@inproceedings{3175,
abstract = {This paper addresses the novel problem of automatically synthesizing an output image from a large collection of different input images. The synthesized image, called a digital tapestry, can be viewed as a visual summary or a virtual 'thumbnail' of all the images in the input collection. The problem of creating the tapestry is cast as a multi-class labeling problem such that each region in the tapestry is constructed from input image blocks that are salient and such that neighboring blocks satisfy spatial compatibility. This is formulated using a Markov Random Field and optimized via the graph cut based expansion move algorithm. The standard expansion move algorithm can only handle energies with metric terms, while our energy contains non-metric (soft and hard) constraints. Therefore we propose two novel contributions. First, we extend the expansion move algorithm for energy functions with non-metric hard constraints. Secondly, we modify it for functions with "almost" metric soft terms, and show that it gives good results in practice. The proposed framework was tested on several consumer photograph collections, and the results are presented.},
author = {Rother, Carsten and Kumar, Sanjiv and Vladimir Kolmogorov and Blake, Andrew},
pages = {589 -- 596},
publisher = {IEEE},
title = {{Digital tapestry}},
doi = {10.1109/CVPR.2005.130},
volume = {1},
year = {2005},
}
@inproceedings{3176,
abstract = {This paper demonstrates the high quality, real-time segmentation techniques. We achieve real-time segmentation of foreground from background layers in stereo video sequences. Automatic separation of layers from colour/contrast or from stereo alone is known to be error-prone. Here, colour, contrast and stereo matching information are fused to infer layers accurately and efficiently. The first algorithm, layered dynamic programming (LDP), solves stereo in an extended 6-state space that represents both foreground/background layers and occluded regions. The stereo-match likelihood is then fused with a contrast-sensitive colour model that is learned on the fly, and stereo disparities are obtained by dynamic programming. The second algorithm, layered graph cut (LGC), does not directly solve stereo. Instead the stereo match likelihood is marginalised over foreground and background hypotheses, and fused with a contrast-sensitive colour model like the one used in LDP. Segmentation is solved efficiently by ternary graph cut. Both algorithms are evaluated with respect to ground truth data and found to have similar performance, substantially better than stereo or colour/contrast alone. However, their characteristics with respect to computational efficiency are rather different. The algorithms are demonstrated in the application of background substitution and shown to give good quality composite video output.
},
author = {Vladimir Kolmogorov and Criminisi, Antonio and Blake, Andrew and Cross, Geoffrey and Rother, Carsten},
pages = {1186 -- 1186},
publisher = {IEEE},
title = {{Bi-layer segmentation of binocular stereo video}},
doi = {10.1109/CVPR.2005.90},
year = {2005},
}
@inproceedings{3181,
abstract = {Tree-reweighted max-product (TRW) message passing [9] is a modified form of the ordinary max-product algorithm for attempting to find minimal energy configurations in Markov random field with cycles. For a TRW fixed point satisfying the strong tree agreement condition, the algorithm outputs a configuration that is provably optimal. In this paper, we focus on the case of binary variables with pairwise couplings, and establish stronger properties of TRW fixed points that satisfy only the milder condition of weak tree agreement (WTA). First, we demonstrate how it is possible to identify part of the optimal solution - i.e., a provably optimal solution for a subset of nodes - without knowing a complete solution. Second, we show that for submodular functions, a WTA fixed point always yields a globally optimal solution. We establish that for binary variables, any WTA fixed point always achieves the global maximum of the linear programming relaxation underlying the TRW method.},
author = {Vladimir Kolmogorov and Wainwright, Martin J},
pages = {316 -- 323},
publisher = {AUAI Press},
title = {{On the optimality of tree reweighted max product message passing}},
year = {2005},
}
@inproceedings{3182,
abstract = {In the work of the authors (2003), we showed that graph cuts can find hypersurfaces of globally minimal length (or area) under any Riemannian metric. Here we show that graph cuts on directed regular grids can approximate a significantly more general class of continuous non-symmetric metrics. Using submodularity condition (Boros and Hammer, 2002 and Kolmogorov and Zabih, 2004), we obtain a tight characterization of graph-representable metrics. Such "submodular" metrics have an elegant geometric interpretation via hypersurface functionals combining length/area and flux. Practically speaking, we attend 'geo-cuts' algorithm to a wider class of geometrically motivated hypersurface functionals and show how to globally optimize any combination of length/area and flux of a given vector field. The concept of flux was recently introduced into computer vision by Vasilevskiy and Siddiqi (2002) but it was mainly studied within variational framework so far. We are first to show that flux can be integrated into graph cuts as well. Combining geometric concepts of flux and length/area within the global optimization framework of graph cuts allows principled discrete segmentation models and advances the slate of the art for the graph cuts methods in vision. In particular we address the "shrinking" problem of graph cuts, improve segmentation of long thin objects, and introduce useful shape constraints.},
author = {Vladimir Kolmogorov and Boykov, Yuri},
pages = {564 -- 571},
publisher = {IEEE},
title = {{What metrics can be approximated by geo cuts or global optimization of length area and flux}},
doi = {10.1109/ICCV.2005.252},
volume = {1},
year = {2005},
}
@inproceedings{3183,
abstract = {This paper describes two algorithms capable of real-time segmentation of foreground from background layers in stereo video sequences. Automatic separation of layers from colour/contrast or from stereo alone is known to be error-prone. Here, colour, contrast and stereo matching information are fused to infer layers accurately and efficiently. The first algorithm, Layered Dynamic Programming (LDP), solves stereo in an extended 6-state space that represents both foreground/background layers and occluded regions. The stereo-match likelihood is then fused with a contrast-sensitive colour model that is learned on the fly, and stereo disparities are obtained by dynamic programming. The second algorithm, Layered Graph Cut (LGC), does not directly solve stereo. Instead the stereo match likelihood is marginalised over foreground and background hypotheses, and fused with a contrast-sensitive colour model like the one used in LDP. Segmentation is solved efficiently by ternary graph cut. Both algorithms are evaluated with respect to ground truth data and found to have similar perfomance, substantially better than stereo or colour/contrast alone. However, their characteristics with respect to computational efficiency are rather different. The algorithms are demonstrated in the application of background substitution and shown to give good quality composite video output.},
author = {Vladimir Kolmogorov and Criminisi, Antonio and Blake, Andrew and Cross, Geoffrey and Rother, Carsten},
pages = {407 -- 414},
publisher = {IEEE},
title = {{Bi-layer segmentation of binocular stereo video}},
doi = {10.1109/CVPR.2005.91},
volume = {2},
year = {2005},
}
@inproceedings{3211,
abstract = {We present an improved bound on the advantage of any q-query adversary at distinguishing between the CBC MAC over a random n-bit permutation and a random function outputting n bits. The result assumes that no message queried is a prefix of any other, as is the case when all messages to be MACed have the same length. We go on to give an improved analysis of the encrypted CBC MAC, where there is no restriction on queried messages. Letting m be the block length of the longest query, our bounds are about mq2/2n for the basic CBC MAC and mo(1)q2/2n for the encrypted CBC MAC, improving prior bounds of m2q2/2n. The new bounds translate into improved guarantees on the probability of forging these MACs.},
author = {Bellare, Mihir and Krzysztof Pietrzak and Rogaway, Phillip},
pages = {527 -- 545},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Improved security analyses for CBC MACs}},
doi = {10.1007/11535218_32},
volume = {3621},
year = {2005},
}
@inproceedings{3212,
abstract = {The Full-Domain Hash (FDH) signature scheme [3] forms one the most basic usages of random oracles. It works with a family F of trapdoor permutations (TDP), where the signature of m is computed as f−1(h(m)) (here f ∈R F and h is modelled as a random oracle). It is known to be existentially unforgeable for any TDP family F [3], although a much tighter security reduction is known for a restrictive class of TDP’s [10,14] — namely, those induced by a family of claw-free permutations (CFP) pairs. The latter result was shown [11] to match the best possible “black-box” security reduction in the random oracle model, irrespective of the TDP family F (e.g., RSA) one might use.
In this work we investigate the question if it is possible to instantiate the random oracle h with a “real” family of hash functions H such that the corresponding schemes can be proven secure in the standard model, under some natural assumption on the family F. Our main result rules out the existence of such instantiations for any assumption on F which (1) is satisfied by a family of random permutations; and (2) does not allow the attacker to invert f ∈R F on an a-priori unbounded number of points. Moreover, this holds even if the choice of H can arbitrarily depend on f. As an immediate corollary, we rule out instantiating FDH based on general claw-free permutations, which shows that in order to prove the security of FDH in the standard model one must utilize significantly more structure on F than what is sufficient for the best proof of security in the random oracle model.},
author = {Dodis, Yevgeniy and Oliveira, Roberto and Krzysztof Pietrzak},
pages = {449 -- 466},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{On the generic insecurity of the full domain hash}},
doi = {10.1007/11535218_27},
volume = {3621},
year = {2005},
}
@inproceedings{3213,
abstract = {We study the question whether the sequential or parallel composition of two functions, each indistinguishable from a random function by non-adaptive distinguishers is secure against adaptive distinguishers. The sequential composition of F and G is the function G(F()), the parallel composition is F G where ⋆ is some group operation. It has been shown that composition indeed gives adaptive security in the information theoretic setting, but unfortunately the proof does not translate into the more interesting computational case.
In this work we show that in the computational setting composition does not imply adaptive security: If there is a prime order cyclic group where the decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption holds, then there are functions F and G which are indistinguishable by non-adaptive polynomially time-bounded adversaries, but whose parallel composition can be completely broken (i.e. we recover the key) with only three adaptive queries. We give a similar result for sequential composition. Interestingly, we need a standard assumption from the asymmetric (aka. public-key) world to prove a negative result for symmetric (aka. private-key) systems.},
author = {Krzysztof Pietrzak},
pages = {55 -- 65},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Composition does not imply adaptive security}},
doi = {10.1007/11535218_4},
volume = {3621},
year = {2005},
}
@article{3416,
abstract = {In the last decade atomic force microscopy has been used to measure the mechanical stability of single proteins. These force spectroscopy experiments have shown that many water-soluble and membrane proteins unfold via one or more intermediates. Recently, Li and co-workers found a linear correlation between the unfolding force of the native state and the intermediate in fibronectin, which they suggested indicated the presence of a molecular memory or multiple unfolding pathways (1). Here, we apply two independent methods in combination with Monte Carlo simulations to analyze the unfolding of α-helices E and D of bacteriorhodopsin (BR). We show that correlation analysis of unfolding forces is very sensitive to errors in force calibration of the instrument. In contrast, a comparison of relative forces provides a robust measure for the stability of unfolding intermediates. The proposed approach detects three energetically different states of α-helices E and D in trimeric BR. These states are not observed for monomeric BR and indicate that substantial information is hidden in forced unfolding experiments of single proteins.},
author = {Harald Janovjak and Sapra, Tanuj K and Mueller, Daniel J},
journal = {Biophysical Journal},
number = {5},
pages = {37 -- 39},
publisher = {Biophysical Society},
title = {{Complex stability of single proteins explored by forced unfolding experiments}},
doi = {10.1529/biophysj.105.059774},
volume = {88},
year = {2005},
}
@article{3417,
abstract = {Recently, direct measurements of forces stabilizing single proteins or individual receptor–ligand bonds became possible with ultra-sensitive force probe methods like the atomic force microscope (AFM). In force spectroscopy experiments using AFM, a single molecule or receptor–ligand pair is tethered between the tip of a micromachined cantilever and a supporting surface. While the molecule is stretched, forces are measured by the deflection of the cantilever and plotted against extension, yielding a force spectrum characteristic for each biomolecular system. In order to obtain statistically relevant results, several hundred to thousand single-molecule experiments have to be performed, each resulting in a unique force spectrum. We developed software and algorithms to analyse large numbers of force spectra. Our algorithms include the fitting polymer extension models to force peaks as well as the automatic alignment of spectra. The aligned spectra allowed recognition of patterns of peaks across different spectra. We demonstrate the capabilities of our software by analysing force spectra that were recorded by unfolding single transmembrane proteins such as bacteriorhodopsin and NhaA. Different unfolding pathways were detected by classifying peak patterns. Deviant spectra, e.g. those with no attachment or erratic peaks, can be easily identified. The software is based on the programming language C++, the GNU Scientific Library (GSL), the software WaveMetrics IGOR Pro and available open-source at http://bioinformatics.org/fskit/.},
author = {Kuhn, Michael and Harald Janovjak and Hubain, Maurice and Mueller, Daniel J},
journal = {Journal of Microscopy},
number = {2},
pages = {125 -- 132},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{Automated alignment and pattern recognition of single-molecule force spectroscopy data}},
doi = {10.1111/j.1365-2818.2005.01478.x},
volume = {218},
year = {2005},
}