@article{3473,
abstract = {Sixteen different K+ channel subtypes have been cloned from mammalian tissue. Considering their sequence homology to Drosophila Shaker, Shab, Shaw and Shal channels, they were classified into four corresponding classes Kv1-4. All K+ channels belonging to these classes consist of four subunits with each six hydrophobic segments (S1-S6) and a characteristic structure-function relationship of certain domains in their amino acid sequence. These domains are, the inactivation gate in the N-terminal region of the sequence, the voltage sensor in the fourth hydrophobic segment (S4), and the pore-region in the H5 segment between S5 and S6. In some functional properties K+ channels cloned from the mammalian brain, however, differ from Drosophila K+ channels. These are pharmacological differences, differences in the threshold of activation and in regulation of inactivation. Part of these differences are important to understand their physiological role in the brain. Based on their functional characteristics the expression pattern of cloned K+ channels in the rat brain can be correlated with the properties of K+ currents measured in central neurones.
Copyright © 1993 S. Karger AG, Basel},
author = {Ruppersberg, Peter and Ermler, Mamfred and Knopf, Martin and Kues, Wilfried and Peter Jonas and Koenen, Michael},
journal = {Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry},
pages = {250 -- 269},
publisher = {S. Karger AG},
title = {{Properties of Shaker-homologous potassium channels expressed in the mammalian brain.}},
doi = {10.1159/000154691},
volume = {3},
year = {1993},
}
@article{4041,
abstract = {The zone theorem for an arrangement of n hyperplanes in d-dimensional real space says that the total number of faces bounding the cells intersected by another hyperplane is O(n(d-1)). This result is the basis of a time-optimal incremental algorithm that constructs a hyperplane arrangement and has a host of other algorithmic and combinatorial applications. Unfortunately, the original proof of the zone theorem, for d greater-than-or-equal-to 3, turned out to contain a serious and irreparable error. This paper presents a new proof of the theorem. The proof is based on an inductive argument, which also applies in the case of pseudohyperplane arrangements. The fallacies of the old proof along with some ways of partially saving that approach are briefly discussed.},
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner and Seidel, Raimund and Sharir, Micha},
journal = {SIAM Journal on Computing},
number = {2},
pages = {418 -- 429},
publisher = {SIAM},
title = {{On the zone theorem for hyperplane arrangements}},
doi = {10.1137/0222031},
volume = {22},
year = {1993},
}
@inbook{4301,
author = {Nicholas Barton and Gale, Katherine S},
booktitle = {Hybrid zones and the evolutionary process},
editor = {Harrison, Richard G},
pages = {13 -- 45},
publisher = {Oxford University Press},
title = {{Genetic analysis of hybrid zones}},
year = {1993},
}
@article{4589,
abstract = {The theory of the natural numbers with linear order and monadic predicates underlies propositional linear temporal logic. To study temporal logics that are suitable for reasoning about real-time systems, we combine this classical theory of infinite state sequences with a theory of discrete time, via a monotonic function that maps every state to its time. The resulting theory of timed state sequences is shown to be decidable, albeit nonelementary, and its expressive power is characterized by ω-regular sets. Several more expressive variants are proved to be highly undecidable. This framework allows us to classify a wide variety of real-time logics according to their complexity and expressiveness. Indeed, it follows that most formalisms proposed in the literature cannot be decided. We are, however, able to identify two elementary real-time temporal logics as expressively complete fragments of the theory of timed state sequences, and we present tableau-based decision procedures for checking validity. Consequently, these two formalisms are well-suited for the specification and verification of real-time systems.
Copyright © 1993 Academic Press. All rights reserved.},
author = {Alur, Rajeev and Thomas Henzinger},
journal = {Information and Computation},
number = {1},
pages = {35 -- 77},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Real-time logics: Complexity and expressiveness}},
doi = {10.1006/inco.1993.1025},
volume = {104},
year = {1993},
}
@inproceedings{4616,
abstract = {We present a model checking procedure and its implementation for the automatic verification of embedded systems. Systems are represented by hybrid automata - machines with finite control and real-valued variables modeling continuous environment parameters such as time, pressure, and temperature. System properties are specified in a real-time temporal logic and verified by symbolic computation. The verification procedure, implemented in Mathematica, is used to prove digital controllers and distributed algorithms correct. The verifier checks safety, liveness, time-bounded, and duration properties of hybrid automata},
author = {Alur, Rajeev and Thomas Henzinger and Ho, Pei-Hsin},
pages = {2 -- 11},
publisher = {IEEE},
title = {{Automatic symbolic verification of embedded systems}},
doi = {10.1109/REAL.1993.393520 },
year = {1993},
}
@article{1947,
abstract = {Mitochondrial transhydrogenase has been reported previously to be inhibited by high, rather non-physiological concentrations (in the range of 2-20 mM) of divalent cations. We show that the enzyme could be activated by low (from about 1 μM to 1 mM) concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+, which are within physiological range. These results bring in line the effects observed with mitochondrial enzyme to the findings with bacterial transhydrogenases. The activation of transhydrogenase by divalent cations is interpreted as an increase in affinity of the NADP(H)-binding site of the enzyme-NAD(H) complex. Reported effects of the metal ions could be important for the enzyme function in vivo.},
author = {Leonid Sazanov and Jackson, Julie B},
journal = {Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Bioenergetics},
number = {2},
pages = {225 -- 228},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Activation and inhibition of mitochondrial transhydrogenase by metal ions}},
doi = {10.1016/0005-2728(93)90177-H},
volume = {1144},
year = {1993},
}
@article{2539,
abstract = {cDNA clones for four different N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits (NMDAR2A-NMDAR2D) were isolated through polymerase chain reactions followed by molecular screening of a rat brain cDNA library. These subunits are only about 15% identical with the key subunit of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR1) but are highly homologous (~50% homology) with one another. They also commonly possess large hydrophilic domains at both amino- and carboxyl- terminal sides of the four putative transmembrane segments. NMDAR2A and NMDAR2C expressed individually in Xenopus oocytes showed no electrophysiological response to agonists. However, these subunits in combined expression with NMDAR1 markedly potentiated the NMDAR1 activity and produced functional variability in the affinity of agonists, the effectiveness of antagonists, and the sensitivity to Mg2+ blockade. Thus, NMDAR1 is essential for the function of the NMDA receptor, and multiple NMDAR2 subunits potentiate and differentiate the function of the NMDA receptor by forming different heteromeric configurations with NMDAR1. Northern blotting and in situ hybridization analyses revealed that the expressions of individual mRNAs for the NMDAR2 subunits overlap in some brain regions but are also specialized in many other regions. This investigation demonstrates the anatomical and functional differences of the NMDAR2 subunits, which provide the molecular basis for the functional diversity of the NMDA receptor.},
author = {Ishii, Takahiro and Moriyoshi, Koki and Sugihara, Hidemitsu and Sakurada, Kazuhir and Kadotani, Hiroshi and Yokoi, Mineto and Akazawa, Chihiro and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Mizuno, Noboru and Masu, Masayuki and Nakanishi, Shigetada},
journal = {Journal of Biological Chemistry},
number = {4},
pages = {2836 -- 2843},
publisher = {American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology},
title = {{Molecular characterization of the family of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits}},
volume = {268},
year = {1993},
}
@article{2541,
abstract = {A trp E fusion protein containing a C-terminal portion of the rat substance P receptor (SPR) was expressed in bacteria and used to produce an antibody. The antibody specifically reacted with SPR expressed in a mammalian cell line and rat striatum. Light and electron microscope analyses of the rat striatum revealed intense SPR-like immunoreactivity in neuronal somata and dendrites. These immunoreactive neurons constituted ∼ 3% of the total population of striatal neurons; they were putative interneurons of large and medium-sized aspiny types.},
author = {Ryuichi Shigemoto and Nakaya, Yoshifumi and Nomura, Sakashi and Ogawa-Meguro, Reiko and Ohishi, Hitoshi and Kaneko, Takeshi and Nakanishi, Shigetada and Mizuno, Noboru},
journal = {Neuroscience Letters},
number = {2},
pages = {157 -- 160},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Immunocytochemical localization of rat substance P receptor in the striatum}},
doi = {10.1016/0304-3940(93)90311-8},
volume = {153},
year = {1993},
}
@article{2546,
abstract = {Immunochemical characteristics of neostriatal neurons producing substance P receptor (SPR) were examined in adult rats by double- and triple-immunofluorescence methods. In the neostriatum, SPR immunoreactivity was detected in large and medium-sized aspiny neurons. Virtually all SPR-immunoreactive neurons in the neostriatum contained somatostatin (SS) or choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), but not parvalbumin. All SS- and ChAT-immunoreactive neurons in the neostriatum showed SPR immunoreactivity. The co-existence of SS and ChAT was, however, not found in single neurons expressing SPR immunoreactivity. The present results indicate that neostriatal neurons immunoreactive for SPR are segregated into 2 groups: (1) medium-sized, aspiny somatostatinergic, and (2) large, aspiny cholinergic neurons.},
author = {Kaneko, Takeshi and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Nakanishi, Shigetada and Mizuno, Noboru},
journal = {Brain Research},
number = {2},
pages = {297 -- 303},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Substance P receptor-immunoreactive neurons in the rat neostriatum are segregated into somatostatinergic and cholinergic aspiny neurons}},
doi = {10.1016/0006-8993(93)91548-7},
volume = {631},
year = {1993},
}
@inbook{3568,
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner},
booktitle = {Handbook of Convex Geometry},
pages = {699 -- 735},
publisher = {North Holland},
title = {{Geometric algorithms}},
year = {1993},
}
@article{3474,
abstract = {1. Excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were recorded in CA3 pyramidal cells of hippocampal slices of 15- to 24-day-old rats (22 degrees C) using the whole-cell configuration of the patch clamp technique. 2. Composite EPSCs were evoked by extracellular stimulation of the mossy fibre tract. Using the selective blockers 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) and D-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (APV), a major alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA)/kainate receptor-mediated component and a minor NMDA receptor-mediated component with slower time course were distinguished. For the AMPA/kainate receptor-mediated component, the peak current-voltage (I-V) relation was linear, with a reversal potential close to 0 mV. The half-maximal blocking concentration of CNQX was 353 nM. 3. Unitary EPSCs of the mossy fibre terminal (MF)-CA3 pyramidal cell synapse were evoked at membrane potentials of -70 to -90 mV by low-intensity extracellular stimulation of granule cell somata using fine-tipped pipettes. The EPSC peak amplitude as a function of stimulus intensity showed all-or-none behaviour. The region of low threshold was restricted to a few micrometres. This suggests that extracellular stimulation was focal, and that the stimulus-evoked EPSCs were unitary. 4. Latency and rise time histograms of EPSCs evoked by granule cell stimulation showed narrow unimodal distributions within each experiment. The mean latency was 4.2 +/- 1.0 ms, and the mean 20-80% rise time was 0.6 +/- 0.1 ms (23 cells). When fitted within the range 0.7 ms to 20 ms after the peak, the decay of the EPSCs with the fastest rise (rise time 0.5 ms or less) could be described by a single exponential function; the mean time constant was in the range 3.0-6.6 ms with a mean of 4.8 ms (8 cells). 5. Peak amplitudes of the EPSCs evoked by suprathreshold granule cell stimulation fluctuated between trials. The apparent EPSC peak conductance in normal extracellular solution (2 mM Ca2+, 1 mM Mg2+), excluding failures, was 1 nS. Reducing the Ca2+ concentration and increasing the Mg2+ concentration reduced the mean peak amplitude in a concentration-dependent manner. 6. Peaks in EPSC peak amplitude distributions were apparent in low Ca2+ and high Mg2+. Using the criteria of equidistance and the presence of peaks and dips in the autocorrelation function, five of nine EPSC peak amplitude distributions were judged to be quantal.},
author = {Peter Jonas and Major, Guy and Sakmann, Bert},
journal = {Journal of Physiology},
pages = {615 -- 663},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{Quantal components of unitary EPSCs at the mossy fibre synapse on CA3 pyramidal cells of rat hippocampus}},
doi = {10.1113/jphysiol.1993.sp019965},
volume = {472},
year = {1993},
}
@article{4042,
abstract = {It is shown that a triangulation of a set of n points in the plane that minimizes the maximum edge length can be computed in time 0(n2). The algorithm is reasonably easy to implement and is based on the theorem that there is a triangulation with minmax edge length that contains the relative neighborhood graph of the points as a subgraph. With minor modifications the algorithm works for arbitrary normed metrics.},
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner and Tan, Tiow Seng},
journal = {SIAM Journal on Computing},
number = {3},
pages = {527 -- 551},
publisher = {SIAM},
title = {{A quadratic time algorithm for the minmax length triangulation}},
doi = {10.1137/0222036 },
volume = {22},
year = {1993},
}
@misc{4302,
author = {Nicholas Barton},
booktitle = {Genetical Research},
number = {1},
pages = {77 -- 85},
publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
title = {{Review of "The causes of molecular evolution" by J.H. Gillespie}},
doi = {10.1017/S001667230003158X },
volume = {62},
year = {1993},
}
@article{1948,
author = {Leonid Sazanov and Jackson, Julie B},
journal = {Biochemical Society Transactions},
number = {3},
publisher = {Portland Press},
title = {{Possible functions of the NADP-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase and H+ -transhydrogenase in heart mitochondria }},
volume = {21},
year = {1993},
}
@article{1950,
author = {Jackson, Julie B and Cotton, N P J and Williams, Ross H and Bizouarn, Tania and Hutton, Mike N and Leonid Sazanov and Thomas, Christopher M},
journal = {Biochemical Society Transactions},
number = {4},
pages = {1010 -- 1013},
publisher = {Portland Press},
title = {{Proton-translocating transhydrogenase in bacteria}},
volume = {21},
year = {1993},
}
@article{2542,
abstract = {A trpE-fusion protein containing a C-terminal sequence of a rat metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR5, was used to produce an antibody. On immunoblot, the antibody specifically reacted with mGluR5 expressed in mammalian cells and rat brain. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed intense mGluR5-like immunoreactivity (LI) in the olfactory bulb, anterior olfactory nuclei, olfactory tubercle, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, lateral septum, striatum, nucleus accumbens, inferior colliculus, and spinal trigeminal nuclei. The distribution pattern of mGluR5-LI corresponds very well with that of mGluR5 mRNA. Electron microscope analysis of the striatum revealed dense accumulation of immunoreaction products in dendrites which were often provided with asymmetrical synapses. These results suggest that mGluR5 is predominantly located in postsynaptic elements.},
author = {Ryuichi Shigemoto and Nomura, Sakashi and Ohishi, Hitoshi and Sugihara, Hidemitsu and Nakanishi, Shigetada and Mizuno, Noboru},
journal = {Neuroscience Letters},
number = {1},
pages = {53 -- 57},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Immunohistochemical localization of a metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR5, in the rat brain}},
doi = {10.1016/0304-3940(93)90227-C},
volume = {163},
year = {1993},
}
@inbook{3451,
author = {Peter Jonas},
booktitle = {Molecular Basis of Ion Channels and Receptors Involved in Nerve Excitation, Synaptic Transmission, and Muscle Contraction},
pages = {126 -- 135},
publisher = {New York Academy of Sciences},
title = {{Glutamate receptors in the central nervous system}},
volume = {707},
year = {1993},
}
@inbook{3569,
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner},
booktitle = {Current Trends in Theoretical Computer Science, Essays and Tutorials},
pages = {1 -- 48},
publisher = {World Scientific Publishing},
title = {{Computational geometry}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-662-04245-8_1},
year = {1993},
}
@article{4036,
abstract = {This paper presents a randomized incremental algorithm for computing a single face in an arrangement of n line segments in the plane that is fairly simple to implement. The expected running time of the algorithm is O(nα(n)log n). The analysis of the algorithm uses a novel approach that generalizes and extends the Clarkson-Shor analysis technique [in Discrete Comput. Geom., 4(1989), pp. 387-421]. A few extensions of the technique, obtaining efficient randomized incremental algorithms for constructing the entire arrangement of a collection of line segments and for computing a single face in an arrangement of Jordan arcs are also presented.},
author = {Chazelle, Bernard and Herbert Edelsbrunner and Guibas, Leonidas and Sharir, Micha and Snoeyink, Jack},
journal = {SIAM Journal on Computing},
number = {6},
pages = {1286 -- 1302},
publisher = {SIAM},
title = {{Computing a face in an arrangement of line segments and related problems}},
doi = {10.1137/0222077 },
volume = {22},
year = {1993},
}
@article{4175,
abstract = {We have studied the effects of different neurotrophins on the survival and proliferation of rat cerebellar granule cells in culture. These neurons express trkB and trkC, the putative neuronal receptors for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) respectively. Binding studies using iodinated BDNF and NT-3 demonstrated that both BDNF and NT-3 bind to the cerebellar granule neurons with a similar affinity of approximately 2 x 10(-9) M. The number of receptors per granule cell was surprisingly high, approximately 30 x 10(-4) and 2 x 10(5) for BDNF and NT-3, respectively. Both NT-3 and BDNF elevated c-fos mRNA in the granule neurons, but only BDNF up-regulated the mRNA encoding the low-affinity neurotrophin receptor (p75). In contrast to NT-3, BDNF acted as a survival factor for the granule neurons. BDNF also induced sprouting of the granule neurons and significantly protected them against neurotoxicity induced by high (1 mM) glutamate concentrations. Cultured granule neurons also expressed low levels of BDNF mRNA which were increased by kainic acid, a glutamate receptor agonist. Thus, BDNF, but not NT-3, is a survival factor for cultured cerebellar granule neurons and activation of glutamate receptor(s) up-regulates BDNF expression in these cells.},
author = {Lindholm, Dan and Dechant, Georg and Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp and Thoenen, Hans},
journal = {European Journal of Neuroscience},
number = {11},
pages = {1455 -- 1464},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is a survival factor for cultured rat cerebellar granule neurons and protects them against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity}},
doi = {10.1111/j.1460-9568.1993.tb00213.x},
volume = {5},
year = {1993},
}
@article{4303,
abstract = {In a stably subdivided population with symmetric migration, the chance that a favoured allele will be fixed is independent of population structure. However, random extinction introduces an extra component of sampling drift, and reduces the probability of fixation. In this paper, the fixation probability is calculated using the diffusion approximation; comparison with exact solution of the discrete model shows this to be accurate. The key parameters are the rates of selection, migration and extinction, scaled relative to population size (S = 4Ns, M = 4Nm, Λ = 4Nλ); results apply to a haploid model, or to diploids with additive selection. If new colonies derive from many demes, the fixation probability cannot be reduced by more than half. However, if colonies are initially homogeneous, fixation probability can be much reduced. In the limit of low migration and extinction rates (M, Λ 1), it is 2s/{1 + (Λ/MS)(1 −exp(−S))}, whilst in the opposite limit (S 1), it is 4sM/{Λ(Λ + M)}. In the limit of weak selection (M, Λ 1), it is 4sM/{Λ(Λ + M)}. These factors are not the same as the reduction in effective population size (Ne/N), showing that the effects of population structure on selected alleles cannot be understood from the behaviour of neutral markers.},
author = {Nicholas Barton},
journal = {Genetical Research},
number = {2},
pages = {149 -- 158},
publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
title = {{The probability of fixation of a favoured allele in a subdivided population}},
doi = {10.1017/S0016672300031748},
volume = {62},
year = {1993},
}
@inbook{4618,
abstract = {We introduce the framework of hybrid automata as a model and specification language for hybrid systems. Hybrid automata can be viewed as a generalization of timed automata, in which the behavior of variables is governed in each state by a set of differential equations. We show that many of the examples considered in the workshop can be defined by hybrid automata. While the reachability problem is undecidable even for very restricted classes of hybrid automata, we present two semidecision procedures for verifying safety properties of piecewiselinear hybrid automata, in which all variables change at constant rates. The two procedures are based, respectively, on minimizing and computing fixpoints on generally infinite state spaces. We show that if the procedures terminate, then they give correct answers. We then demonstrate that for many of the typical workshop examples, the procedures do terminate and thus provide an automatic way for verifying their properties.},
author = {Alur, Rajeev and Courcoubetis, Costas and Thomas Henzinger and Ho, Pei-Hsin},
booktitle = {Hybrid Systems},
editor = {Grossman, Robert L. and Nerode, Anil and Ravn, Anders P and Rischel, Hans},
pages = {209 -- 229},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Hybrid automata: An algorithmic approach to the specification and verification of hybrid systems}},
doi = {10.1007/3-540-57318-6_30},
volume = {736},
year = {1993},
}
@inproceedings{4620,
abstract = {We present a verification algorithm for duration properties of finite-state real-time systems. While simple real-time properties constrain the total elapsed time between events, duration properties constrain the accumulated time during which certain state predicates hold. We formalize the concept of durations by introducing duration measures for (dense-time) timed automata. Given a timed automaton with a duration measure, a start and a target state, and a duration constraint, the duration-bounded reachability problem asks if there is a run of the automaton from the start state to the target state such that the accumulated duration along the run satisfies the constraint. Our main result is a novel decision procedure for solving the duration-bounded reachability problem. We also prove that the problem is PSPACE-complete and demonstrate how the solution can be used to verify interesting duration properties of real-time systems.},
author = {Alur, Rajeev and Courcoubetis, Costas and Thomas Henzinger},
pages = {181 -- 193},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Computing accumulated delays in real-time systems}},
doi = {10.1007/3-540-56922-7_16},
volume = {697},
year = {1993},
}
@article{2536,
abstract = {A cDNA clone for a new metabotropic glutamate receptor, termed mGluR6, was isolated from a rat retinal cDNA library by cross-hybridization with the previously isolated cDNA clone for a metabotropic glutamate receptor. The cloned mGluR6 subtype consists of 871 amino acid residues and exhibits a structural architecture common to the metabotropic receptor family, possessing a large extracellular domain preceding the seven putative membrane-spanning domains. mGluR6 shows the highest sequence similarity to mGluR4 among the metabotropic receptor subtypes and inhibits the forskolin- stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with the cloned cDNA. mGluR6 potently reacts with L-2-amino-4- phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4) and L-serine-O-phosphate, and the potencies of these compounds are one order of magnitude greater than that of L-glutamate. Blot and in situ hybridization analyses indicated that mGluR6 mRNA is restrictedly expressed in the inner nuclear layer of the retina where ON- bipolar cells are distributed. The metabotropic receptor that responds strongly to L-AP4 and L-serine-O-phosphate in ON-bipolar cells is known to mediate glutamate synaptic transmission between photoreceptor cells and ON- bipolar cells. On the basis of the agonist selectivity of mGluR6 and its specific expression in retinal cells, the physiological role of this receptor subtype in the visual system is discussed.},
author = {Nakajima, Yoshiaki and Iwakabe, Hideki and Akazawa, Chihiro and Nawa, Hiroyuki and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Mizuno, Noboru and Nakanishi, Shigetada},
journal = {Journal of Biological Chemistry},
number = {16},
pages = {11868 -- 11873},
publisher = {American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology},
title = {{Molecular characterization of a novel retinal metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR6 with a high agonist selectivity for L-2-amino-4- phosphonobutyrate}},
volume = {268},
year = {1993},
}
@article{2543,
abstract = {Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a polypeptide hormone related to vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). Rat PACAP receptor cDNA was isolated from a brain cDNA library by cross-hybridization with rat VIP receptor cDNA. The recombinant PACAP receptor expressed in COS cells bound PACAP with about 1000 times higher affinity than VIP, and PACAP stimulated adenylate cyclase through the cloned PACAP receptor. The rat PACAP receptor consists of 495 amino acids, contains seven transmembrane segments, and has a significant similarity with other Gs-coupled receptors, such as VIP, glucagon, and secretin receptors. PACAP receptor mRNA was abundantly expressed in the brain, but not in the peripheral tissues except for the adrenal gland. In situ hybridization revealed a high level of expression of PACAP receptor mRNA in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, olfactory bulb, and cerebellar cortex.},
author = {Hashimoto, Hitoshi and Ishihara, Takeshi and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Mori, Kensaku and Nagata, Shigekazu},
journal = {Neuron},
number = {2},
pages = {333 -- 342},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{ Molecular cloning and tissue distribution of a receptor for pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide}},
doi = {10.1016/0896-6273(93)90188-W},
volume = {11},
year = {1993},
}
@inbook{3452,
abstract = {In recent years, considerable progress in our understanding of the molecular events underlying excitatory synaptic transmission has been made. This progress was mainly achieved by technical advances, among them the patch-clamp technique in brain slices (Edwards et al., 1989), fast application of agonists (Franke et al., 1987), and cloning and functional expression of GluR channels of the nonNMDA type (e.g., Hollmann et al., 1989). A suitable model for studying excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in the brain slice with patch-clamp techniques is the mossy fiber synapse on CA3 pyramidal cells of rat hippocampus (MF-CA3 synapse). This synapse is located close to the cell soma and should provide almost ideal space-clamp conditions. A comparison of MF-CA3 EPSCs with the currents activated by fast application of glutamate on membrane patches isolated from CA3 cell somata suggests that the concentration of glutamate in the synaptic cleft during excitatory synaptic transmission is high (about 1 mM) and that the transmitter remains in the synaptic cleft only briefly (about 1 ms). It seems likely that desensitization influences the peak amplitude of the EPSC in several ways. Brief pulses of glutamate cause desensitization, from which the glutamate receptor channels recover only slowly, and micromolar ambient glutamate concentrations produce desensitization at equilibrium. From the functional properties of recombinant GluR channels, in situ hybridization data, and patch-clamp experiments on different neuronal and nonneuronal cell types, a picture of the molecular identity of native channels emerges. In neurons of the hippocampus the pharmacological features of these channels were similar to recombinant channels assembled from subunits of the AMPA/kainate subtype which are strongly expressed in these cells. The native channels are characterized by outward rectification of the steady-state I-V and low Ca permeability, similar to recombinant channels containing the GluR-B subunit. This is consistent with the ubiquitous expression of this subunit in hippocampal neurones. In contrast, GluR channels from cerebellar glial cells, which uniquely in the central nervous system lack the expression of GluR-B subunits, show double rectification and high Ca permeability. The results suggest that the native functional nonNMDA glutamate receptor channels in the CNS are assembled form subunits of the AMPA/kainate subtype in a cell-specific way, with the functional properties of GluR channels in neurones being dominated by the GluR-B subunit.},
author = {Peter Jonas},
booktitle = {Nonselective cation channels: Pharmacology, Physiology and Biophysics.},
editor = {Siemen, Detlef},
pages = {61 -- 76},
publisher = {Birkhäuser},
title = {{AMPA-type glutamate receptors - nonselective cation channels mediating fast excitatory transmission in the CNS}},
volume = {66},
year = {1993},
}
@article{4044,
abstract = {Edge insertion iteratively improves a triangulation of a finite point set in ℜ2 by adding a new edge, deleting old edges crossing the new edge, and retriangulating the polygonal regions on either side of the new edge. This paper presents an abstract view of the edge insertion paradigm, and then shows that it gives polynomial-time algorithms for several types of optimal triangulations, including minimizing the maximum slope of a piecewise-linear interpolating surface.},
author = {Bern, Marshall and Herbert Edelsbrunner and Eppstein, David and Mitchell, Stephen and Tan, Tiow Seng},
journal = {Discrete & Computational Geometry},
number = {1},
pages = {47 -- 65},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Edge insertion for optimal triangulations}},
doi = {10.1007/BF02573962},
volume = {10},
year = {1993},
}
@misc{4304,
author = {Nicholas Barton},
booktitle = {Current Biology},
number = {11},
pages = {797 -- 799},
publisher = {Cell Press},
title = {{Why species and subspecies?}},
doi = {10.1016/0960-9822(93)90036-N},
volume = {3},
year = {1993},
}
@inbook{4506,
abstract = {We propose a formal framework for designing hybrid systems by stepwise refinement. Starting with a specification in hybrid temporal logic, we make successively more transitions explicit until we obtain an executable system.},
author = {Thomas Henzinger and Manna, Zohar and Pnueli,Amir},
booktitle = {Hybrid Systems},
editor = {Grossman, Robert L. and Nerode, Anil and Ravn, Anders P and Rischel, Hans},
pages = {60 -- 76},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Towards refining temporal specifications into hybrid systems}},
doi = {10.1007/3-540-57318-6_24},
volume = {736},
year = {1993},
}
@inproceedings{4619,
abstract = {Traditional approaches to the algorithmic verification of real-time systems are limited to checking program correctness with respect to concrete timing properties (e.g., "message delivery within 10 milliseconds"). We address the more realistic and more ambitious problem of deriving symbolic constraints on the timing properties required of real-time systems (e.g., "message delivery within the time it takes to execute two assignment statements"). To model this problem, we introduce parametric timed automata -- finite-state machines whose transitions are constrained with parametric timing requirements. The emptiness question for parametric timed automata is central to the verification problem. On the negative side, we show that in general this question is undecidable. On the positive side, we provide algorithms for checking the emptiness of restricted classes of parametric timed automata. The practical relevance of these classes is illustrated with several verification examples. There remains a gap between the automata classes for which we know that emptiness is decidable and undecidable, respectively, and this gap is related to various hard and open problems of logic and automata theory.},
author = {Alur, Rajeev and Thomas Henzinger and Vardi, Moshe Y},
pages = {592 -- 601},
publisher = {ACM},
title = {{Parametric real-time reasoning}},
doi = {10.1145/167088.167242},
year = {1993},
}
@article{1945,
abstract = {The effects of ultra-low (10(-18)-10(-14) M) doses (ULD) of biologically active substances have been reviewed in terms of common regularities of ULD effects and peculiarities of action of various groups of compounds. The most common and at the same time paradoxical regularities of ULD action are bi- or polymodal patterns of dose dependence, absence or presence of an inverse effect at higher doses, and instability of ULD effect. Possible mechanisms of ULD action including the mechanism based on the adaptation theory are discussed.},
author = {Leonid Sazanov and Zaǐtsev, Sergei V},
journal = {Biokhimiya},
number = {10},
pages = {1443 -- 1460},
publisher = {Izdatel'stvo Nauka},
title = {{Effect of superlow doses (10(-18)-10-(-14) M) of biologically active substances: general rules, features, and possible mechanisms}},
volume = {57},
year = {1992},
}
@article{2532,
abstract = {In the present study, we have investigated the expression of both the erythrocyte-type (GLUT1) and the brain-type (GLUT3) glucose transporter isoforms in primary human brain tumors. In situ hybridization made it possible to localize and semiquantify both GLUT1 and GLUT3 mRNAs of individual cells in all 18 samples examined. More signals for GLUT3 mRNA than for GLUT1 mRNA were found over astrocytoma cells, while the reverse was the case in all 6 meningiomas. In astrocytomas, for both mRNAs, the density of silver grains over tumor cells was well correlated with the malignancy of the cells. This correlation was, as was also confirmed by Northern blot analysis, more marked with GLUT3 mRNA than with GLUT1 mRNA. In 2 of 5 anaplastic astrocytomas and in all 3 glioblastomas, numerous tumor cells with large amounts of both mRNAs tended to surround the perivascular regions. 'Tumor vessels' with endothelial proliferation, an almost pathognomonic feature of glioblastomas, expressed much GLUT3 mRNA but no significant GLUT1 mRNA, while a single- or a few-layered capillary endothelium expressed much GLUT1 mRNA. The distribution of both mRNAs was in good accordance with that of both proteins. Our results suggest that the expression of both glucose transporter isoforms may contribute to the maintenance of human brain tumors and that the expression of the GLUT3 isoform may be closely related to the malignant change of astrocytomas and particularly related to the aberrant neovascularization which accompanies glioblastomas.},
author = {Nishioka, Tatsuya and Oda, Yoshifumi and Seino, Yutaka and Yamamoto, Taizo and Inagaki, Nobuya and Yano, Hideki and Imura, Hiroo and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Kikuchi, Haruhiko},
journal = {Cancer Research},
number = {14},
pages = {3972 -- 3979},
publisher = {American Association for Cancer Research},
title = {{Distribution of the glucose transporters in human brain tumors}},
volume = {52},
year = {1992},
}
@article{2486,
abstract = {Distribution of the mRNA for a metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1), which is linked to phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis, was investigated in adult and developing rat central nervous system (CNS) by in situ hybridization. Transcripts of mGluR1 were specifically localized to neurons and widely distributed throughout the adult rat brain. Most intensely labeled neurons were Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, mitral and tufted cells of the olfactory bulb, and neurons in the hippocampus, lateral septum, thalamus, globus pallidus, entopeduncular nucleus, ventral pallidum, magnocellular preoptic nucleus, substantia nigra, and dorsal cochlear nucleus. Moderately labeled neurons were seen in high density in the dentate gyrus, striatum, islands of Calleja, superficial layers of the retrosplenial, cingulate and entorhinal cortices, mammillary nuclei, red nucleus, and superior colliculus. In the developing rat brain, the level of mGluR1 expression gradually increased during early postnatal days in accordance with the maturation of neuronal elements. These results show prominent expression of mGluR1 in the major targets of putative glutamatergic pathways and unique distribution pattern of mGluR1 distinct from those reported for ionotropic subtypes of glutamate receptors, suggesting specific roles of mGluR1 in the glutamatergic system.},
author = {Ryuichi Shigemoto and Nakanishi, Shigetada and Mizuno, Noboru},
journal = {Journal of Comparative Neurology},
number = {1},
pages = {121 -- 135},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{Distribution of the mRNA for a metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1) in the central nervous system: An in situ hybridization study in adult and developing rat}},
doi = {10.1002/cne.903220110},
volume = {322},
year = {1992},
}
@article{2722,
abstract = {A version of the one-dimensional Rayleigh gas is considered: a point particle of mass M (molecule), confined to the unit interval [0,1], is surrounded by an infinite ideal gas of point particles of mass 1 (atoms). The molecule interacts with the atoms and with the walls via elastic collision. Central limit theorems are proved for a wide class of additive functionals of this system (e.g. the number of collisions with the walls and the total length of the molecular path).},
author = {László Erdös and Tuyen, Dao Quang},
journal = {Communications in Mathematical Physics},
number = {3},
pages = {451 -- 466},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Central limit theorems for the one-dimensional Rayleigh gas with semipermeable barriers}},
doi = {10.1007/BF02099260},
volume = {143},
year = {1992},
}
@article{3472,
abstract = {A novel potassium-selective channel which is active at membrane potentials between -100 mV and +40 mV has been identified in peripheral myelinated axons of Xenopus laevis using the patch-clamp technique. At negative potentials with 105 mM-K on both sides of the membrane, the channel at 1 kHz resolution showed a series of brief openings and closings interrupted by longer closings, resulting in a flickery bursting activity. Measurements with resolution up to 10 kHz revealed a single-channel conductance of 49 pS with 105 mM-K and 17 pS with 2.5 mM-K on the outer side of the membrane. The channel was selective for K ions over Na ions (PNa/PK = 0.033). The probability of being within a burst in outside-out patches varied from patch to patch (> 0.2, but often > 0.9), and was independent of membrane potential. Open-time histograms were satisfactorily described with a single exponential (tau o = 0.09 msec), closed times with the sum of three exponentials (tau c = 0.13, 5.9, and 36.6 msec). Sensitivity to external tetraethylammonium was comparatively low (IC50 = 19.0 mM). External Cs ions reduced the apparent unitary conductance for inward currents at Em = -90 mV (IC50 = 1.1 mM). Ba and, more potently, Zn ions lowered not only the apparent single-channel conductance but also open probability. The local anesthetic bupivacaine with high potency reduced probability of being within a burst (IC50 = 165 nM). The flickering K channel is clearly different from the other five types of K channels identified so far in the same preparation. We suggest that this channel may form the molecular basis of the resting potential in vertebrate myelinated axons.},
author = {Koh, Duk S and Peter Jonas and Bräu, Michael E and Vogel, Werner},
journal = {Journal of Membrane Biology},
pages = {149 -- 162},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{A TEA-insensitive flickering potassium channel active around the resting potential in myelinated nerve}},
doi = {10.1007/BF00231893},
volume = {130},
year = {1992},
}
@article{4305,
abstract = {The common shrew (Sorex araneus) is subdivided into several karyotypic races in Britain. Two of these races meet near Oxford to form the "Oxford-Hermitage" hybrid zone. We present a model which describes this system as a "tension zone," i.e., a set of clines maintained by a balance between dispersal and selection against chromosomal heterozygotes. The Oxford and Hermitage races differ by Robertsonian fusions with monobrachial homology (kq, no versus ko), and so F1 hybrids between them would have low fertility. However, the acrocentric karyotype is found at high frequency within the hybrid zone, so that complex Robertsonian heterozygotes (kq no/q ko n) are replaced by more fertile combinations, such as (kq no/k q n o). This suggests that the hybrid zone has been modified so as to increase hybrid fitness. Mathematical analysis and simulation show that, if selection against complex heterozygotes is sufficiently strong relative to selection against simple heterozygotes, acrocentrics increase, and displace the clines for kq and no from the cline for ko. Superimposed on this separation is a tendency for the hybrid zone to move m favor of the Oxford (kq no) race. We compare the model with estimates of linkage disequilibrium and cline shape made from field data.},
author = {Hatfield, Todd and Nicholas Barton and Searle, Jeremy B},
journal = {Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution},
number = {4},
pages = {1129 -- 1145},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{A model of a hybrid zone between two chromosomal races of the common shrew (Sorex araneus)}},
volume = {46},
year = {1992},
}
@inbook{4507,
abstract = {We incorporate time into an interleaving model of concurrency. In timed transition systems, the qualitative fairness requirements of traditional transition system are replaced (and superseded) by quantitative lower-bound and upperbound timing constraints on transitions. The purpose of this paper is to explore the scope of applicability for the abstract model of timed transition systems. We demonstrate that the model can represent a wide variety of phenomena that routinely occur in conjunction with the timed execution of concurrent processes. Our treatment covers both processes that are executed in parallel on separate processors and communicate either through shared variables or by message passing, and processes that time-share a limited number of processors under a given scheduling policy. Often it is this scheduling policy that determines if a system meets its real-time requirements. Thus we explicitly address such questions as time-outs, interrupts, static and dynamic priorities.},
author = {Thomas Henzinger and Manna, Zohar and Pnueli,Amir},
booktitle = {Real Time: Theory in Practice},
pages = {226 -- 251},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Timed transition systems}},
doi = {10.1007/BFb0031995},
volume = {600},
year = {1992},
}
@article{2533,
abstract = {A cDNA clone for a new metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR5, was isolated through polymerase chain reaction-mediated DNA amplification by using primer sequences conserved among the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) family and by the subsequent screening of a rat brain cDNA library. The cloned receptor consists of 1171 amino acid residues and exhibits a structural architecture common to the mGluR family, possessing a large extracellular domain preceding the seven putative membrane-spanning segments. mGluR5 shows the highest sequence similarity to mGluR1 among the mGluR members and is coupled to the stimulation of phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis/ Ca2+ signal transduction in Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with the cloned cDNA. This receptor also resembles mGluR1 in its agonist selectivity and antagonist responses; the potency rank order of agonists for mGluR5 was determined to be quisqualate > L-glutamate ≥ ibotenate > trans-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylate. Blot and in situ hybridization analyses indicated that mGluR5 mRNA is widely distributed in neuronal cells of the central nervous system and is expressed differently from mGluR1 mRNA in many brain regions. This investigation thus demonstrates that there is an additional mGluR subtype which closely resembles mGluR1 in its signal transduction and pharmacological properties and is expressed in specialized neuronal cells in the central nervous system.},
author = {Abe, Takaaki and Sugihara, Hidemitsu and Nawa, Hiroyuki and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Mizuno, Noboru and Nakanishi, Shigetada},
journal = {Journal of Biological Chemistry},
number = {19},
pages = {13361 -- 13368},
publisher = {American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology},
title = {{Molecular characterization of a novel metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR5 coupled to inositol phosphate/Ca2+ signal transduction}},
volume = {267},
year = {1992},
}
@article{3581,
author = {Chazelle, Bernard and Herbert Edelsbrunner and Guibas, Leonidas J and Pollack, Richard and Seidel, Raimund and Sharir, Micha and Snoeyink, Jack},
journal = {Computational Geometry: Theory and Applications},
number = {6},
pages = {305 -- 323},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Counting and cutting cycles of lines and rods in space}},
doi = {10.1016/0925-7721(92)90009-H},
volume = {1},
year = {1992},
}
@article{4046,
abstract = {The main contribution of this work is an O(n log n + k)-time algorithm for computing all k intersections among n line segments in the plane. This time complexity is easily shown to be optimal. Within the same asymptotic cost, our algorithm can also construct the subdivision of the plane defined by the segments and compute which segment (if any) lies right above (or below) each intersection and each endpoint. The algorithm has been implemented and performs very well. The storage requirement is on the order of n + k in the worst case, but it is considerably lower in practice. To analyze the complexity of the algorithm, an amortization argument based on a new combinatorial theorem on line arrangements is used.},
author = {Chazelle, Bernard and Herbert Edelsbrunner},
journal = {Journal of the ACM},
number = {1},
pages = {1 -- 54},
publisher = {ACM},
title = {{An optimal algorithm for intersecting line segments in the plane}},
doi = {10.1145/147508.147511},
volume = {39},
year = {1992},
}
@article{4053,
abstract = {We show that the maximum number of edges bounding m faces in an arrangement of n line segments in the plane is O(m2/3n2/3+nα(n)+nlog m). This improves a previous upper bound of Edelsbrunner et al. [5] and almost matches the best known lower bound which is Ω(m2/3n2/3+nα(n)). In addition, we show that the number of edges bounding any m faces in an arrangement of n line segments with a total of t intersecting pairs is O(m2/3t1/3+nα(t/n)+nmin{log m,log t/n}), almost matching the lower bound of Ω(m2/3t1/3+nα(t/n)) demonstrated in this paper.},
author = {Aronov, Boris and Herbert Edelsbrunner and Guibas, Leonidas J and Sharir, Micha},
journal = {Combinatorica},
number = {3},
pages = {261 -- 274},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{The number of edges of many faces in a line segment arrangement}},
doi = {10.1007/BF01285815},
volume = {12},
year = {1992},
}
@misc{4306,
author = {Nicholas Barton and Goldman, Nick G},
booktitle = {Nature},
pages = {440 -- 441},
publisher = {Nature Publishing Group},
title = {{Genetics and geography}},
doi = {10.1038/357440a0},
volume = {357},
year = {1992},
}
@article{2534,
abstract = {Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), a 28 amino acid peptide hormone, plays many physiological roles in the peripheral and central nerve systems. A functional cDNA clone of the VIP receptor was isolated from a rat lung cDNA library by cross-hybridization with the secretin receptor cDNA. VIP bound the cloned VIP receptor expressed in mouse COP cells and stimulated adenylate cyclase through the cloned receptor. The rat VIP receptor consists of 459 amino acids with a calculated Mr of 52,054 and contains seven transmembrane segments. It is structurally related to the secretin, calcitonin, and parathyroid hormone receptors, suggesting that they constitute a new subfamily of the G5 protein - coupled receptors. VIP receptor mRNA was detected in various rat tissues including liver, lung, intestines, and brain. In situ hybridization revealed that VIP receptor mRNA is widely distributed in neuronal cells of the adult rat brain, with a relatively high expression in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus.},
author = {Ishihara, Takeshi and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Mori, Kensaku and Takahashi, Kenji and Nagata, Shigekazu},
journal = {Neuron},
number = {4},
pages = {811 -- 819},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Functional expression and tissue distribution of a novel receptor for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide}},
doi = {10.1016/0896-6273(92)90101-I},
volume = {8},
year = {1992},
}
@article{3645,
abstract = {Three components of mating call (pulse duration, cycle length, and fundamental frequency) were measured and six diagnostic enzyme loci scored across the hybrid zone between the toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata. All three call components differ significantly, but only cycle length is diagnostic. The clines in call coincide with those for enzymes, and have similar widths. This suggests that there is no strong selection on any of these characters. There are significant correlations between electrophoretic markers and call components, but these are no stronger than would be expected if the electrophoretic loci and the genes causing mating call were neutral. The selection differential on the call is no greater than 6% of the difference in mean cycle length between the two taxa. There is a substantial increase in the variance of cycle length in the center of the zone, suggesting that a small number of loci are involved (≈ three). Recombination between these loci will hinder the evolution of reinforcement and may partly be responsible for the lack of premating isolation between B. bombina and B. variegata.},
author = {Sanderson, Neil and Szymura, Jacek M and Nicholas Barton},
journal = {Evolution},
number = {3},
pages = {595 -- 607},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{Variation in mating call across the hybrid zone between the fire-bellied toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata}},
volume = {46},
year = {1992},
}
@article{4047,
abstract = {Arrangements of curves in the plane are fundamental to many problems in computational and combinatorial geometry (e.g. motion planning, algebraic cell decomposition, etc.). In this paper we study various topological and combinatorial properties of such arrangements under some mild assumptions on the shape of the curves, and develop basic tools for the construction, manipulation, and analysis of these arrangements. Our main results include a generalization of the zone theorem of Edelsbrunner (1986) and Chazelle (1985) to arrangements of curves (in which we show that the combinatorial complexity of the zone of a curve is nearly linear in the number of curves) and an application of that theorem to obtain a nearly quadratic incremental algorithm for the construction of such arrangements.},
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner and Guibas, Leonidas and Pach, János and Pollack, Richard and Seidel, Raimund and Sharir, Micha},
journal = {Theoretical Computer Science},
number = {2},
pages = {319 -- 336},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Arrangements of curves in the plane - topology, combinatorics, and algorithms}},
doi = {10.1016/0304-3975(92)90319-B},
volume = {92},
year = {1992},
}
@inbook{4307,
author = {Nicholas Barton},
booktitle = {Animal dispersal: small mammals as a model},
editor = {Stenseth, Nils C and Lidicker, William Z},
pages = {37 -- 60},
publisher = {Chapman Hall},
title = {{The genetic consequences of dispersal}},
year = {1992},
}
@inproceedings{4504,
author = {Thomas Henzinger and Manna, Zohar and Pnueli,Amir},
pages = {545 -- 558},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{What good are digital clocks?}},
doi = {10.1007/3-540-55719-9_103},
volume = {623},
year = {1992},
}
@article{2535,
abstract = {We report the molecular characterization of two novel rat helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins, designated HES-1 and HES-3, that show structural homology to the Drosophila hairy and Enhancer of split [E(spl)] proteins, both of which are required for normal neurogenesis. HES-1 mRNA, expressed in various tissues of both embryos and adults, is present at a high level in the epithelial cells, including the embryonal neuroepithelial cells, as well as in the mesoderm-derived tissues such as the embryonal muscle. In contrast, HES-3 mRNA is produced exclusively in cerebellar Purkinje cells. HES-1 represses transcription by binding to the N box, which is a recognition sequence of E(spl) proteins. Interestingly, neither HES-1 nor HES-3 alone interacts efficiently with the E box, but each protein decreases the transcription induced by E-box-binding HLH activators such as E47. Furthermore, HES-1 also inhibits the functions of MyoD and MASH1 and effectively diminishes the myogenic conversion of C3H10T1/2 cells induced by MyoD. These results suggest that HES-1 may play an important role in mammalian development by negatively acting on the two different sequences while HES-3 acts as a repressor in a specific type of neurons.},
author = {Sasai, Yoshiki and Kageyama, Ryoichiro and Tagawa, Yoshiaki and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Nakanishi, Shigetada},
journal = {Genes and Development},
number = {12 B},
pages = {2620 -- 2634},
publisher = {Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press},
title = {{Two mammalian helix-loop-helix factors structurally related to Drosophila hairy and Enhancer of split}},
doi = {10.1101/gad.6.12b.2620},
volume = {6},
year = {1992},
}
@article{2484,
abstract = {Three cDNA clones, mGluR2, mGluR3, and mGluR4, were isolated from a rat brain cDNA library by cross-hybridization with the cDNA for a metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1). The cloned receptors show considerable sequence similarity with mGluR1 and possess a large extracellular domain preceding the seven putative membrane-spanning segments. mGluR2 is expressed in some particular neuronal cells different from those expressing mGluR1 and mediates an efficient inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation in cDNA- transfected cells. The mGluRs thus form a novel family of G protein-coupled receptors that differ in their signal transduction and expression patterns.},
author = {Tanabe, Yasuto and Masu, Masayuki and Ishii, Takahiro and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Nakanishi, Shigetada},
journal = {Neuron},
number = {1},
pages = {169 -- 179},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{A family of metabotropic glutamate receptors}},
doi = {10.1016/0896-6273(92)90118-W},
volume = {8},
year = {1992},
}
@article{3470,
abstract = {Currents activated by glutamate receptor (GluR) agonists were recorded from outside-out patches isolated from the soma of visually identified pyramidal neurones of the (CA3 and CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices. α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA). L-glutamate (L-Glu), and kainate (KA) were delivered either by bath application through perfusion of the recording chamber or by rapid application via a piezo-driven two-barrelled fast application system. 2. Bath application of each of the three agonists activated inward currents in all patches (n = 134) at holding potentials of -50 or -60 mV. The current amplitude increased in size between 3 to 30 μM-AMPA and 100 μM to 1 mM-KA. With this slow mode of bath application, the responses showed no apparent desensitization even at saturating concentrations of AMPA (30 μM) and KA (1 mM). 3. The ratio of currents activated by 30 μM-AMPA and 300 μM-KA showed a characteristic difference between CA3 and CA1 neurones. The ratio was 0.242 ± 0.028 (mean ± S.E.M., n = 16) for CA3 cell patches and 0.097 ± 0.012 (n = 8) for CA1 cell patches indicating that GluRs in the two cell populations are different. 4. The steady-state current-voltage relations (I-Vs) for AMPA- and KA-activated currents showed pronounced outward rectification for both cell types (when the main cations are Na+ in the bath and Cs+ in the pipette solution). The current reversed close to 0 mV and the ratio of chord conductances 80 mV on either side of the reversal potential was 2.66 for KA-activated currents in CA3 cell patches and 2.60 in CA1 cell patches. AMPA-activated currents showed a time-dependent increase after steps to positive membrane potentials and a decrease after steps to negative voltages, indicating that a gating process is responsible for outward rectification of the steady-state I-IV. 5. The permeability (P) of GluR channels was high for Na+ as compared to Cs+ for both cell types (P(Na)/P(Cs) = 0.88 and 0.84). The permeability was low for N-methyl-D-glucamine+ (P(NMG)/P(Cs) ≤ 0.03) and Ca2+ (P(Ca)/P(Cs) ≤0.05). 6. The current noise level increased during application of AMPA or KA. Apparent single-channel conductances obtained from fluctuation analysis were higher for AMPA than for KA, but similar for both cell types. In CA3 cell patches, AMPA activated channels with an apparent chord conductance of 7.2 pS, KA of 3.0 pS conductance. 7. Fast agonist application revealed desensitization of GluR channels which was dependent on the type of agonist, currents activated by AMPA and L-Glu rose rapidly to a peak and then desensitized to a steady-state current. In contrast, currents activated by fast application of KA rose to a plateau and did not desensitize. The steady state current expressed as a percentage of the peak current was higher for L-Glu than for AMPA and slightly higher for CA3 than for CA1 cell patches. For CA3 cell patches, this fraction amounted to 6.2 %, with 300 μM-L-Glu and 2.8%, with 300 μM-AMPA. For CA1 cell patches, corresponding values were 3.6 and 1.9 % 8. The dose response relations for the peak current activated by AMPA and L-Glu and the steady-state current activated by KA were similar for CA3 and CA1 cell patches. The order of potency was AMPA > L-Glu ≃ KA for both cell types EC50 values 189, 342 and 344 μM for CA3 cell patches and 183, 424 and 474 μM for CA1 cell patches). In all cases, the Hill coefficients ranged between 12 and 1.7. 8. The rise of AMPA and L-Glu-activated currents became faster with increasing agonist concentration for both cell types. With L-Glu, rise times decreased from about 3 ms at 100 μM to 500 μs at 3 mM. The delay for agonist concentrations ≥ 300 μM was described by the sum of two exponential functions. The time constant of the predominant fast component was slightly concentration dependent and decreased from about 12 ms at 300 μM to 8 ms at 3 mM-L-Glu. 10. The current voltage relations of the peak currents activated by 300 μM-AMPA were linear for both cell types with a reversal potential close to OmV. 11. It is concluded that the GluR channels in pyramidal cells of hippocampal CA3 and CA1 regions are distinet but share many pharmacological and functional properties. Comparison of the properties of native and recombinant GluRs suggests that in both CA3 and CA1 regions GluR channels are hetero-oligomers containing the GluR-B subunit.},
author = {Peter Jonas and Sakmann, Bert},
journal = {Journal of Physiology},
pages = {143 -- 171},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{Glutamate receptor channels in isolated patches from CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cells of rat hippocampal slices}},
volume = {455},
year = {1992},
}
@article{4043,
abstract = {It is shown that a triangulation of a set of n points in the plane that minimizes the maximum angle can be computed in time O(n2 log n) and space O(n). The algorithm is fairly easy to implement and is based on the edge-insertion scheme that iteratively improves an arbitrary initial triangulation. It can be extended to the case where edges are prescribed, and, within the same time- and space-bounds, it can lexicographically minimize the sorted angle vector if the point set is in general position. Experimental results on the efficiency of the algorithm and the quality of the triangulations obtained are included.},
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner and Tan, Tiow Seng and Waupotitsch, Roman},
journal = {SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing},
number = {4},
pages = {994 -- 1008},
publisher = {Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics },
title = {{An O(n^2 log n) time algorithm for the MinMax angle triangulation}},
doi = {10.1137/0913058},
volume = {13},
year = {1992},
}
@article{4048,
abstract = {Given a sequence of n points that form the vertices of a simple polygon, we show that determining a closest pair requires OMEGA(n log n) time in the algebraic decision tree model. Together with the well-known O(n log n) upper bound for finding a closest pair, this settles an open problem of Lee and Preparata. We also extend this O(n log n) upper bound to the following problem: Given a collection of sets with a total of n points in the plane, find for each point a closest neighbor that does not belong to the same set.},
author = {Aggarwal, Alok and Herbert Edelsbrunner and Raghavan, Prabhakar and Tiwari, Prasoon},
journal = {Information Processing Letters},
number = {1},
pages = {55 -- 60},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Optimal time bounds for some proximity problems in the plane}},
doi = {10.1016/0020-0190(92)90133-G},
volume = {42},
year = {1992},
}
@article{4050,
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner},
journal = {Discrete & Computational Geometry},
number = {1},
pages = {217 -- 217},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Guest editor's foreword}},
doi = {10.1007/BF02293046},
volume = {8},
year = {1992},
}
@article{4308,
author = {Nicholas Barton},
journal = {Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution},
number = {2},
pages = {551 -- 557},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{On the spread of new gene combinations in the third phase of Wright's shifting balance}},
volume = {46},
year = {1992},
}
@inproceedings{4505,
abstract = {We describe finite-state programs over real-numbered time in a guarded-command language with real-valued clocks or, equivalently, as finite automata with real-valued clocks. Model checking answers the question which states of a real-time program satisfy a branching-time specification (given in an extension of CTL with clock variables). We develop an algorithm that computes this set of states symbolically as a fixpoint of a functional on state predicates, without constructing the state space.
For this purpose, we introduce a mu-calculus on computation trees over real-numbered time. Unfortunately, many standard program properties, such as response for all nonzeno execution sequences (during which time diverges), cannot be characterized by fixpoints: we show that the expressiveness of the timed mu-calculus is incomparable to the expressiveness of timed CTL. Fortunately, this result does not impair the symbolic verification of "implementable" real-time programs--those whose safety constraints are machine-closed with respect to diverging time and whose fairness constraints are restricted to finite upper bounds on clock values. All timed CTL properties of such programs are shown to be computable as finitely approximable fixpoints in a simple decidable theory.},
author = {Thomas Henzinger and Nicollin, Xavier and Sifakis, Joseph and Yovine, Sergio},
pages = {394 -- 406},
publisher = {IEEE},
title = {{Symbolic model checking for real-time systems}},
doi = {10.1109/LICS.1992.185551},
year = {1992},
}
@article{4517,
abstract = {It has been observed repeatedly that the standard safety-liveness classification for properties of reactive systems does not fit for real-time properties. This is because the implicit “liveliness” of time shifts the spectrum towards the safety side. While, for example, response—that “something good” will happen eventually—is a classical liveness property, bounded response—that “something good” will happen soon, within a certain amount of time—has many characteristics of safety. We account for this phenomenon formally by defining safety and liveness relative to a given condition, such as the progress of time.},
author = {Thomas Henzinger},
journal = {Information Processing Letters},
number = {3},
pages = {135 -- 141},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Sooner Is Safer Than Later}},
doi = {10.1016/0020-0190(92)90005-G},
volume = {43},
year = {1992},
}
@inbook{4593,
abstract = {We survey logic-based and automata-based languages and techniques for the specification and verification of real-time systems. In particular, we discuss three syntactic extensions of temporal logic: time-bounded operators, freeze quantification, and time variables. We also discuss the extension of finite-state machines with clocks and the extension of transition systems with time bounds on the transitions. All of the resulting notations can be interpreted over a variety of different models of time and computation, including linear and branching time, interleaving and true concurrency, discrete and continuous time. For each choice of syntax and semantics, we summarize the results that are known about expressive power, algorithmic finite-state verification, and deductive verification.},
author = {Alur, Rajeev and Thomas Henzinger},
booktitle = {Real Time: Theory in Practice},
pages = {74 -- 106},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Logics and models of real time: A survey}},
doi = {10.1007/BFb0031984},
volume = {600},
year = {1992},
}
@article{2485,
abstract = {Endothelins (ETs) are very potent vasoconstrictive peptides and have diverse functions in both vascular and nonvascular tissues. This investigation concerns the tissue distribution and cellular localization of rat mRNAs encoding two different subtypes of ET receptors (ET(A) and ET(B)). We isolated 46 cDNA clones from a rat lung cDNA library by hybridization with the bovine ET(A) cDNA. The characterization of these cDNA clones indicated that they represent either the ET(A) or ET(B) cDNA. In situ and blot hybridization analyses revealed that the rat ET(A) mRNA is predominantly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells of a variety of tissues, bronchial smooth muscle cells, myocardium, and the pituitary gland. There is no significant expression of ET(B) mRNA in vascular smooth muscle cells, and ET(A), thus, plays a primary role in ET-induced vascular contraction. ET(B) mRNA is more widely distributed in various cell types of many tissues. Its prominent expression is seen in glial cells throughout the brain regions, epithelial cells of the choroid plexus, ependymal cells lining the ventricle, myocardium, endothelial cells of glomeruli, and epithelial cells of the thin segments of Henle's loops. Our investigation demonstrates that the mRNAs for the two subtypes of rat ET receptors show specialized expression patterns of cell types in both brain and peripheral tissues.},
author = {Hori, Seiji and Komatsu, Yasato and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Mizuno, Noboru and Nakanishi, Shigetada},
journal = {Endocrinology},
number = {4},
pages = {1885 -- 1895},
publisher = {The Endocrine Society},
title = {{Distinct tissue distribution and cellular localization of two messenger ribonucleic acids encoding different subtypes of rat endothelin receptors}},
doi = {10.1210/en.130.4.1885},
volume = {130},
year = {1992},
}
@article{2531,
abstract = {The distribution of NMDA receptor (NMDAR1) on neurons in the peripheral ganglia was examined in the adult rat by in situ hybridization. NMDAR1 mRNA was expressed in all neurons in the sensory and autonomic ganglia examined; in the dorsal root, trigeminal, nodose, superior cervical, and sphenopalatine ganglia. Possible roles of the NMDA receptor on the sensory and autonomic ganglion neurons are discussed.},
author = {Ryuichi Shigemoto and Ohishi, Hitoshi and Nakanishi, Shigetada and Mizuno, Noboru},
journal = {Neuroscience Letters},
number = {1-2},
pages = {229 -- 232},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Expression of the mRNA for the rat NMDA receptor (NMDAR1) in the sensory and autonomic ganglion neurons}},
doi = {10.1016/0304-3940(92)90756-W},
volume = {144},
year = {1992},
}
@article{2714,
author = {László Erdös},
journal = {Acta Mathematica Hungarica},
number = {1-2},
pages = {11 -- 24},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{On some problems of P. Turán concerning power sums of complex numbers}},
doi = {10.1007/BF00052086},
volume = {59},
year = {1992},
}
@article{3469,
abstract = {Glutamate-operated ion channels (GluR channels) of the L-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-kainate subtype are found in both neurons and glial cells of the central nervous system. These channels are assembled from the GluR-A, -B, -C, and -D subunits; channels containing a GluR-B subunit show an outwardly rectifying current-voltage relation and low calcium permeability, whereas channels lacking the GluR-B subunit are characterized by a doubly rectifying current-voltage relation and high calcium permeability. Most cell types in the central nervous system coexpress several subunits, including GluR-B. However, Bergmann glia in rat cerebellum do not express GluR-B subunit genes. In a subset of cultured cerebellar glial cells, likely derived from Bergmann glial cells. GluR channels exhibit doubly rectifying current-voltage relations and high calcium permeability, whereas GluR channels of cerebellar neurons have low calcium permeability. Thus, differential expression of the GluR-B subunit gene in neurons and glia is one mechanism by which functional properties of native GluR channels are regulated.},
author = {Burnashev, Nail A and Khodorova, Alla and Peter Jonas and Helm, P. J. and Wisden, William and Monyer, Hannah and Seeburg, Peter H and Sakmann, Bert},
journal = {Science},
number = {5063},
pages = {1566 -- 1570},
publisher = {American Association for the Advancement of Science},
title = {{Calcium-permeable AMPA-kainate receptors in fusiform cerebellar glial cells.}},
doi = {10.1126/science.1317970},
volume = {256},
year = {1992},
}
@article{3471,
abstract = {1. Outside-out patches were isolated from granule cells of dentate gyrus and pyramidal cells of CA3 and CA1 regions of rat hippocampal slices. Patches were exposed briefly to L-glutamate using a piezo-driven double-barrelled application pipette. 2. Applications of glutamate (1 mM) of 1 ms duration activated patch currents which rose and decayed rapidly. The 20-80% rise time of these glutamate receptor (GluR)-mediated currents was usually 0.2-0.6 ms. At -50 mV the peak current varied from 10 to 500 pA in different patches. 3. The peak current-voltage relation for brief pulses of 1 mM glutamate was virtually linear in normal extracellular solution for patches from the three cell types (-100 to 60 mV). 4. The permeability of GluR channels activated at the peak to Ca2+, relative to K+, was less than 0.1 for all three cell types (under bi-ionic conditions with Ca2+ on the extracellular side and K+ on the intracellular side of the membrane). 5. The offset decay time constant of the current following 1 ms pulses of 1 mM glutamate was brief, with mean values of 3.0 +/- 0.8, 2.5 +/- 0.7, and 2.3 +/- 0.7 ms for dentate, CA3 and CA1 cell patches, respectively. Offset time constants were independent of membrane potential and independent of glutamate concentration (200 microM and 1 mM) for the three cell types. 6. Applications of 1 mM glutamate of 100 ms duration showed that glutamate responses desensitized rapidly. The time constants for desensitization were 9.4 +/- 2.7, 11.3 +/- 2.8, and 9.3 +/- 2.8 ms for patches from dentate, CA3 and CA1 cells respectively. Desensitization time constants were only weakly dependent on glutamate concentration (200 microM and 1 mM) for the three cell types. Thus offset time constants are about four times faster than desensitization time constants for both glutamate concentrations. 7. Double pulse application of glutamate indicated that even a 1 ms pulse of 1 mM glutamate causes partial (about 60%) desensitization of GluR channels. The time course of recovery from desensitization was slower in dentate gyrus granule cell patches than in CA3 or CA1 pyramidal cell patches. 8. Desensitization was studied at equilibrium by exposing patches to low glutamate concentrations for at least 15 s before a 1 ms test pulse of 1 mM glutamate.},
author = {Colquhoun, D. and Peter Jonas and Sakmann, Bert},
journal = {Journal of Physiology},
pages = {261 -- 287},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{Action of brief pulses of glutamate on AMPA/kainate receptors in patches from different neurones of rat hippocampal slices}},
doi = {10.1113/jphysiol.1992.sp019417},
volume = {458},
year = {1992},
}
@inproceedings{4049,
abstract = {The edge-insertion paradigm improves a triangulation of a finite point set in R2
iteratively by adding a new edge, deleting intersecting old edges, and retriangulating
the resulting two polygonal regions. After presenting an abstract view of the paradigm,
this paper shows that it can be used to obtain polynomial time algorithms for several
types of optimal triangulations.},
author = {Bern, Marshall and Herbert Edelsbrunner and Eppstein, David and Mitchell, Stephen and Tan, Tiow Seng},
pages = {46 -- 60},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Edge insertion for optimal triangulations}},
doi = {10.1007/BFb0023816},
volume = {583},
year = {1992},
}
@article{4195,
abstract = {The effects of tri-iodothyronine (T3), which are known to affect cerebellar development, were tested on neuronal survival and differentiation of cultured cerebellar granule neurons. T3 in physiological concentrations increased both granule neuron survival after three days in culture and synaptic vesicle protein formation, as shown by immunostaining with antibodies against synaptophysin. Likewise, T3 increased the mRNA level for synapsin(I), but not that for GAP43 in granule neurons. Antibodies against microtubule associated protein Tau, which is expressed in developing neurites, showed that T3 also enhanced neurite formation.},
author = {Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp and Thoenen, Hans and Lindholm, Dan},
journal = {Neuroreport},
number = {8},
pages = {685 -- 688},
publisher = {Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins},
title = {{Triiodothyronine Regulates Survival and Differentiation of Rat Cerebellar Granule Neurons}},
volume = {3},
year = {1992},
}
@inproceedings{4594,
abstract = {The authors introduce two-way timed automata-timed automata that can move back and forth while reading a timed word. Two-wayness in its unrestricted form leads, like nondeterminism, to the undecidability of language inclusion. However, if they restrict the number of times an input symbol may be revisited, then two-wayness is both harmless and desirable. The authors show that the resulting class of bounded two-way deterministic timed automata is closed under all boolean operations, has decidable (PSPACE-complete) emptiness and inclusion problems, and subsumes all decidable real-time logics we know. They obtain a strict hierarchy of real-time properties: deterministic timed automata can accept more languages as the bound on the number of times an input symbol may be revisited is increased. This hierarchy is also enforced by the number of alternations between past and future operators in temporal logic. The combination of the results leads to a decision procedure for a real-time logic with past operators
},
author = {Alur, Rajeev and Thomas Henzinger},
pages = {177 -- 186},
publisher = {IEEE},
title = {{Back to the future: Towards a theory of timed regular languages}},
doi = {10.1109/SFCS.1992.267774},
year = {1992},
}
@inbook{3566,
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner and Sharir, Micha},
booktitle = {Applied Geometry and Discrete Mathematics: The Victor Klee Festschrift},
pages = {253 -- 263},
publisher = {American Mathematical Society},
title = {{A hyperplane incidence problem with applications to counting distances}},
volume = {4},
year = {1991},
}
@article{3648,
abstract = {We investigate the probability of fixation of a chromosome rearrangement in a subdivided population, concentrating on the limit where migration is so large relative to selection (m ≫ s) that the population can be thought of as being continuously distributed. We study two demes, and one- and two-dimensional populations. For two demes, the probability of fixation in the limit of high migration approximates that of a population with twice the size of a single deme: migration therefore greatly reduces the fixation probability. However, this behavior does not extend to a large array of demes. Then, the fixation probability depends primarily on neighborhood size (Nb), and may be appreciable even with strong selection and free gene flow (≈exp(-B·Nb) in one dimension, ≈exp(-B\cdotNb) in two dimensions). Our results are close to those for the more tractable case of a polygenic character under disruptive selection.},
author = {Nicholas Barton and Rouhani, Shahin},
journal = {Evolution},
number = {3},
pages = {499 -- 517},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{The probability of fixation of a new karyotype in a continuous population}},
volume = {45},
year = {1991},
}
@article{4052,
abstract = {This paper describes an effective procedure for stratifying a real semi-algebraic set into cells of constant description size. The attractive feature of our method is that the number of cells produced is singly exponential in the number of input variables. This compares favorably with the doubly exponential size of Collins' decomposition. Unlike Collins' construction, however, our scheme does not produce a cell complex but only a smooth stratification. Nevertheless, we are able to apply our results in interesting ways to problems of point location and geometric optimization.},
author = {Chazelle, Bernard and Herbert Edelsbrunner and Guibas, Leonidas J and Sharir, Micha},
journal = {Theoretical Computer Science},
number = {1},
pages = {77 -- 105},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{A singly exponential stratification scheme for real semi-algebraic varieties and its applications}},
doi = {10.1016/0304-3975(91)90261-Y},
volume = {84},
year = {1991},
}
@article{4057,
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner},
journal = {Journal of Computer and System Sciences},
number = {2},
pages = {249 -- 251},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Corrigendum}},
doi = {10.1016/0022-0000(91)90013-U},
volume = {42},
year = {1991},
}
@article{1946,
abstract = {An ultra-low dose (10-14 M) of opioid peptide [D-Ala2]methionine enkephalinamide (DAMEA) is found to exert an inhibitory effect on the production of reactive oxygen species (respiratory burst) in human neutrophils. The validity of this phenomenon has been verified in a series of studies that comprised 30 experiments. The inhibition has proved to be statistically significant (P<0.001). The dose-response dependence of the effect (10-15-10-9 M) followed a characteristic biphasic pattern (with the maximum effect at ultra-low doses). An opioid antagonist, naloxone partially blocks the inhibitory effect, which indicates that the DAMEA action is at least partially mediated by opioid receptors.},
author = {Zaǐtsev, Sergei V and Leonid Sazanov and Koshkin, Aleksei A and Sud'Ina, Galina F and Varfolomeev, Sergei D},
journal = {FEBS Letters},
number = {1},
pages = {84 -- 86},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Respiratory burst inhibition in human neutrophils by ultra-low doses of [D-Ala2] methionine enkephalinamide}},
doi = {10.1016/0014-5793(91)81109-L},
volume = {291},
year = {1991},
}
@article{2482,
abstract = {The complementary DNA of a metabotropic glutamate receptor coupled to inositol phosphate/Ca2+ signal transduction has been cloned and characterized. This receptor shows no sequence similarity to conventional G protein-coupled receptors and has a unique structure with large hydrophilic sequences at both sides of seven putative membrane-spanning domains. Abundant expression of this messenger RNA is observed in neuronal cells in hippocampal dentate gyrus and CA2-3 and in cerebellar Purkinje cells, suggesting the importance of this receptor in specific hippocampal and cerebellar functions.},
author = {Masu, Masayuki and Tanabe, Yasuto and Tsuchida, Kunihiro and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Nakanishi, Shigetada},
journal = {Nature},
number = {6312},
pages = {760 -- 765},
publisher = {Nature Publishing Group},
title = {{Sequence and expression of a metabotropic glutamate receptor}},
doi = {10.1038/349760a0},
volume = {349},
year = {1991},
}
@inbook{3567,
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner},
booktitle = {Discrete & Computational Geometry},
pages = {77 -- 93},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Lines in space – A collection of results}},
volume = {6},
year = {1991},
}
@inproceedings{4058,
abstract = {We present a randomized incremental algorithm for computing a single face in an arrangement of n line segments in the plane that is fairly simple to implement. The expected running
time of the algorithm is O (nα(n) log n). The analysis of the algorithm uses a novel approach that generalizes and extends the Clarkson-Shor analysis technique.},
author = {Chazelle, Bernard and Herbert Edelsbrunner and Guibas, Leonidas and Sharir, Micha and Snoeyink, Jack},
pages = {441 -- 448},
publisher = {SIAM},
title = {{Computing a face in an arrangement of line segments}},
year = {1991},
}
@inproceedings{4508,
abstract = {We extend the specification language of temporal logic, the corresponding verification framework, and the underlying computational model to deal with real-time properties of concurrent and reactive systems. A global, discrete, and asynchronous clock is incorporated into the model by defining the abstract notion of a real-time transition system as a conservative extension of traditional transition systems: qualitative fairness requirements are replaced (and superseded) by quantitative lower-bound and upperbound real-time requirements for transitions. We show how to model real-time systems that communicate either through shared variables or by message passing, and how to represent the important real-time constructs of priorities (interrupts), scheduling, and timeouts in this framework. Two styles for the specification of real-time properties are presented. The first style uses bounded versions of the temporal operators; the real-time requirements expressed in this style are classified ...},
author = {Thomas Henzinger and Manna, Zohar and Pnueli,Amir},
pages = {353 -- 366},
publisher = {ACM},
title = {{Temporal proof methodologies for real-time systems}},
doi = {10.1145/99583.99629},
year = {1991},
}
@article{2483,
abstract = {A complementary DNA encoding the rat NMDA receptor has been cloned and characterized. The single protein encoded by the cDNA forms a receptor-channel complex that has electrophysiological and pharmacological properties characteristic of the NMDA receptor. This protein has a significant sequence similarity to the AMPA/kainate receptors and contains four putative transmembrane segments following a large extracellular domain. The NMDA receptor messenger RNA is expressed in neuronal cells throughout the brain regions, particularly in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex and cerebellum.},
author = {Moriyoshi, Koki and Masu, Masayuki and Ishii, Takahiro and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Mizuno, Noboru and Nakanishi, Shigetada},
journal = {Nature},
number = {6348},
pages = {31 -- 37},
publisher = {Nature Publishing Group},
title = {{Molecular cloning and characterization of the rat NMDA receptor}},
doi = {10.1038/354031a0},
volume = {353},
year = {1991},
}
@inproceedings{4054,
abstract = {The zone theorem for an arrangement of n hyperplanes in d-dimensional real space says that the total number of faces bounding the cells intersected by another hyperplane is O(n d–1). This result is the basis of a time-optimal incremental algorithm that constructs a hyperplane arrangement and has a host of other algorithmic and combinatorial applications. Unfortunately, the original proof of the zone theorem, for d ge 3, turned out to contain a serious and irreparable error. This paper presents a new proof of the theorem. Our proof is based on an inductive argument, which also applies in the case of pseudo-hyperplane arrangements. We also briefly discuss the fallacies of the old proof along with some ways of partially saving that approach.},
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner and Seidel, Raimund and Sharir, Micha},
pages = {108 -- 123},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{On the zone theorem for hyperplane arrangements}},
doi = {10.1007/BFb0038185},
volume = {555},
year = {1991},
}
@inproceedings{4059,
abstract = {Let P be a simple polygon with n vertices. We present a simple decomposition scheme that partitions the interior of P into O(n) so-called geodesic triangles, so that any line segment interior to P crosses at most 2 log n of these triangles. This decomposition can be used to preprocess P in time O(n log n) and storage O(n), so that any ray-shooting query can be answered in time O(log n).The algorithms are fairly simple and easy to implement. We also extend this technique to the case of ray-shooting amidst k polygonal obstacles with a total of n edges, so that a query can be answered in O(radicklog n) time.},
author = {Chazelle, Bernard and Herbert Edelsbrunner and Grigni, Michelangelo and Guibas, Leonidas and Hershberger, John and Sharir, Micha and Snoeyink, Jack},
pages = {661 -- 673},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Ray shooting in polygons using geodesic triangulations}},
doi = {10.1007/3-540-54233-7_172},
volume = {510},
year = {1991},
}
@article{4061,
abstract = {We present an algorithm to compute a Euclidean minimum spanning tree of a given set S of N points in Ed in time O(Fd (N,N) logd N), where Fd (n,m) is the time required to compute a bichromatic closest pair among n red and m green points in Ed . If Fd (N,N)=Ω(N1+ε), for some fixed e{open}>0, then the running time improves to O(Fd (N,N)). Furthermore, we describe a randomized algorithm to compute a bichromatic closest pair in expected time O((nm log n log m)2/3+m log2 n+n log2 m) in E3, which yields an O(N4/3 log4/3 N) expected time, algorithm for computing a Euclidean minimum spanning tree of N points in E3. In d≥4 dimensions we obtain expected time O((nm)1-1/([d/2]+1)+ε+m log n+n log m) for the bichromatic closest pair problem and O(N2-2/([d/2]+1)ε) for the Euclidean minimum spanning tree problem, for any positive e{open}.},
author = {Agarwal, Pankaj K and Herbert Edelsbrunner and Schwarzkopf, Otfried and Welzl, Emo},
journal = {Discrete & Computational Geometry},
number = {1},
pages = {407 -- 422},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Euclidean minimum spanning trees and bichromatic closest pairs}},
doi = {10.1007/BF02574698},
volume = {6},
year = {1991},
}
@phdthesis{4516,
author = {Thomas Henzinger},
publisher = {Stanford University},
title = {{The Temporal Specification and Verification of Real-time Systems }},
year = {1991},
}
@article{4592,
author = {Alur, Rajeev and Thomas Henzinger},
journal = {SIGACT News},
number = {3},
pages = {6 -- 12},
publisher = {ACM},
title = {{Time for logic}},
volume = {22},
year = {1991},
}
@article{2530,
author = {Nakanishi, Shigetada and Ohkubo, Hiroaki and Kakizuka, Akira and Yokota, Yoshifumi and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Sasai, Yoshiki and Takumi, Toru},
journal = {Recent Progress in Hormone Research},
number = {1},
pages = {59 -- 83},
publisher = {The Endocrine Society},
title = {{Molecular characterization of mammalian tachykinin receptors and a possible epithelial potassium channel}},
volume = {46},
year = {1991},
}
@article{3468,
abstract = {Two types of metabolically regulated K channels have been identified for the first time in enzymatically demyelinated fibres of amphibian sciatic nerve using the patch-clamp technique. A maxi K channel with a single-channel conductance of 132 pS (105 mM K on both sides of the membrane, 15°C) is activated both by micromolar concentrations of internal Ca and by depolarization. A second type of K channel with a conductance of 44 pS is inhibited by intracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 35 μM. It is blocked by submicromolar concentrations of external glibenclamide. Both channels are sensitive to external tetraethylammonium chloride (IC50 = 0.2 mM for the maxi K channel and 4.2 mM for the ATP-sensitive channel). They may be part of a complex feedback system regulating axonal excitability under various metabolic conditions.
},
author = {Peter Jonas and Koh, Duk S and Kampe, Knut and Hermsteiner, Markus and Vogel, Werner},
journal = {Pflugers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology},
number = {1-2},
pages = {68 -- 73},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{ATP-sensitive and Ca-activated K channels in vertebrate axons: novel links between metabolism and excitability}},
doi = {10.1007/BF00370453},
volume = {418},
year = {1991},
}
@article{3646,
abstract = {We compare the pattern of morphological and electrophoretic variation in the hybrid zone between Bombina bombina and B. variegata across two transects: one near Cracow and one 200 km away, near Przemysl in southeastern Poland. Morphological variation across the Przemysl transect had been surveyed more than 50 years ago; though we found a significant shift at one site, there is no evidence for gross movement over this period. Morphological and electrophoretic changes coincide, and the average shape of the clines is the same across both transects. At the center, most of the change in frequency of six diagnostic allozymes occurs within w = 6.05 km (2-unit support limits 5.56-6.54 km). These steep gradients are generated not by selection on the allozymes themselves, but by associations with other loci: though these markers are unlinked, they are in strong linkage disequilibrium with each other [R = D/ = 0.22 (0.15-0.29) at the center]. Disequilibria are broken up as alleles diffuse away from the zone and flow into the new genetic background. The net barrier to the flow of genes from bombina into variegata, which is generated by these disequilibria, is B = 51 (22-81) km. The fitness of hybrids must be substantially reduced to produce such a barrier [W̄H/W̄P = 0.58 (0.54-0.68)], and this selection must be spread over many loci [N = 55 (26-88)]. Alleles introgress significantly less far than would be expected from the age of the zone and the estimated dispersal rate [σ = 0.99 (0.82-1.14) km gen.-1/2]: this implies selection of se = 0.37 (0.15-0.58)% on the enzymes themselves. There is weak but significant linkage disequilibrium well away from the center of the zone; this, together with the presence of parental and F1 genotypes, suggests some long-range migration. However, such migration is not likely to cause significant introgression.
},
author = {Szymura, Jacek M and Nicholas Barton},
journal = {Evolution},
number = {2},
pages = {237 -- 261},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{The genetic structure of the hybrid zone between the fire-bellied toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata: comparisons between transects and between loci}},
volume = {45},
year = {1991},
}
@inproceedings{4055,
abstract = {It is shown that a triangulation of a set of n points in the plane that minimizes the maximum edge length can be computed in time O(n2). The algorithm is reasonably easy to implement and is based on the theorem that there is a triangulation with minmax edge length that contains the relative neighborhood graph of the points as a subgraph. With minor modifications the algorithm works for arbitrary normed metrics.},
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner and Tan, Tiow Seng},
pages = {414 -- 423},
publisher = {IEEE},
title = {{A quadratic time algorithm for the minmax length triangulation}},
doi = {10.1109/SFCS.1991.185400},
year = {1991},
}
@article{4062,
abstract = {We prove that for any set S of n points in the plane and n3-α triangles spanned by the points in S there exists a point (not necessarily in S) contained in at least n3-3α/(c log5 n) of the triangles. This implies that any set of n points in three-dimensional space defines at most {Mathematical expression} halving planes.},
author = {Aronov, Boris and Chazelle, Bernard and Herbert Edelsbrunner and Guibas, Leonidas J and Sharir, Micha and Wenger, Rephael},
journal = {Discrete & Computational Geometry},
number = {1},
pages = {435 -- 442},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Points and triangles in the plane and halving planes in space}},
doi = {10.1007/BF02574700},
volume = {6},
year = {1991},
}
@article{2529,
abstract = {The distribution of cerebral cortical neurons sending projection fibers to the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST), and the topographical distribution of axon terminals of cortico-NST fibers within the NST were examined in the cat by two sets of experiments with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and HRP conjugated with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA-HRP). First, HRP was injected into the NST. In the cerebral cortex of these cats, neuronal cell bodies were labeled retrogradely in the deep pyramidal cell layer (layer V): After HRP injection centered on the rostral or middle part of the NST, HRP-labeled neuronal cell bodies were distributed mainly in the orbital gyrus and caudal part of the intralimbic cortex, and additionally in the rostral part of the anterior sylvian gyrus. After HRP injection centered on the caudal part of the NST, labeled neuronal cell bodies were seen mainly in the caudoventral part of the intralimbic cortex, and additionally in the orbital gyrus, posterior sigmoid gyrus and rostral part of the anterior sylvian gyrus. The labeling in the intralimbic cortex, orbital gyrus and anterior sylvian gyrus was bilateral with a predominantly ipsilateral distribution, while that in the posterior sigmoid gyrus was bilateral with a clear-cut contralateral dominance. In the second set of experiments, WGA-HRP was injected into the cerebral cortical regions where neuronal cell bodies had been retrogradely labeled with HRP injected into the NST: after WGA-HRP injection into the orbital gyrus, presumed axon terminals in the NST were labeled in the rostral two thirds of the nucleus bilaterally with an ipsilateral predominance. After WGA-HRP injection into the rostral part of the anterior sylvian gyrus, a moderate number of presumed axon terminals were labeled throughout the whole rostrocaudal extent of the NST bilaterally with a slight ipsilateral dominance. After WGA-HRP injection into the middle and caudal parts of the anterior sylvian gyrus, no labeling was found in the NST. After WGA-HRP injection into the caudal part of the intralimbic cortex, presumed terminal labeling in the NST was seen throughout the whole rostrocaudal extent of the nucleus bilaterally with a dominant ipsilateral distribution. After WGA-HRP injection into the posterior sigmoid gyrus, however, no terminal labeling was found in the NST. The results indicate that cortico-NST fibers from the orbital gyrus terminate in the rostral two thirds of the NST, while those from the intralimbic cortex and the rostral part of the anterior sylvian gyrus project to the whole rostrocaudal extent of the NST.},
author = {Yasui, Yukihiko and Itoh, Kazuo and Kaneko, Takeshi and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Mizuno, Noboru},
journal = {Experimental Brain Research},
number = {1},
pages = {75 -- 84},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Topographical projections from the cerebral cortex to the nucleus of the solitary tract in the cat}},
doi = {10.1007/BF00229988},
volume = {85},
year = {1991},
}
@article{3647,
abstract = {A method is developed that describes the effects on an arbitrary number of autosomal loci of selection on haploid and diploid stages, of nonrandom mating between haploid individuals, and of recombination. We provide exact recursions for the dynamics of allele frequencies and linkage disequilibria (nonrandom associations of alleles across loci). When selection is weak relative to recombination, our recursions provide simple approximations for the linkage disequilibria among arbitrary combinations of loci. We show how previous models of sex-independent natural selection on diploids, assortative mating between haploids, and sexual selection on haploids can be analyzed in this framework. Using our weak-selection approximations, we derive new results concerning the coevolution of male traits and female preferences under natural and sexual selection. In particular, we provide general expressions for the intensity of linkage-disequilibrium induced selection experienced by loci that contribute to female preferences for specific male traits. Our general results support the previous observation that these indirect selection forces are so weak that they are unlikely to dominate the evolution of preference-producing loci.},
author = {Nicholas Barton and Turelli, Michael},
journal = {Genetics},
number = {1},
pages = {229 -- 255},
publisher = {Genetics Society of America},
title = {{Natural and sexual selection on many loci}},
volume = {127},
year = {1991},
}
@article{4051,
abstract = {An algorithm is presented that constructs the convex hull of a set of n points in three dimensions in worst-case time O(n log2h) and storage O(n), where h is the number of extreme points. This is an improvement of the O(nh) time gift-wrapping algorithm and, for certain values of h, of the O(n log n) time divide-and-conquer algorithm.},
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner and Shi, Weiping},
journal = {SIAM Journal on Computing},
number = {2},
pages = {259 -- 269},
publisher = {SIAM},
title = {{An O(n log^2 h) time algorithm for the three-dimensional convex hull problem}},
doi = {10.1137/0220016 },
volume = {20},
year = {1991},
}
@article{4056,
abstract = {This paper proves that for every n ≥ 4 there is a convex n-gon such that the vertices of 2n - 7 vertex pairs are one unit of distance apart. This improves the previously best lower bound of ⌊ (5n - 5) 3⌋ given by Erdo{combining double acute accent}s and Moser if n ≥ 17.},
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner and Hajnal, Péter},
journal = {Journal of Combinatorial Theory Series A},
number = {2},
pages = {312 -- 316},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{A lower bound on the number of unit distances between the vertices of a convex polygon}},
doi = {10.1016/0097-3165(91)90042-F},
volume = {56},
year = {1991},
}
@inproceedings{4621,
author = {Alur, Rajeev and Feder, Tomás and Thomas Henzinger},
pages = {139 -- 152},
publisher = {ACM},
title = {{The benefits of relaxing punctuality}},
year = {1991},
}
@article{2481,
abstract = {The family of mammalian tachykinin receptors consists of substance P receptor (SPR), neuromedin K receptor (NKR) and substance K receptor (SKR). In this investigation, tissue and regional distributions of the mRNAs for the three rat tachykinin receptors were investigated by blot-hybridization and RNase-protection analyses using the previously cloned receptor cDNAs. SPR mRNA is widely distributed in both the nervous system and peripheral tissues and is expressed abundantly in the hypothalamus and olfactory buld, as well as in the urinary bladder, salivary glands and small and large intestines. In contrast, NKR mRNA is predominantly expressed in the nervous system, particularly in the cortex, hypothalamus and cerebellum, whereas SKR mRNA expression is restricted to the peripheral tissues, being abundant in the urinary bladder, large intestine, stomach and adenal glands. Thus, the mRNAs for the three tachykinin receptors show distinct patterns of expression between the nervous system and peripheral tissues. Blot-hybridization analysis in combination with S1 nuclease protection and primer-extension analyses revealed that there are two large forms of SKR mRNA expressed commonly in the peripheral tissues, and two additional small forms of the mRNA expressed specifically in the adrenal gland and eye. These analyses also showed that the multiple forms of SKR mRNA differ in the lengths of the 5' mRNA portions, and that the two small forms of the mRNA, if translated, encode a truncated SKR polypeptide lacking the first two transmembrane domains. This investigation thus provides the comprehensive analysis of the distribution and mode of expression of the mRNAs for the multiple peptide receptors and offers a new basis on which to interpret the diverse functions of multiple tachykinin peptides in the CNS and peripheral tissues.},
author = {Tsuchida, Kunihiro and Ryuichi Shigemoto and Yokota, Yoshifumi and Nakanishi, Shigetada},
journal = {European Journal of Biochemistry},
number = {3},
pages = {751 -- 757},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{Tissue distribution and quantitation of the mRNAs for three rat tachykinin receptors}},
doi = {10.1111/j.1432-1033.1990.tb19396.x},
volume = {193},
year = {1990},
}
@article{3650,
abstract = {Hybrid zones can yield estimates of natural selection and gene flow. The width of a cline in gene frequency is approximately proportional to gene flow (σ) divided by the square root of per-locus selection ( &s). Gene flow also causes gametic correlations (linkage disequilibria) between genes that differ across hybrid zones. Correlations are stronger when the hybrid zone is narrow, and rise to a maximum roughly equal to s. Thus cline width and gametic correlations combine to give estimates of gene flow and selection. These indirect measures of σ and s are especially useful because they can be made from collections, and require no field experiments. The method was applied to hybrid zones between color pattern races in a pair of Peruvian Heliconius butterfly species. The species are Mullerian mimics of one another, and both show the same changes in warning color pattern across their respective hybrid zones. The expectations of cline width and gametic correlation were generated using simulations of clines stabilized by strong frequency-dependent selection. In the hybrid zone in Heliconius erato, clines at three major color pattern loci were between 8.5 and 10.2 km wide, and the pairwise gametic correlations peaked at R & 0.35. These measures suggest that s & 0.23 per locus, and that σ & 2.6 km. In erato, the shapes of the clines agreed with that expected on the basis of dominance. Heliconius melpomene has a nearly coincident hybrid zone. In this species, cline widths at four major color pattern loci varied between 11.7 and 13.4 km. Pairwise gametic correlations peaked near R & 1.00 for tightly linked genes, and at R & 0.40 for unlinked genes, giving s & 0.25 per locus and σ & 3.7 km. In melpomene, cline shapes did not perfectly fit theoretical shapes based on dominance; this deviation might be explained by long-distance migration and/or strong epistasis. Compared with erato, sample sizes in melpomene are lower and the genetics of its color patterns are less well understood. In spite of these problems, selection and gene flow are clearly of the same order of magnitude in the two species. The relatively high per locus selection coefficients agree with ``major gene'' theories for the evolution of Mullerian mimicry, but the genetic architecture of the color patterns does not. These results show that the genetics and evolution of mimicry are still only sketchily understood.},
author = {Mallet, James L and Nicholas Barton and Lamas,Gerado M and Santisteban, José C and Muedas, Manuel M and Eeley, Harriet},
journal = {Genetics},
number = {4},
pages = {921 -- 936},
publisher = {Genetics Society of America},
title = {{Estimates of selection and gene flow from measures of cline width and linkage disequilibrium in Heliconius hybrid zones}},
volume = {124},
year = {1990},
}
@article{4064,
abstract = {Given a set of data points pi = (xi, yi ) for 1 ≤ i ≤ n, the least median of squares regression line is a line y = ax + b for which the median of the squared residuals is a minimum over all choices of a and b. An algorithm is described that computes such a line in O(n 2) time and O(n) memory space, thus improving previous upper bounds on the problem. This algorithm is an application of a general method built on top of the topological sweep of line arrangements.},
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner and Souvaine, Diane L},
journal = {Journal of the American Statistical Association},
number = {409},
pages = {115 -- 119},
publisher = {American Statistical Association},
title = {{Computing least median of squares regression lines and guided topological sweep}},
doi = {10.1080/01621459.1990.10475313},
volume = {85},
year = {1990},
}
@article{4069,
abstract = {Let C be a cell complex in d-dimensional Euclidean space whose faces are obtained by orthogonal projection of the faces of a convex polytope in d + 1 dimensions. For example, the Delaunay triangulation of a finite point set is such a cell complex. This paper shows that the in front/behind relation defined for the faces of C with respect to any fixed viewpoint x is acyclic. This result has applications to hidden line/surface removal and other problems in computational geometry.},
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner},
journal = {Combinatorica},
number = {3},
pages = {251 -- 260},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{An acyclicity theorem for cell complexes in d dimension}},
doi = {10.1007/BF02122779},
volume = {10},
year = {1990},
}
@inproceedings{4071,
abstract = {We show that a triangulation of a set of n points in the plane that minimizes the maximum angle can be computed in time O(n2 log n) and space O(n). In the same amount of time and space we can also handle the constrained case where edges are prescribed. The algorithm iteratively improves an arbitrary initial triangulation and is fairly easy to implement.},
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner and Tan, Tiow Seng and Waupotitsch, Roman},
pages = {44 -- 52},
publisher = {ACM},
title = {{An O(n^2log n) time algorithm for the MinMax angle triangulation}},
doi = {10.1145/98524.98535},
year = {1990},
}
@inproceedings{4076,
abstract = {We present an algorithm to compute a Euclidean minimum spanning tree of a given set S of n points in Ed in time O(Td(N, N) logd N), where Td(n, m) is the time required to compute a bichromatic closest pair among n red and m blue points in Ed. If Td(N, N) = Ω(N1+ε), for some fixed ε > 0, then the running time improves to O(Td(N, N)). Furthermore, we describe a randomized algorithm to compute a bichromatic closets pair in expected time O((nm log n log m)2/3+m log2 n + n log2 m) in E3, which yields an O(N4/3log4/3 N) expected time algorithm for computing a Euclidean minimum spanning tree of N points in E3.},
author = {Agarwal, Pankaj K and Herbert Edelsbrunner and Schwarzkopf, Otfried and Welzl, Emo},
pages = {203 -- 210},
publisher = {ACM},
title = {{ Euclidean minimum spanning trees and bichromatic closest pairs}},
doi = {10.1145/98524.98567},
year = {1990},
}
@article{3649,
abstract = {Selection on polygenic characters is generally analyzed by statistical methods that assume a Gaussian (normal) distribution of breeding values. We present an alternative analysis based on multilocus population genetics. We use a general representation of selection, recombination, and drift to analyze an idealized polygenic system in which all genetic effects are additive (i.e., both dominance and epistasis are absent), but no assumptions are made about the distribution of breeding values or the numbers of loci or alleles. Our analysis produces three results. First, our equations reproduce the standard recursions for the mean and additive variance if breeding values are Gaussian; but they also reveal how non-Gaussian distributions of breeding values will alter these dynamics. Second, an approximation valid for weak selection shows that even if genetic variance is attributable to an effectively infinite number of loci with only additive effects, selection will generally drive the distribution of breeding values away from a Gaussian distribution by creating multilocus linkage disequilibria. Long-term dynamics of means can depart substantially from the predictions of the standard selection recursions, but the discrepancy may often be negligible for short-term selection. Third, by including mutation, we show that, for realistic parameter values, linkage disequilibrium has little effect on the amount of additive variance maintained at an equilibrium between stabilizing selection and mutation. Each of these analytical results is supported by numerical calculations.},
author = {Turelli, Michael and Nicholas Barton},
journal = {Theoretical Population Biology},
number = {1},
pages = {1 -- 57},
publisher = {Academic Press},
title = {{Dynamics of polygenic characters under selection}},
doi = {10.1016/0040-5809(90)90002-D},
volume = {38},
year = {1990},
}
@article{3651,
abstract = {It is widely held that each gene typically affects many characters, and that each character is affected by many genes. Moreover, strong stabilizing selection cannot act on an indefinitely large number of independent traits. This makes it likely that heritable variation in any one trait is maintained as a side effect of polymorphisms which have nothing to do with selection on that trait. This paper examines the idea that variation is maintained as the pleiotropic side effect of either deleterious mutation, or balancing selection. If mutation is responsible, it must produce alleles which are only mildly deleterious (s & 10(-3)), but nevertheless have significant effects on the trait. Balancing selection can readily maintain high heritabilities; however, selection must be spread over many weakly selected polymorphisms if large responses to artificial selection are to be possible. In both classes of pleiotropic model, extreme phenotypes are less fit, giving the appearance of stabilizing selection on the trait. However, it is shown that this effect is weak (of the same order as the selection on each gene): the strong stabilizing selection which is often observed is likely to be caused by correlations with a limited number of directly selected traits. Possible experiments for distinguishing the alternatives are discussed.},
author = {Nicholas Barton},
journal = {Genetics},
number = {3},
pages = {773 -- 782},
publisher = {Genetics Society of America},
title = {{Pleiotropic models of quantitative variation}},
volume = {124},
year = {1990},
}
@article{4060,
abstract = {This paper offers combinatorial results on extremum problems concerning the number of tetrahedra in a tetrahedrization of n points in general position in three dimensions, i.e. such that no four points are co-planar, It also presents an algorithm that in O(n log n) time constructs a tetrahedrization of a set of n points consisting of at most 3n-11 tetrahedra.},
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner and Preparata, Franco P and West, Douglas B},
journal = {Journal of Symbolic Computation},
number = {3-4},
pages = {335 -- 347},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Tetrahedrizing point sets in three dimensions}},
doi = {10.1016/S0747-7171(08)80068-5},
volume = {10},
year = {1990},
}
@article{4065,
abstract = {We prove that given n⩾3 convex, compact, and pairwise disjoint sets in the plane, they may be covered with n non-overlapping convex polygons with a total of not more than 6n−9 sides, and with not more than 3n−6 distinct slopes. Furthermore, we construct sets that require 6n−9 sides and 3n−6 slopes for n⩾3. The upper bound on the number of slopes implies a new bound on a recently studied transversal problem.},
author = {Herbert Edelsbrunner and Robison, Arch D and Shen, Xiao-Jun},
journal = {Discrete Mathematics},
number = {2},
pages = {153 -- 164},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Covering convex sets with non-overlapping polygons}},
doi = {10.1016/0012-365X(90)90147-A},
volume = {81},
year = {1990},
}