinely independent points of S so that equally many of the points off the hyperplane lie in each of the two half-spaces. We prove bounds on the number of halving hyperplanes under the condition that the ratio of largest over smallest distance between any two points is at most delta n(1/d), delta some constant. Such a set S is called dense. In d = 2 dimensions the number of halving lines for a dense set can be as much as Omega(n log n), and it cannot exceed O (n(5/4)/log* n). The upper bound improves over the current best bound of O (n(3/2)/log* n) which holds more generally without any density assumption. In d = 3 dimensions we show that O (n(7/3)) is an upper bound on the number of halving planes for a dense set, The proof is based on a metric argument that can be extended to d greater than or equal to 4 dimensions, where it leads to O (n(d-2/d)) as an upper bound for the number of halving hyperplanes.},
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner and Valtr, Pavel and Welzl, Emo},
journal = {Discrete & Computational Geometry},
number = {3},
pages = {243 -- 255},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Cutting dense point sets in half}},
doi = {10.1007/PL00009291},
volume = {17},
year = {1997},
}
@article{4023,
abstract = {Let B be a finite pseudodisk collection in the plane. By the principle of inclusion-exclusion, the area or any other measure of the union is [GRAPHICS] We show the existence of a two-dimensional abstract simplicial complex, X subset of or equal to 2(B), so the above relation holds even if X is substituted for 2(B). In addition, X can be embedded in R(2) SO its underlying space is homotopy equivalent to int Boolean OR B, and the frontier of X is isomorphic to the nerve of the set of boundary contributions.},
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner and Ramos, Edgar A},
journal = {Discrete & Computational Geometry},
number = {3},
pages = {287 -- 306},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Inclusion-exclusion complexes for pseudodisk collections}},
doi = {10.1007/PL00009295},
volume = {17},
year = {1997},
}
@article{4174,
abstract = {The epiphysial region of the dorsal diencephalon is the first site at which neurogenesis occurs in the roof of the zebrafish forebrain. We show that the homeobox containing gene floating head (flh) is required for neurogenesis to proceed in the epiphysis. In flh(-) embryos, the first few epiphysial neurons are generated, but beyond the 18 somite stage, neuronal production ceases. In contrast, in masterblind(-) (mbl(-)) embryos, epiphysial neurons are generated throughout the dorsal forebrain. We show that mbl is required to prevent the expression of flh in dorsal forebrain cells rostral to the epiphysis. Furthermore, epiphysial neurons are not ectopically induced in mbl(-)/flh(-) embryos, demonstrating that the epiphysial phenotype of mbl(-) embryos is mediated by ectopic Flh activity. We propose a role for Flh in linking the signaling pathways that regulate regional patterning to the signaling pathways that regulate neurogenesis.},
author = {Masai, Ichiro and Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp J and Barth, K Anukampa and Macdonald, Rachel and Adamek, Sylwia and Wilson, Stephen},
journal = {Neuron},
number = {1},
pages = {43 -- 57},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Floating head and masterblind regulate neuronal patterning in the roof of the forebrain}},
doi = {10.1016/S0896-6273(01)80045-3},
volume = {18},
year = {1997},
}
@article{4201,
abstract = {In zebrafish, as in other vertebrates, an initially singular eye held within the neural plate has to split during morphogenesis to allow the development of two separated eyes. It has been suggested that anterior progression of midline tissue within the neural plate is involved in the bilateralization of the eye held. Mutations in the recently identified silberblick (slb) gene cause an incomplete separation of the eyes. During gastrulation and early somitogenesis, the ventral midline of the central nervous system (CNS) together with the underlying axial mesendoderm is shortened and broadened in slb embryos. While in wild-type embryos the ventral CNS midline extends to the anterior limit of the neural plate at the end of gastrulation, there is a gap between the anterior tip of the ventral CNS midline and the anterior edge of the neural plate in slb. To investigate the cause for the shortening of the ventral CNS midline in slb we determined the fate of labeled ventral CNS midline cells in wild-type and slb embryos at different stages of development. In slb, anterior migration of ventral CNS midline cells is impaired, which indicates that migration of these cells is needed for elongation of the ventral CNS midline. The anterior shortening of the ventral CNS midline in slb leads to medial instead of bilateral induction of optic stalks followed by a partial fusion of the eyes at later developmental stages. The analysis of the sIb phenotype indicates that anterior migration of midline cells within the neural plate is required for proper induction and subsequent bilateralization of an initially singular eye field. These findings may therefore provide a starting point in elucidating the role of neural plate morphogenesis in positioning of the eyes. (C) 1997 Academic Press.},
author = {Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp J and Nüsslein Volhard, Christiane},
journal = {Developmental Biology},
number = {1},
pages = {85 -- 94},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{The function of silberblick in the positioning of the eye anlage in the zebrafish embryo}},
doi = {10.1006/dbio.1997.8511},
volume = {184},
year = {1997},
}
@inbook{4284,
author = {Nicholas Barton},
booktitle = {Evolution on islands},
pages = {102 -- 123},
publisher = {Oxford University Press},
title = {{Natural selection and random genetic drift as causes of evolution on islands}},
year = {1997},
}
@article{4285,
abstract = {One of the oldest hypotheses for the advantage of recombination is that recombination allo rvs beneficial mutations that arise in different individuals to be placed together on the same chromosome. Unless recombination occurs, one of the beneficial alleles is doomed to extinction, slowing the rate at which adaptive mutations are incorporated within a population. We model the effects of a modifier of recombination on the fixation probability of beneficial mutations when beneficial alleles are segregating at other loci. We find that modifier alleles that increase recombination do increase the fixation probability of beneficial mutants and subsequently hitchhike along as the mutants rise in frequency. The strength of selection favoring a modifier that increases recombination is proportional to lambda(2)S delta r/r when linkage is tight and lambda(2)S(3) delta r/N when linkage is loose, where lambda is the beneficial mutation rate per genome per generation throughout a population of size N, S is the average mutant effect, r is the average recombination rate, and delta ris the amount that recombination is modified. We conclude that selection for recombination will be substantial only if there is tight linkage within the genome or if many loci are subject to directional selection as during periods of rapid evolutionary change.},
author = {Otto, Sarah P and Nicholas Barton},
journal = {Genetics},
number = {2},
pages = {879 -- 906},
publisher = {Genetics Society of America},
title = {{The evolution of recombination: Removing the limits to natural selection}},
volume = {147},
year = {1997},
}
@article{4286,
abstract = {A local barrier to gene flow will delay the spread of an advantageous allele. Exact calculations for the deterministic case show that an allele that is favorable when rare is delayed very little even by a strong barrier; its spread is allowed by a time proportional to log((B/σ)√2S)/S, where B is the barrier strength, σ the dispersal range, and fitnesses are 1:1 + S:1 + 2S. However, when there is selection against heterozytes, such that the allele cannot increase from low frequency, a barrier can cause a much greater delay. If gene flow is reduced below a critical value, spread is entirely prevented. Stochastic simulations show that with additive selection, random drift slows down the spread of the allele, below the deterministic speed of σ√2S. The delay to the advance of an advantageous allele caused by a strong barrier can be substantially increased by random drift and increases with B/(2Sρσ2) in a one-dimensional habitat of density ρ. However, with selection against heterozygotes, drift can facilitate the spread and can free an allele that would otherwise be trapped indefinitely by a strong barrier. We discuss the implications of these results for the evolution of chromosome rearrangements.},
author = {Piálek, Jaroslav and Nicholas Barton},
journal = {Genetics},
number = {2},
pages = {493 -- 504},
publisher = {Genetics Society of America},
title = {{The spread of an advantageous allele across a barrier: the effects of random drift and selection against heterozygotes}},
volume = {145},
year = {1997},
}
@misc{4287,
abstract = {We evaluate Sewall Wright's three-phase 'shifting balance' theory of evolution, examining both the theoretical issues and the relevant data from nature and the laboratory. We conclude that while phases I and II of Wright's theory (the movement of populations from one 'adaptive peak' to another via drift and selection) can occur under some conditions, genetic drift is often unnecessary for movement between peaks. Phase III of the shifting balance, in which adaptations spread from particular populations to the entire species, faces two major theoretical obstacles: (1) unlike adaptations favored by simple directional selection, adaptations whose fixation requires some genetic drift are often prevented from spreading by barriers to gene flow; and (2) it is difficult to assemble complex adaptations whose constituent parts arise via peak shifts in different demes. Our review of the data from nature shows that although there is some evidence for individual phases of the shifting balance process, there are few empirical observations explained better by Wright's three-phase mechanism than by simple mass selection. Similarly, artificial selection experiments fail to show that selection in subdivided populations produces greater response than does mass selection in large populations. The complexity of the shifting balance process and the difficulty of establishing that adaptive valleys have been crossed by genetic drift make it impossible to test Wright's claim that adaptations commonly originate by this process. In view of these problems, it seems unreasonable to consider the shifting balance process as an important explanation for the evolution of adaptations.},
author = {Coyne, Jerry A and Nicholas Barton and Turelli, Michael},
booktitle = {Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution},
number = {3},
pages = {643 -- 671},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{Perspective: A critique of Sewall Wright's shifting balance theory of evolutionight's shifting balance theory of evolution}},
volume = {51},
year = {1997},
}
@article{4288,
abstract = {We measured the heterozygous effects on net fitness of a sample of 12 wild-type third chromosomes in D. melanogaster. Effects on fitness were assessed by competing the wild-type chromosomes against balancer chromosomes, to prevent the production of recombinants. The measurements were carried out in the population cage environment in which the life history had been evolving, in an undisturbed population with overlapping generations, and replicated measurements were made on each chromosome to control for confounding effects such as mutation accumulation. We found significant variation among the wild type chromosomes in their additive genetic effect on net fitness. The system provides an opportunity to obtain an accurate estimate of the distribution of heterozygous effects on net fitness, the contribution of different fitness components including male mating success, and the role of intra-chromosomal epistasis in fitness variation.},
author = {Fowler, Kevin and Semple, Colin and Nicholas Barton and Partridge, Linda},
journal = {Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B Biological Sciences},
number = {1379},
pages = {191 -- 199},
publisher = {Royal Society, The},
title = {{Genetic variation for total fitness in Drosophila melanogaster}},
doi = {10.1098/rspb.1997.0027},
volume = {264},
year = {1997},
}
@misc{4289,
abstract = {A worldwide survey of polymorphic molecular markers shows that the human population is genetically homogeneous, in close agreement with evidence from quite different genes and traits.},
author = {Nicholas Barton},
booktitle = {Current Biology},
number = {12},
pages = {757 -- 758},
publisher = {Cell Press},
title = {{Population genetics: A new apportionment of human diversity}},
doi = {10.1016/S0960-9822(06)00397-6},
volume = {7},
year = {1997},
}
@misc{4290,
author = {Nicholas Barton},
booktitle = {Genetical Research},
number = {2},
pages = {178 -- 180},
publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
title = {{Natural hybridization and evolution}},
volume = {70},
year = {1997},
}
@misc{4291,
author = {Nicholas Barton},
booktitle = {Genetical Research},
number = {2},
pages = {180 -- 181},
publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
title = {{The ccological detective: Confronting models with data}},
volume = {70},
year = {1997},
}
@inbook{4293,
abstract = {Natural populations differ from the simplest models in ways which can significantly affect their evolution. Real populations are rarely all of the same size; the rates of migration into and out of populations vary in space and time; some populations go extinct, and new ones are established, while all populations fluctuate in size. Furthermore, the genetic properties of real species are not like those assumed in simple models. Alleles are exposed to a wide variety of selection mutation rarely creates novel genotypes with each mutation event, generations overlap, and environments vary from place to place. Evolution in a metapopulation can be substantially different from the predictions of single-population models and, indeed, very different from the simplest models of subdivided species.},
author = {Nicholas Barton and Whitlock, Michael},
booktitle = {Metapopulation Biology},
pages = {183 -- 210},
publisher = {Academic Press},
title = {{The evolution of metapopulations}},
doi = {10.1016/B978-012323445-2/50012-2},
year = {1997},
}
@inproceedings{4438,
abstract = {In temporal-logic model checking, we verify the correctness of a program with respect to a desired behavior by checking whether a structure that models the program satisfies a temporal-logic formula that specifies the behavior. The model-checking problem for the branching-time temporal logic CTL can be solved in linear running time, and model-checking tools for CTL are used successfully in industrial applications. The development of programs that must meet rigid real-time constraints has brought with it a need for real-time temporal logics that enable quantitative reference to time. Early research on real-time temporal logics uses the discrete domain of the integers to model time. Present research on real-time temporal logics focuses on continuous time and uses the dense domain of the reals to model time. There, model checking becomes significantly more complicated. For example, the model-checking problem for TCTL, a continuous-time extension of the logic CTL, is PSPACE-complete.
In this paper we suggest a reduction from TCTL model checking to CTL model checking. The contribution of such a reduction is twofold. Theoretically, while it has long been known that model-checking methods for untimed temporal logics can be extended quite easily to handle discrete time, it was not clear whether and how untimed methods can handle the reset quantifier of TCTL, which resets a realvalued clock. Practically, our reduction enables anyone who has a tool for CTL model checking to use it for TCTL model checking. The TCTL model-checking algorithm that follows from our reduction is in PSPACE, matching the known bound for this problem. In addition, it enjoys the wide distribution of CTL model-checking tools and the extensive and fruitful research efforts and heuristics that have been put into these tools.},
author = {Thomas Henzinger and Kupferman, Orna},
pages = {48 -- 62},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{From quantity to quality}},
doi = { 10.1007/BFb0014712},
volume = {1201},
year = {1997},
}
@inproceedings{4441,
abstract = {Rectangular hybrid automata model digital control programs of analog plant environments. We study rectangular hybrid automata where the plant state evolves continuously in real-numbered time, and the controller samples the plant state and changes the control state discretely, only at the integer points in time. We prove that rectangular hybrid automata have finite bisimilarity quotients when all control transitions happen at integer times, even if the constraints on the derivatives of the variables vary between control states. This is sharply in contrast with the conventional model where control transitions may happen at any real time, and already the reachability problem is undecidable. Based on the finite bisimilarity quotients, we give an exponential algorithm for the symbolic sampling-controller synthesis of rectangular automata. We show our algorithm to be optimal by proving the problem to be EXPTIME-hard. We also show that rectangular automata form a maximal class of systems for which the sampling-controller synthesis problem can be solved algorithmically.},
author = {Thomas Henzinger and Kopke, Peter W},
pages = {582 -- 593},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Discrete-time control for rectangular hybrid automata}},
doi = {10.1007/3-540-63165-8_213},
volume = {1256},
year = {1997},
}
@article{4493,
author = {Thomas Henzinger and Ho, Pei-Hsin and Wong-Toi, Howard},
journal = {Software Tools For Technology Transfer},
number = {1-2},
pages = {110 -- 122},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{HyTech: A model checker for hybrid systems}},
doi = {10.1007/s100090050008},
volume = {1},
year = {1997},
}
@inproceedings{4494,
abstract = {A hybrid system consists of a collection of digital programs that interact with each other and with an analog environment. Examples of hybrid systems include medical equipment, manufacturing controllers, automotive controllers, and robots. The formal analysis of the mixed digital-analog nature of these systems requires a model that incorporates the discrete behavior of computer programs with the continuous behavior of environment variables, such as temperature and pressure. Hybrid automata capture both types of behavior by combining finite automata with differential inclusions (i.e. differential inequalities). HyTech is a symbolic model checker for linear hybrid automata, an expressive, yet automatically analyzable, subclass of hybrid automata. A key feature of HyTech is its ability to perform parametric analysis, i.e. to determine the values of design parameters for which a linear hybrid automaton satisfies a temporal requirement.},
author = {Thomas Henzinger and Ho, Pei-Hsin and Wong-Toi, Howard},
pages = {460 -- 463},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{HyTech: A model checker for hybrid systems}},
doi = {10.1007/3-540-63166-6_48},
volume = {1254},
year = {1997},
}
@inproceedings{4496,
abstract = {The simulation preorder for labeled transition systems is defined locally as a game that relates states with their immediate successor states. Liveness assumptions about transition systems are typically modeled using fairness constraints. Existing notions of simulation for fair transition systems, however, are not local, and as a result, many appealing properties of the simulation preorder are lost. We extend the local definition of simulation to account for fairness: system S fairly simulates system I iff in the simulation game, there is a strategy that matches with each fair computation of I a fair computation of S. Our definition enjoys a fully abstract semantics and has a logical characterization: S fairly simulates I iff every fair computation tree embedded in the unrolling of I can be embedded also in the unrolling of S or, equivalently, iff every Fair-AFMC formula satisfied by I is satisfied also by S (AFMC is the universal fragment of the alternation-free -calculus). The locality of the definition leads us to a polynomial-time algorithm for checking fair simulation for finite-state systems with weak and strong fairness constraints. Finally, fair simulation implies fair trace-containment, and is therefore useful as an efficientlycomputable local criterion for proving linear-time abstraction hierarchies.},
author = {Thomas Henzinger and Kupferman, Orna and Rajamani, Sriram K},
pages = {273 -- 287},
publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik},
title = {{Fair simulation}},
doi = {10.1007/3-540-63141-0_19},
volume = {1243},
year = {1997},
}
@inproceedings{4520,
abstract = {We define robust timed automata, which are timed automata that accept all trajectories robustly: if a robust timed automaton accepts a trajectory, then it must accept neighboring trajectories also; and if a robust timed automaton rejects a trajectory, then it must reject neighboring trajectories also. We show that the emptiness problem for robust timed automata is still decidable, by modifying the region construction for timed automata. We then show that, like timed automata, robust timed automata cannot be determinized. This result is somewhat unexpected, given that in temporal logic, the removal of realtime equality constraints is known to lead to a decidable theory that is closed under all boolean operations.},
author = {Gupta, Vineet and Thomas Henzinger and Jagadeesan, Radha},
pages = {331 -- 345},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Robust timed automata}},
doi = {10.1007/BFb0014736},
volume = {1201},
year = {1997},
}
@inproceedings{4583,
abstract = {In a trace-based world, the modular specification, verification, and control of live systems require each module to be receptive; that is, each module must be able to meet its liveness assumptions no matter how the other modules behave. In a real-time world, liveness is automatically present in the form of diverging time. The receptiveness condition, then, translates to the requirement that a module must be able to let time diverge no matter how the environment behaves. We study the receptiveness condition for real-time systems by extending the model of reactive modules to timed and hybrid modules. We define the receptiveness of such a module as the existence of a winning strategy in a game of the module against its environment. By solving the game on region graphs, we present an (optimal) Exptime algorithm for checking the receptiveness of prepositional timed modules. By giving a fixpoint characterization of the game, we present a symbolic procedure for checking the receptiveness of linear hybrid modules. Finally, we present an assume-guarantee principle for reasoning about timed and hybrid modules, and a method for synthesizing receptive controllers of timed and hybrid modules.},
author = {Alur, Rajeev and Thomas Henzinger},
pages = {74 -- 88},
publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik},
title = {{Modularity for timed and hybrid systems}},
doi = {10.1007/3-540-63141-0_6},
volume = {1243},
year = {1997},
}
@article{4584,
abstract = {This paper introduces, gently but rigorously, the clock approach to real-time programming. We present with mathematical precision, assuming no prerequisites other than familiarity with logical and programming notations, the concepts that are necessary for understanding, writing, and executing clock programs. In keeping with an expository style, all references are clustered in bibliographic remarks at the end of each section. The first appendix presents proof rules for verifying temporal properties of clock programs. The second appendix points to selected literature on formal methods and tools for programming with clocks. In particular, the timed automaton, which is a finite-state machine equipped with clocks, has become a standard paradigm for real-time model checking; it underlies the tools HyTech, Kronos, and Uppaal, which are discussed elsewhere in this volume.},
author = {Alur, Rajeev and Thomas Henzinger},
journal = {Software Tools For Technology Transfer},
number = {1-2},
pages = {86 -- 109},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Real-time system = discrete system + clock variables}},
doi = {10.1007/s100090050007},
volume = {1},
year = {1997},
}
@article{3482,
abstract = {AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs and NMDARs) mediate excitatory synoptic transmission in the basal ganglia and may contribute to excitotoxic injury. We investigated the functional properties of AMPARs and NMDARs expressed by six main types of basal ganglia neurons in acute rat brain slices (principal neurons and cholinergic interneurons of striatum, GABAergic and dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra, globus pallidus neurons, and subthalamic nucleus neurons) using fast application of glutamate to nucleated and outside-out membrane patches, AMPARs in different types of basal ganglia neurons were functionally distinct. Those expressed in striatal principal neurons exhibited the slowest gating (desensitization time constant τ = 11.5 msec, 1 mM glutamate, 22°C), whereas those in striatal cholinergic interneurons showed the fastest gating (desensitization time constant τ = 3.6 msec). The lowest Ca2+ permeability of AMPARs was observed in nigral dopaminergic neurons (P(CA)/P(NA) = 0.10), whereas the highest Ca2+ permeability was found in subthalamic nucleus neurons (P(Ca)/P(Na) = 1.17). NMDARs of different types of basal ganglia neurons were less variable in their functional properties; those expressed in nigral dopaminergic neurons exhibited the slowest gating (deactivation time constant of predominant fast component τ1 150 msec, 100 μM glutamate), and those of globus pallidus neurons showed the fastest gating (τ1 = 67 msec). The Mg2+ block of NMDARs was similar; the average chord conductance ratio g(+60mv)/g(+40mV) was 0.18-0.22 in 100 μM external Mg2+. Hence, AMPARs expressed in different types of basal ganglia neurons are markedly diverse, whereas NMDARs are less variable in functional properties that are relevant for excitatory synoptic transmission and neuronal vulnerability.},
author = {Götz, Thomas and Kraushaar, Udo and Geiger, Jörg R and Lubke, Joachim H and Berger, Thomas G and Peter Jonas},
journal = {Journal of Neuroscience},
number = {1},
pages = {204 -- 215},
publisher = {Society for Neuroscience},
title = {{Functional properties of AMPA and NMDA receptors expressed in identified types of basal ganglia neurons}},
volume = {17},
year = {1997},
}
@article{3483,
abstract = {The main excitatory pathway of the hippocampal formation is controlled by a network of morphologically distinct populations of GABAergic interneurons. Here we describe a novel type of GABAergic interneuron located in the outer molecular layer (OML) of the rat dentate gyrus with a long- range forward projection from the dentate gyrus to the subiculum across the hippocampal fissure, OML interneurons were recorded in hippocampal slices by using the whole-cell patch-clamp configuration. During recording, cells were filled with biocytin for subsequent light and electron microscopic analysis. Neurons projecting to the subiculum were distributed throughout the entire OML. They had round or ovoid somata and a multipolar dendritic morphology. Two axonal domains could be distinguished: an extensive, tangential distribution within the OML and a long-range vertical and tangential projection to layer 1 and stratum pyramidale of the subiculum. Symmetric synaptic contacts were established by these interneurons on dendritic shafts in the OML and subiculum. OML interneurons were characterized physiologically by short action potential duration and marked afterhyperpolarization that followed the spike. On sustained current injection, they generated high- frequency (up to 130 Hz, 34°C) trains of action potentials with only little adaptation. In situ hybridization and single-call RT-PCR analysis for GAD67 mRNA confirmed the GABAergic nature of OML interneurons. GABAergic interneurons in the OML projecting to the subiculum connect the input and output regions of the hippocampus. Hence, they could mediate long-range feed- forward inhibition and may participate in an oscillating cross-regional interneuron network that may synchronize the activity of spatially distributed principal neurons in the dentate gyrus and the subiculum.},
author = {Ceranik, Katya and Bender, Roland and Geiger, Jörg R and Monyer, Hannah and Peter Jonas and Frotscher, Michael and Lubke, Joachim H},
journal = {Journal of Neuroscience},
number = {14},
pages = {5380 -- 5394},
publisher = {Society for Neuroscience},
title = {{A novel type of GABAergic interneuron connecting the input and the output regions of the hippocampus.}},
volume = {17},
year = {1997},
}
@article{3484,
abstract = {Glutamatergic transmission at a principal neuroninterneuron synapse was investigated by dual whole-cell patch-clamp recording in rat hippocampal slices combined with morphological analysis. Evoked EPSPs with rapid time course (half duration ≃ 4 ms; 34°C) were generated at multiple synaptic contacts established on the interneuron dendrites close to the soma. The underlying postsynaptic conductance change showed a submillisecond rise and decay, due to the precise timing of glutamate release and the rapid deactivation of the postsynaptic AMPA receptors. Simulations based on a compartmental model of the interneuron indicated that the rapid postsynaptic conductance change determines the shape and the somatodendritic integration of EPSPs, thus enabling interneurons to detect synchronous principal neuron activity.},
author = {Geiger, Jörg R and Lubke, Joachim H and Roth, Arnd and Frotscher, Michael and Peter Jonas},
journal = {Neuron},
number = {6},
pages = {1009 -- 1023},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Submillisecond AMPA receptor-mediated signaling at a principal neuron-interneuron synapse}},
doi = {10.1016/S0896-6273(00)80339-6},
volume = {18},
year = {1997},
}
@article{3485,
abstract = {1. GABAergic interneurones differ from glutamatergic principal neurones in their ability to discharge high-frequency trains of action potentials without adaptation. To examine whether Na+ channel gating contributed to these differences, Na+ currents were recorded in nucleated patches from interneurones (dentate gyrus basket cells, BCs) and principal neurones (CA1 pyramidal cells, PCs) of rat hippocampal slices. 2. The voltage dependence of Na+ channel activation in BCs and PCs was similar. The slope factors of the activation curves, fitted with Boltzmann functions raised to the third power, were 11.5 and 11.8 mV, and the mid-point potentials were -25.1 and -23.9 mV, respectively. 3. Whereas the time course of Na+ channel activation (-30 to +40 mV) was similar, the deactivation kinetics (-100 to -40 mV) were faster in BCs than in PCs (tail current decay time constants, 0.13 and 0.20 ms, respectively, at -40 mV). 4. Na+ channels in BCs and PCs differed in the voltage dependence of inactivation. The slope factors of the steady-state inactivation curves fitted with Boltzmann functions were 6.7 and 10.7 mV, and the mid-point potentials were -58.3 and -62.9 mV, respectively. 5. The onset of Na+ channel inactivation at -55 mV was slower in BC's than in PCs; the inactivation time constants were 18.6 and 9.3 ms, respectively. At more positive potentials the differences in inactivation onset were smaller. 6. The time course of recovery of Na+ channels from inactivation induced by a 30 ms pulse was fast and mono-exponential (τ = 2.0 ms at -120 mV) in BCs, whereas it was slower and biexponential in PCs (τ1 = 2.0 ms and τ2 = 133 ms; amplitude contribution of the slow component, 15%). 7. We conclude that Na+ channels of BCs and PCs differ in gating properties that contribute to the characteristic action potential patterns of the two types of neurones.},
author = {Martina, Marco and Peter Jonas},
journal = {Journal of Physiology},
number = {3},
pages = {593 -- 603},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{Functional differences in Na+ channel gating between fast-spiking interneurones and principal neurones in rat hippocampus}},
doi = {10.1111/j.1469-7793.1997.593ba.x},
volume = {505},
year = {1997},
}
@article{3486,
abstract = {1. Dendritic patch-clamp recordings were obtained from mitral cells in rat olfactory bulb slices, up to 350 μm from the soma. Simultaneous dendritic and somatic whole-cell recordings indicated that action potentials (APs) evoked by somatic or dendritic current injection were initiated near the soma. Both the large amplitude (100.7 ± 1.1 mV) and the short duration (1.38 ± 0.07 ms) of the AP were maintained as the AP propagated back into the primary mitral cell dendrites. 2. Outside-out patches isolated from mitral cell dendrites contained voltage-gated Na+ channels (peak conductance density, 90 pS μm-2 at -10 mV). When an AP was used as a somatic voltage-clamp command in the presence of 1 μM tetrodotoxin (TTX), the amplitude of the dendritic potential was attenuated to 48 ± 14 mV. This shows that dendritic Na+ channels support the active back-propagation of APs. 3. Dendritic patches contained voltage-gated K+ channels with high density (conductance density, 513 pS μm-2 at 30 mV. Dendritic K+ currents were reduced to 35% by 1 mM external tetraethylammonium chloride (TEACl). When an AP was used as a somatic voltage clamp command in the presence of TEACl, the dendritic potential was markedly prolonged. This indicates that dendritic K+ channels mediate the fast repolarization of dendritic APs. 4. We conclude that voltage gated Na+ and K+ channels support dendritic APs with large amplitudes and short durations that may trigger fast transmitter release at dendrodendritic synapses in the olfactory bulb.},
author = {Bischofberger, Joseph and Peter Jonas},
journal = {Journal of Physiology},
number = {Pt 2},
pages = {359 -- 365},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{Action potential propagation into the presynaptic dendrites of rat mitral cells}},
doi = {10.1111/j.1469-7793.1997.359be.x},
volume = {504},
year = {1997},
}
@article{3541,
abstract = {The contribution of the various hippocampal regions to the maintenance of epileptic activity, induced by stimulation of the perforant path or commissural system, was examined in the awake rat. Combination of multiple-site recordings with silicon probes, current source density analysis and unit recordings allowed for a high spatial resolution of the field events. Following perforant path stimulation, seizures began in the dentate gyrus, followed by events in the CA3-CA1 regions. After commissural stimulation, rhythmic bursts in the CA3-CA1 circuitry preceded the activation of the dentate gyrus. Correlation of events in the different subregions indicated that the sustained rhythmic afterdischarge (2-6 Hz) could not be explained by a cycle-by-cycle excitation of principal cell populations in the hippocampal-entorhinal loop. The primary afterdischarge always terminated in the CA1 region, followed by the dentate gyrus, CA3 region and the entorhinal cortex. The duration and pattern of the hippocampal afterdischarge was essentially unaffected by removal of the entorhinal cortex. The emergence of large population spike bursts coincided with a decreased discharge of interneurons in both CAI and hilar regions. The majority of hilar interneurons displayed a strong amplitude decrement prior to the onset of population spike phase of the afterdischarge. These findings suggest that (i) afterdischarges can independently arise in the CA3-CA1 and entorhinal-dentate gyrus circuitries, (ii) reverberation of excitation in the hippocampal-entorhinal loop is not critical for the maintenance of afterdischarges and (iii) decreased activity of the interneuronal network may release population bursting of principal cells. },
author = {Bragin, Anatol J and Jozsef Csicsvari and Penttonen, Markku and Buzsáki, György},
journal = {Neuroscience},
number = {4},
pages = {1187 -- 1203},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Epileptic afterdischarge in the hippocampal-entorhinal system: Current source density and unit studies}},
doi = {10.1016/S0306-4522(96)00446-0},
volume = {76},
year = {1997},
}
@article{3630,
abstract = {This paper derives the long-term effective size, Ne, for a general model of population subdivision, allowing for differential deme fitness, variable emigration and immigration rates, extinction, colonization, and correlations across generations in these processes. We show that various long-term measures of Ne are equivalent. The effective size of a metapopulation can be expressed in a variety of ways. At a demographic equilibrium, Ne can be derived from the demography by combining information about the ultimate contribution of each deme to the future genetic make-up of the population and Wright's FST's. The effective size is given by Ne = 1/(1 + var (upsilon) ((1 - FST)/Nin), where n is the number of demes, theta i is the eventual contribution of individuals in deme i to the whole population (scaled such that sigma theta i = n), and < > denotes an average weighted by theta i. This formula is applied to a catastrophic extinction model (where sites are either empty or at carrying capacity) and to a metapopulation model with explicit dynamics, where extinction is caused by demographic stochasticity and by chaos. Contrary to the expectation from the standard island model, the usual effect of population subdivision is to decrease the effective size relative to a panmictic population living on the same resource.},
author = {Whitlock, Michael and Nicholas Barton},
journal = {Genetics},
number = {1},
pages = {427 -- 441},
publisher = {Genetics Society of America},
title = {{The effective size of a subdivided population}},
volume = {146},
year = {1997},
}
@article{3631,
abstract = {In spatially heterogeneous environments, natural selection for maintenance of adaptation to habitats that contribute little to the population's reproduction is weak. In this paper we model a mechanism that can result in loss of fitness in such marginal habitats, and thus lead to specialisation on the main habitat. It involves accumulation of mutations that are deleterious in the marginal habitat but neutral or nearly so in the main habitat (mutations deleterious in the main habitat and neutral in the marginal habitat have a negligible influence). If the contribution of the marginal habitat to total reproduction in the absence of the mutations is less than a threshold value, selection is too weak to counter accumulation of such mutations. A positive feedback then results in loss of fitness in the marginal habitat. This mechanism does not require antagonistic pleiotropy in adaptation to different habitats, although antagonistic pleiotropy facilitates the mutational collapse of fitness in the marginal habitat. We suggest that deleterious mutations with habitat-specific expression may play a role in the evolution of ecological specialisation and promote evolutionary conservatism of ecological niches.},
author = {Kawecki, Tadeusz J and Nicholas Barton and Fry, James D},
journal = {Journal of Evolutionary Biology},
number = {3},
pages = {407 -- 430},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{Mutational collapse of fitness in marginal habitats and the evolution of ecological specialisation}},
doi = {10.1046/j.1420-9101.1997.10030407.x},
volume = {10},
year = {1997},
}
@article{3632,
abstract = {An important but controversial class of hypotheses concerning the evolution of female preferences for extreme male mating displays involves 'indirect selection.' Even in the absence of direct fitness effects, preference for males with high overall fitness can spread via a genetic correlation that develops between preference alleles and high fitness genotypes. Here we develop a quantitative expression for the force of indirect selection that (i) applies to any female mating behavior, (ii) is relatively insensitive to the underlying genetics, and (iii) is based on measurable quantities. In conjunction with the limited data now available, it suggests that the evolutionary force generated by indirect selection on preferences is weak in absolute terms. This finding raises the possibility that direct selection on preference genes may often be more important than indirect selection, but more data on the quantities identified by our model and on direct selection are needed to decide the question.},
author = {Kirkpatrick, Mark and Nicholas Barton},
journal = {PNAS},
number = {4},
pages = {1282 -- 1286},
publisher = {National Academy of Sciences},
title = {{The strength of indirect selection on female mating preferences}},
doi = {10.1073/pnas.94.4.1282},
volume = {94},
year = {1997},
}
@article{3633,
abstract = {Gene flow from the center of a species' range can stymie adaptation at the periphery and prevent the range from expanding outward. We study this process using simple models that track both demography and the evolution of a quantitative trait in a population that is continuously distributed in space. Stabilizing selection acts on the trait and favors an optimum phenotype that changes linearly across the habitat. One of three outcomes is possible: the species will become extinct, expand to fill all of the available habitat, or be confined to a limited range in which it is significantly adapted to allow population growth. When the environment changes rapidly in space, increased migration inhibits local adaptation and so decreases the species' total population size. Gene flow can cause enough maladaptation that the peripheral half of a species' range acts as an demographic sink. The trait's genetic variance has little effect on species persistence or the size of the range when gene flow is sufficiently strong to keep population densities far below the carrying capacity throughout the range, but it can increase the range width and population size of an abundant species. Under some conditions, a small parameter change can dramatically shift the balance between gene flow and local adaptation, allowing a species with a limited range to suddenly expand to fill all the available habitat.},
author = {Kirkpatrick, Mark and Nicholas Barton},
journal = {American Naturalist},
number = {1},
pages = {1 -- 23},
publisher = {University of Chicago Press},
title = {{Evolution of a species' range}},
doi = {10.1086/286054},
volume = {150},
year = {1997},
}
@article{2492,
abstract = {The metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes mGluR2 and mGluR5, which are thought to be coupled respectively to the inhibitory cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) cascade and the phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis/Ca2+ cascade, are known to be expressed on Golgi cells in the granular layer of the rat cerebellar cortex. In the present immunohistochemical study with a monoclonal antibody against mGluR2 and a polyclonal antibody for mGluR5, we examined whether or not mGluR2- and mGluR5-like immunoreactivities were both present in single Golgi cells in the rat cerebellar cortex. In double immunofluorescence histochemistry, no Golgi cells showed mGluR2- and mGluR5-like immunoreactivities simultaneously. Of the total number of Golgi cells immunoreactive for mGluR2 or mGluR5, about 90% were mGluR2-like immunoreactive, and about 10% were mGluR5-like immunoreactive. Golgi cells with mGluR2-like immunoreactivity were distributed evenly in the granular layer of all the cerebellar regions, while those with mGluR5-like immunoreactivity were distributed more frequently in the I, II, VII-X lobules of the vermis and the copula pyramidis of the hemisphere than in other cerebellar regions. The results indicate that Golgi cells containing mGluR2 are segregated from those possessing mGluR5. These two populations of Golgi cells, each equipped with a different metabolic glutamate receptor coupled to a different intracellular signal transduction system, may play different roles in the glutamatergic neuronal circuits in the cerebellar cortex.},
author = {Neki, Akio and Ohishi, Hitoshi and Kaneko, Takeshi and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Nakanishi, Shigetada and Mizuno, Noboru},
journal = {Neuroscience},
number = {3},
pages = {815 -- 826},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Metabotropic glutamate receptors mGluR2 and mGluR5 are expressed in two non-overlapping populations of Golgi cells in the rat cerebellum}},
doi = {10.1016/0306-4522(96)00316-8},
volume = {75},
year = {1996},
}
@article{2562,
abstract = {A monoclonal antibody against a metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR2, was produced by using a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein containing an N-terminal sequence of rat mGluR2. Intense mGluR2-like immunoreactivity (mGluR2-LI) was seen mainly in neuropil of the cerebral cortical regions, hippocampus, olfactory bulb, some diencephalic nuclei, dorsal cochlear nucleus and cerebellar cortex. In the cerebellar cortex, mGluR2-LI was seen only in Golgi cells. In Ammon's hem, mGluR2-LI was marked in the stratum lucidum of CA3 and the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of CA1-CA3, but not detected in the stratum pyramidale. The results indicate that mGluR2 is located not only presynaptically but also postsynaptically.},
author = {Neki, Akio and Ohishi, Hitoshi and Kaneko, Takeshi and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Nakanishi, Shigetada and Mizuno, Noboru},
journal = {Neuroscience Letters},
number = {3},
pages = {197 -- 200},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Pre- and postsynaptic localization of a metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR2, in the rat brain: An immunohistochemical study with a monoclonal antibody}},
doi = {10.1016/0304-3940(95)12248-6},
volume = {202},
year = {1996},
}
@article{2564,
abstract = {The distribution of the neuromedin K receptor (NK3; NKR) in the central nervous system was investigated in the adult rat by using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical techniques. The rabbit anti-NKR antibody was raised against a bacterial fusion protein containing a C- terminal portion of NKR and affinity purified with a Sepharose 4B column conjugated to the fusion protein. Immunoblot analysis was performed to test the reactivity and specificity of the antibody. Crude membrane was prepared from cDNA-transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing each of the rat NKR, substance P receptor (NK1; SPR), and substance K receptor (NK2; SKR) and from the hypothalamus, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum. Immunoreactive bands were observed specifically in the NKR-CHO cells, hypothalamus, and cerebral cortex but not in the SPR- or SKR-CHO cells, nor in the cerebellum. Molecular weights of the immunoreactive bands ranged from 73 to 89 kDa and from 59 to 83 kDa in the NKR-CHO cells and tissues, respectively. The distribution of NKR-like immunoreactivity coincided with that of NKR mRNA. The expression of NKR was indicated on neuronal cell bodies and dendrites. NKR was found to be expressed intensely or moderately in neurons in the glomerular and granule cell layers of the main olfactory bulb; glomerular and mitral cell layers of the accessory olfactory bulb; layers IV and V of the cerebral neocortex; medial septal nucleus; nucleus of the diagonal band; bed nucleus of the stria terminalis; globus pallidus; ventral pallidum; paraventricular nucleus; supraoptic nucleus; zona incerta; dorsal, lateral, and posterior hypothalamic areas; amygdaloid nuclei; medial habenular nucleus; ventral tegmental area; midbrain periaqueductal gray; interpeduncular nuclei; substantia nigra pars compacta; linear, median, dorsal, and pontine raphe nuclei; posteromedial tegmental nucleus; sphenoid nucleus; nucleus of the solitary tract; intermediate and rostroventrolateral reticular nuclei; and lamina II of the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus and spinal dorsal horn. These findings are discussed in relation to the physiological functions associated with neuromedin K.},
author = {Ding, Yu-Qiang and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Takada, Masahiko and Ohishi, Hitoshi and Nakanishi, Shigetada and Mizuno, Noboru},
journal = {Journal of Comparative Neurology},
number = {2},
pages = {290 -- 310},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{Localization of the neuromedin K receptor (NK3) in the central nervous system of the rat}},
doi = {10.1002/(SICI)1096-9861(19960108)364:2<290::AID-CNE8>3.0.CO;2-0},
volume = {364},
year = {1996},
}
@article{2565,
abstract = {Immunoreactivity for the metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 (mGluR7) and that for phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG) were examined in the trigeminal (TG), dorsal root (DRG), nodose (NG), superior cervical, celiac, and pelvic ganglia of the rat. Virtually all neuronal cell bodies showed mGluR7-like immunoreactivity (mGluR7-LI) in these ganglia. On the other hand, PAG-like immunoreactivity (PAG) was seen in almost all neuronal cell bodies in the TG, DRG and NG, but not in the other ganglia. Co-existence of mGluR7- and PAG-LI in the TG, DRG and NG was confirmed by a double-immunofluorescence immunohistochemical method. The results indicate that virtually all sensory ganglion neurons are glutamatergic and equipped with mGluR7.},
author = {Li, Jin-Lian and Ohishi, Hitoshi and Kaneko, Takeshi and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Neki, Akio and Nakanishi, Shigetada and Mizuno, Noboru},
journal = {Neuroscience Letters},
number = {1-2},
pages = {9 -- 12},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Immunohistochemical localization of a metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR7, in ganglion neurons of the rat; with special reference to the presence in glutamatergic ganglion neurons}},
doi = {10.1016/0304-3940(95)12299-0},
volume = {204},
year = {1996},
}
@article{2566,
abstract = {The present study indicated presynaptic localization of a metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR8, in projection neurons of the main olfactory bulb of rat. An antibody was produced by using a peptide corresponding to C-terminal 23 amino acids of mouse mGluR8. It was confirmed that the C-terminal 23 amino acids of rat mGluR8 were the same as those of mouse mGluR8 except for one, and that the antibody specifically recognized mGluR8 in the rat rhinencephalon. In layer Ia of the piriform cortex (a target area of projection fibers from the main olfactory bulb), mGluR8-like immunoreactivity (mGluR8-LI) was reduced after transection of the lateral olfactory tract, and mGluR8-LI was observed in axon terminals which were filled with round synaptic vesicles and made asymmetric synapses with dendritic spines.},
author = {Kinoshita, Ayae and Ohishi, Hitoshi and Neki, Akio and Nomura, Sakashi and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Takada, Masahiko and Nakanishi, Shigetada and Mizuno, Noboru},
journal = {Neuroscience Letters},
number = {1},
pages = {61 -- 64},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Presynaptic localization of a metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR8, in the rhinencephalic areas: A light and electron microscope study in the rat}},
doi = {10.1016/0304-3940(96)12489-7},
volume = {207},
year = {1996},
}
@article{2567,
abstract = {Trigeminothalamic and spinothalamic-tact neurons provided with substance P receptor (SPR) were examined in the rat by SPR immunofluorescence histochemistry combined with Fluoro-Gold (FG) fluorescent retrograde labeling. After FG injection in the thalamic regions, FG-labeled cells with SPR-like immunoreactivity were seen mainly in laminae I and m of the medullary and spinal dorsal horns and lateral spinal nucleus. In these regions, about one-fourth to one-third of FG-labeled cells showed SPR-like immunoreactivity.},
author = {Li, Jin-Lian and Ding, Yu-Qiang and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Mizuno, Noboru},
journal = {Brain Research},
number = {1-2},
pages = {207 -- 212},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Distribution of trigeminothalamic and spinothalamic-tract neurons showing substance P receptor-like immunoreactivity in the rat}},
doi = {10.1016/0006-8993(96)00064-9},
volume = {719},
year = {1996},
}
@article{2568,
abstract = {Localization of a metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR4a, was immunohistochemically examined in the rat cerebellum with an antibody, which was produced by using a synthetic peptide corresponding to a C-terminal sequence of rat mGluR4a. Marked mGluR4a-like immunoreactivity (mGluRLta-LI) was seen in neuropil of the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex. Electron microscopically, mGluR4a-LI was observed in many axon terminals in the molecular layer. These axon terminals showing mGluR4a-LI were filled with round synaptic vesicles and were in asymmetric synaptic contacts most frequently with dendritic spines. The results indicate that mGluR4a are located presynaptically in the parallel fibers arising from the granule cells in the cerebellar cortex.},
author = {Kinoshita, Ayae and Ohishi, Hitoshi and Nomura, Sakashi and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Nakanishi, Shigetada and Mizuno, Noboru},
journal = {Neuroscience Letters},
number = {3},
pages = {199 -- 202},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Presynaptic localization of a metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR4a, in the cerebellar cortex: A light and electron microscope study in the rat}},
doi = {10.1016/0304-3940(96)12519-2},
volume = {207},
year = {1996},
}
@article{2569,
abstract = {Morphological substrates for interactions between γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and substance P upon neurons expressing substance Preceptor (SPR) in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) were investigated by immunocytochemical electron microscopy. In the NST of the rat, many GABA-like immunoreactive axon terminals were in symmetric synaptic contacts with dendritic profiles; they were observed on nearly a half of the SPR-like immunoreactive dendritic profiles in the medial part of the caudal half of the NST.},
author = {Jia, Hong-Ge and Wang, Bai-Ren and Rao, Zhi-Ren and Shi, Ji-Wu and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Kaneko, Takeshi and Mizuno, Noboru},
journal = {Neuroscience Letters},
number = {1},
pages = {49 -- 52},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{GABAergic synapses upon neurons expressing substance P receptors in the nucleus of the solitary tract: An immunocytochemical electron microscope study in the rat}},
doi = {10.1016/0304-3940(96)12654-9},
volume = {210},
year = {1996},
}
@article{2570,
abstract = {The probability of synaptic neurotransmitter release from nerve terminals is regulated by presynaptic receptors responding to transmitters released from the same nerve terminal or from terminals of other neurons. The release of glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter, is suppressed by presynaptic auto receptors. Here we show that a metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR7) in the rat hippocampus is restricted to the presynaptic grid, the site of synaptic vesicle fusion. Pyramidal cell terminals presynaptic to mGluR1α-expressing interneurons have at least a ten-fold higher level of presynaptic mGluR7 than terminals making synapses with pyramidal cells and other types of interneuron. Distinct levels of mGluR7 are found at different synapses made by individual pyramidal axons or even single boutons. These results raise the possibility that presynaptic neurons could regulate the probability of transmitter release at individual synapses according to the postsynaptic target},
author = {Ryuichi Shigemoto and Kulik, Ákos and Roberts, John D and Ohishi, Hitoshi and Nusser, Zoltán and Kaneko, Takeshi and Somogyi, Péter},
journal = {Nature},
number = {6582},
pages = {523 -- 525},
publisher = {Nature Publishing Group},
title = {{Target-cell-specific concentration of a metabotropic glutamate receptor in the presynaptic active zone}},
doi = {10.1038/381523a0},
volume = {381},
year = {1996},
}
@misc{2571,
abstract = {Subtype 2 of the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2) is expressed in the presynaptic elements of hippocampal mossy fiber-CA3 synapses. Knockout mice deficient in mGluR2 showed no histological changes and no alterations in basal synaptic transmission, paired-pulse facilitation, or tetanus-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) at the mossy fiber-CA3 synapses. Long-term depression (LTD) induced by low-frequency stimulation, however, was almost fully abolished. The mutant mice performed normally in water maze learning tasks. Thus, the presynaptic mGluR2 is essential for inducing LTD at the mossy fiber-CA3 synapses, but this hippocampal LTD does not seem to be required for spatial learning.},
author = {Yokoi, Mineto and Kobayashi, Kazuto and Manabe, Toshiya and Takahashi, Tomoyuki and Sakaguchi, Isako and Katsuura, Goro and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Ohishi, Hitoshi and Nomura, Sakashi and Nakamura, Kenji and Nakao, Kazuki and Katsuki, Motoya and Nakanishi, Shigetada},
booktitle = {Science},
number = {5275},
pages = {645 -- 647},
publisher = {American Association for the Advancement of Science},
title = {{Impairment of hippocampal mossy fiber LTD in mice lacking mGluR2}},
doi = {10.1126/science.273.5275.645},
volume = {273},
year = {1996},
}
@article{2572,
abstract = {The distribution of the mRNA for a pituitary adenylate cyclase- activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptor (PACAP-R) was examined in the rat brain, and also in the hypophysis and pineal gland, by in situ hybridization with a specific 35S-labeled riboprobe which was generated from a rat PACAP-R cDNA clone. In the brain, expression of PACAP-R mRNA was most prominent in the periglomerular and granule cells of the olfactory bulb, granule cells of the dentate gyrus, supraoptic nucleus, and area postrema. The expression was also intense in the piriform, cingulate, and retrosplenial cortices, pyramidal cells in CA2, non-pyramidal cells in CA1- CA3, neuronal cells in the hilus of the dentate gyrus, lateral septal nucleus, intercalated amygdaloid nucleus, anterodorsal thalamic nucleus, most of the midline and intralaminar thalamic nuclei, many regions of the hypothalamus, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve, hypoglossal nucleus, and lateral reticular nucleus. No significant expression was detected in the mitral and tufted cells in the olfactory bulb, pyramidal cells in CA1 and CA3, posterior nuclear group of the thalamus, dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, and Purkinje, Golgi, and granule cells in the cerebellar cortex. Moderate-to-weak expression was further observed in many other regions of the brain. In the cerebellar cortex, presumed Bergmann gila cells showed moderate expression. In the hypophysis, the expression was moderate in the anterior lobe, and weak to moderate in the posterior lobe; no significant expression was observed in the intermediate lobe. In the pineal gland, the expression was very weak, if any. Thus, the expression of PACAP-R was detected not only on neuronal cells but also on some particular glial cells. The present study has shown, for the first time, the exact site of PACAP-R expression in the brain and hypophysis. Although the functional significance of PACAP and PACAP-R in the brain still remains to be clarified, the present results are considered to provide some direction for future functional studies.},
author = {Hashimoto, Hitoshi and Nogi, Hiroyuki and Mori, Kensaku and Ohishi, Hitoshi and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Yamamoto, Kyohei and Matsuda, Toshio and Mizuno, Noboru and Nagata, Shigekazu and Baba, Akemichi},
journal = {Journal of Comparative Neurology},
number = {4},
pages = {567 -- 577},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{Distribution of the mRNA for a pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptor in the rat brain: An in situ hybridization study}},
doi = {10.1002/(SICI)1096-9861(19960805)371:4<567::AID-CNE6>3.3.CO;2-M},
volume = {371},
year = {1996},
}
@article{2573,
abstract = {Developmental changes of the distribution pattern of substance P receptor (SPR) were investigated immunohistochemically in the rat striatum. The SPR immunoreactivity in the striatum first emerged at postnatal day 1 and transiently showed a patchy pattern of distribution until it displayed the adult pattern of homogeneous distribution by the end of the third postnatal week. The SPR-immunoreactive patches were most marked in the medial and dorsolateral parts of the striatum, as well as in the subcallosal streak. They matched tyrosine hydroxylase-enriched areas and, conversely, avoided calbindin-enriched zones. No neurons within the SPR-immunoreactive patches contained either choline acetyltransferase or somatostatin, which is known to be contained in intrinsic neurons in the striatum. The vast majority of SPR-immunoreactive patch neurons also contained DARPP-32, a phosphoprotein that is expressed in striatal projection neurons with D1 dopamine receptor. The results indicate that SPR-immunoreactive patches which appear transiently in the developing striatum are in register with the striatal patch compartment, and that SPR immunoreactivity within these patches may be expressed on projection neurons rather than intrinsic neurons. Such SPR immunoreactivity in projection neurons in striatal patches may fade out in adulthood.},
author = {Tokuno, Hironobu and Takada, Masahiko and Kaneko, Takeshi and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Mizuno, Noboru},
journal = {Developmental Brain Research},
number = {1},
pages = {107 -- 117},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Patchy distribution of substance P receptor immunoreactivity in the developing rat striatum}},
doi = {10.1016/0165-3806(96)00080-6},
volume = {95},
year = {1996},
}
@article{2574,
abstract = {lonotropic and metabotropic (mGluR1a) glutamate receptors were reported to be segregated from each other within the postsynaptic membrane at individual synapses. In order to establish whether this pattern of distribution applies to the hippocampal principal cells and to other postsynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors, the mGluR1a/b/c and mGluR5 subtypes were localized by immunocytochemistry. Principal cells in all hippocampal fields were reactive for mGluR5, the strata oriens and radiatum of the CA1 area being most strongly immunolabelled. Labelling for mGluR1b/c was strongest on some pyramids in the CA3 area, weaker on granule cells and absent on CA1 pyramids. Subpopulations of non-principal cells showed strong mGluR1 or mGluR5 immunoreactivity. Electron microscopic pre-embedding immunoperoxidase and both pre- and postembedding immunogold methods consistently revealed the extrasynaptic location of both mGluRs in the somatic and dendritic membrane of pyramidal and granule cells. The density of immunolabelling was highest on dendritic spines. At synapses, immunoparticles for both mGluR1 and mGluR5 were found always outside the postsynaptic membrane specializations. Receptors were particularly concentrated in a perisynaptic annulus around type 1 synaptic junctions, including the invaginations at 'perforated' synapses. Measurements of immunolabelling on dendritic spines showed decreasing levels of receptor as a function of distance from the edge of the synaptic specialization. We propose that glutamatergic synapses with an irregular edge develop in order to increase the circumference of synaptic junctions leading to an increase in the metabotropic to ionotropic glutamate receptor ratio at glutamate release sites. The perisynaptic position of postsynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors appears to be a general feature of glutamatergic synaptic organization and may apply to other G-protein-coupled receptors. © European Neuroscience Association.},
author = {Luján, Rafael and Nusser, Zoltán and Roberts, John D and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Somogyi, Péter},
journal = {European Journal of Neuroscience},
number = {7},
pages = {1488 -- 1500},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{ Perisynaptic location of metabotropic glutamate receptors mGluR1 and mGluR5 on dendrites and dendritic spines in the rat hippocampus}},
doi = {10.1111/j.1460-9568.1996.tb01611.x},
volume = {8},
year = {1996},
}
@article{2725,
abstract = {We prove that the two dimensional free magnetic Schrödinger operator, with a fixed constant magnetic field and Dirichlet boundary conditions on a planar domain with a given area, attains its smallest possible eigenvalue if the domain is a disk. We also give some rough bounds on the lowest magnetic eigenvalue of the disk.},
author = {László Erdös},
journal = {Calculus of Variations and Partial Differential Equations},
number = {3},
pages = {283 -- 292},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Rayleigh-type isoperimetric inequality with a homogeneous magnetic field}},
doi = {10.1007/BF01254348},
volume = {4},
year = {1996},
}
@article{2726,
abstract = {We investigate whether the eigenfunctions of the two-dimensional magnetic Schrödinger operator have a Gaussian decay of type exp(-Cx2) at infinity (the magnetic field is rotationally symmetric). We establish this decay if the energy (E) of the eigenfunction is below the bottom of the essential spectrum (B), and if the angular Fourier components of the external potential decay exponentially (real analyticity in the angle variable). We also demonstrate that almost the same decay is necessary. The behavior of C in the strong field limit and in the small (B - E) limit is also studied.},
author = {László Erdös},
journal = {Geometric and Functional Analysis},
number = {2},
pages = {231 -- 248},
publisher = {Birkhäuser},
title = {{Gaussian decay of the magnetic eigenfunctions}},
doi = {10.1007/BF02247886},
volume = {6},
year = {1996},
}
@inproceedings{1942,
author = {Leonid Sazanov and Burrows, P and Nixon, P J},
pages = {705 -- 708},
publisher = {Kluwer},
title = {{Presence of a large protein complex containing the ndhK gene product and possessing NADH-specific dehydrogenase activity in thylakoid membranes of higher plant chloroplasts}},
volume = {2},
year = {1996},
}
@article{1951,
author = {Leonid Sazanov and Burrows, Paul A and Nixon, Peter J},
journal = {Biochemical Society Transactions},
number = {3},
pages = {739 -- 743},
publisher = {Portland Press},
title = {{Detection and characterization of a complex I-like NADH-specific dehydrogenase from pea thylakoids}},
volume = {24},
year = {1996},
}
@article{1952,
abstract = {Two strains of Rhodospirillum rubrum were constructed in which, by a gene dosage effect, the transhydrogenase activity of isolated chromatophores was increased 7-10-fold and 15-20-fold, respectively. The H+/H- ratio (the ratio of protons translocated per hydride ion equivalent transferred from NADPH to an NAD+ analogue, acetyl pyridine adenine dinucleotide), determined by a spectroscopic technique, was approximately 1.0 for chromatophores from the over-expressing strains, but was only approximately 0.6 for wild-type chromatophores. Highly-coupled proteoliposomes were prepared containing purified transhydrogenase from beef-heart mitochondria. Using the same technique, the H+/H- ratio was close to 1.0 for these proteoliposomes. It is suggested that the mechanistic H+/H- ratio is indeed unity, but that a low ratio is obtained in wild-type chromatophores because of inhomogeneity in the vesicle population.},
author = {Bizouarn, Tania and Leonid Sazanov and Aubourg, Sébastien and Jackson, Julie B},
journal = {Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Bioenergetics},
number = {1},
pages = {4 -- 12},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Estimation of the H+/H- ratio of the reaction catalysed by the nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase in chromatophores from over-expressing strains of Rhodospirillum rubrum and in liposomes inlaid with the purified bovine enzyme}},
doi = {10.1016/0005-2728(95)00125-5},
volume = {1273},
year = {1996},
}
@article{4610,
abstract = {The most natural, compositional, way of modeling real-time systems uses a dense domain for time. The satisfiability of timing constraints that are capable of expressing punctuality in this model, however, is known to be undecidable. We introduce a temporal language that can constrain the time difference between events only with finite, yet arbitrary, precision and show the resulting logic to be EXPSPACE-complete. This result allows us to develop an algorithm for the verification of timing properties of real-time systems with a dense semantics.},
author = {Alur, Rajeev and Feder, Tomás and Thomas Henzinger},
journal = {Journal of the ACM},
number = {1},
pages = {116 -- 146},
publisher = {ACM},
title = {{The benefits of relaxing punctuality}},
doi = {10.1145/227595.227602},
volume = {43},
year = {1996},
}
@article{4611,
abstract = {Presents a model-checking procedure and its implementation for the automatic verification of embedded systems. The system components are described as hybrid automata-communicating machines with finite control and real-valued variables that represent continuous environment parameters such as time, pressure and temperature. The system requirements are specified in a temporal logic with stop-watches, and verified by symbolic fixpoint computation. The verification procedure-implemented in the Cornell Hybrid Technology tool, HyTech-applies to hybrid automata whose continuous dynamics is governed by linear constraints on the variables and their derivatives. We illustrate the method and the tool by checking safety, liveness, time-bounded and duration requirements of digital controllers, schedulers and distributed algorithms},
author = {Alur, Rajeev and Thomas Henzinger and Ho, Pei-Hsin},
journal = {IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering},
number = {3},
pages = {181 -- 201},
publisher = {IEEE},
title = {{Automatic symbolic verification of embedded systems}},
doi = {10.1109/32.489079},
volume = {22},
year = {1996},
}
@book{4612,
editor = {Alur, Rajeev and Henzinger, Thomas A and Sontag, Eduardo D},
isbn = {9783540611554},
issn = {0302-9743},
pages = {619},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Hybrid Systems III: Verification and Control}},
doi = {10.1007/BFb0020931},
volume = {1066},
year = {1996},
}
@article{6161,
abstract = {The tra-1 gene is a terminal regulator of somatic sex in Caenorhabditis elegans: high tra-1 activity elicits female development, low tra-1 activity elicits male development. To investigate the function and evolution of tra- 1, we examined the tra-1 gene from the closely related nematode C. briggsae. Ce-tra-1 and Cb-tra-1 are unusually divergent. Each gene generates two transcripts, but only one of these is present in both species. This common transcript encodes TRA-1A, which shows only 44% amino acid identity between the species, a figure much lower than that for previously compared genes. A Cb-tra-1 transgene rescues many tissues of tra-1(null) mutants of C. elegans but not the somatic gonad or germ line. This transgene also causes nongonadal feminization of XO animals, indicating incorrect sexual regulation. Alignment of Ce-TRA-1A and Cb-TRA-1A defined several conserved regions likely to be important for tra-1 function. The phenotype differences between Ce-tra- 1(null) mutants rescued by Cb-tra-1 transgenes and wild-type C. elegans indicate significant divergence of regulatory regions. These molecular and functional studies suggest that evolution of sex determination in nematodes is rapid and genetically complex.},
author = {de Bono, Mario and Hodgkin, J.},
issn = {00166731},
journal = {Genetics},
keywords = {amino acid sequence, article, caenorhabditis elegans, evolution, genetic variability, nonhuman, priority journal, sex determination, Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Animals, Genetically Modified, Base Sequence, Caenorhabditis, Caenorhabditis elegans, Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins, DNA, Helminth, DNA-Binding Proteins, Evolution, Molecular, Female, Helminth Proteins, Membrane Proteins, Molecular Sequence Data, Mutagenesis, RNA, Messenger, Sequence Homology, Amino Acid, Sex Determination (Analysis), Transcription Factors, Transgenes, Turner Syndrome, Animalia, Caenorhabditis, Caenorhabditis briggsae, Caenorhabditis elegans, Nematoda},
number = {2},
pages = {587--595},
publisher = {Genetics Society of America},
title = {{Evolution of sex determination in Caenorhabditis: Unusually high divergence of tra-1 and its functional consequences}},
volume = {144},
year = {1996},
}
@article{3756,
abstract = {In many eukaryotic cells going through M-phase, a bipolar spindle is formed by microtubules nucleated from centrosomes. These microtubules, in addition to being `'captured” by kinetochores, may be stabilized by chromatin in two different ways: short-range stabilization effects may affect microtubules in close contact with the chromatin, while long-range stabilization effects may `'guide” microtubule growth towards the chromatin (e.g., by introducing a diffusive gradient of an enzymatic activity that affects microtubule assembly). Here, we use both meiotic and mitotic extracts from Xenopus laevis eggs to study microtubule aster formation and microtubule dynamics in the presence of chromatin. In `'low-speed” meiotic extracts, in the presence of salmon sperm chromatin, we find that short-range stabilization effects lead to a strong anisotropy of the microtubule asters. Analysis of the dynamic parameters of microtubule growth shows that this anisotropy arises from a decrease in the catastrophe frequency, an increase in the rescue frequency and a decrease in the growth velocity. In this system we also find evidence for long-range `'guidance” effects, which lead to a weak anisotropy of the asters. Statistically relevant results on these long-range effects are obtained in `'high-speed” mitotic extracts in the presence of artificially constructed chromatin stripes. We find that aster anisotropy is biased in the direction of the chromatin and that the catastrophe frequency is reduced in its vicinity. In this system we also find a surprising dependence of the catastrophe and the rescue frequencies on the length of microtubules nucleated from centrosomes: the catastrophe frequency increases and the rescue frequency decreases with microtubule length.},
author = {Dogterom, Marileen and Felix,M. A. and Calin Guet and Leibler, Stanislas},
journal = {Journal of Cell Biology},
number = {1},
pages = {125 -- 140},
publisher = {Rockefeller University Press},
title = {{Influence of M-phase chromatin on the anisotropy of microtubule asters}},
doi = {doi: 10.1083/jcb.133.1.125 },
volume = {133},
year = {1996},
}
@article{4024,
abstract = {We have developed general modeling software for a Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE); one of its applications is modeling 3D protein structures, generating both outside-in and inside-out views of geometric models. An advantage of the CAVE over other virtual environments is that multiple viewers can observe the same scene at the same time and place. Our software is scalable-from high-end virtual environments such as the CAVE, to mid-range immersive desktop systems, down to low-end graphics workstations. In the current configuration, a parallel Silicon Graphics Power Challenge supercomputer architecture performs the computationally intensive construction of surface patches remotely, and sends the results through the I-WAY (Information Wide Area Year) using VBNS (Very-high-Bandwidth Network Systems) to the graphics machines that drive the CAVE and our graphics visualization software, Valvis (Virtual ALpha shapes VISualizer).},
author = {Akkiraju, Nataraj and Herbert Edelsbrunner and Fu, Ping and Qian, Jiang},
journal = {IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications},
number = {4},
pages = {58 -- 61},
publisher = {IEEE},
title = {{Viewing geometric protein structures from inside a CAVE}},
doi = {10.1109/38.511855},
volume = {16},
year = {1996},
}
@article{4025,
abstract = {Questions of chemical reactivity can often be cast as questions of molecular geometry. Common geometric models for proteins and other molecules are the space-filling diagram, the solvent accessible surface and the molecular surface. In this paper we present a new approach to triangulating the surface of a molecule under the three models, which is fast, robust, and results in topologically correct triangulations. Our computations are based on a simplicial complex dual to the molecule models. All proposed algorithms are parallelizable.},
author = {Akkiraju, Nataraj and Herbert Edelsbrunner},
journal = {Discrete Applied Mathematics},
number = {1-3},
pages = {5 -- 22},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Triangulating the surface of a molecule}},
doi = {10.1016/S0166-218X(96)00054-6},
volume = {71},
year = {1996},
}
@article{4026,
abstract = {A set of n weighted points in general position in R(d) defines a unique regular triangulation. This paper proves that if the points are added one by one, then flipping in a topological order will succeed in constructing this triangulation. If, in addition, the points are added in a random sequence and the history of the flips is used for locating the next point, then the algorithm takes expected time at most O(n log n + n(inverted left perpendicular d/2 inverted right perpendicular)). Under the assumption that the points and weights are independently and identically distributed, the expected running time is between proportional to and a factor log n more than the expected size of the regular triangulation. The expectation is over choosing the points and over independent coin-flips performed by the algorithm.},
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner and Shah, Nimish R},
journal = {Algorithmica},
number = {3},
pages = {223 -- 241},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Incremental topological flipping works for regular triangulations}},
doi = {10.1007/BF01975867},
volume = {15},
year = {1996},
}
@article{4027,
abstract = {Questions about lines in space arise frequently as subproblems in three-dimensional computational geometry. In this paper we study a number of fundamental combinatorial and algorithmic problems involving arrangements of n lines in three-dimensional space. Our main results include: 1. A tight Θ(n2) bound on the maximum combinatorial description complexity of the set of all oriented lines that have specified orientations relative to the n given lines. 2. A similar bound of Θ(n3) for the complexity of the set of all lines passing above the n given lines. 3. A preprocessing procedure using O(n2+ε) time and storage, for any ε > 0, that builds a structure supporting O(logn)-time queries for testing if a line lies above all the given lines. 4. An algorithm that tests the "towering property" in O(n4/3+ε) time, for any ε > 0: do n given red lines lie all above n given blue lines? The tools used to obtain these and other results include Plücker coordinates for lines in space and ε-nets for various geometric range spaces.},
author = {Chazelle, Bernard and Herbert Edelsbrunner and Guibas, Leonidas J and Sharir, Micha and Stolfi, Jorge},
journal = {Algorithmica},
number = {5},
pages = {428 -- 447},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Lines in space: Combinatorics and algorithms}},
doi = {10.1007/BF01955043},
volume = {15},
year = {1996},
}
@misc{4030,
author = {Liang, Jie and Herbert Edelsbrunner and Subramaniam, Shankar V},
booktitle = {Fortieth Annual Meeting},
number = {2, Part 2},
pages = {A224 -- A224},
publisher = {Cell Press},
title = {{Effects of molecular shape representations on boundary element method for protein electrostatics computations}},
doi = {10.1016/S0006-3495(96)79664-9},
volume = {70},
year = {1996},
}