@article{170,
abstract = {Upper and lower bounds, of the expected order of magnitude, are obtained for the number of rational points of bounded height on any quartic del Pezzo surface over ℚ that contains a conic defined over ℚ .},
author = {Browning, Timothy D and Sofos, Efthymios},
journal = {Mathematische Annalen},
number = {3-4},
pages = {977--1016},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{Counting rational points on quartic del Pezzo surfaces with a rational conic}},
doi = {10.1007/s00208-018-1716-6},
volume = {373},
year = {2019},
}
@inproceedings{6163,
abstract = {We propose a new non-orthogonal basis to express the 3D Euclidean space in terms of a regular grid. Every grid point, each represented by integer 3-coordinates, corresponds to rhombic dodecahedron centroid. Rhombic dodecahedron is a space filling polyhedron which represents the close packing of spheres in 3D space and the Voronoi structures of the face centered cubic (FCC) lattice. In order to illustrate the interest of the new coordinate system, we propose the characterization of 3D digital plane with its topological features, such as the interrelation between the thickness of the digital plane and the separability constraint we aim to obtain. A characterization of a 3D digital sphere with relevant topological features is proposed as well with the help of a 48 symmetry that comes with the new coordinate system.},
author = {Biswas, Ranita and Largeteau-Skapin, Gaëlle and Zrour, Rita and Andres, Eric},
booktitle = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
isbn = {9783662464465},
issn = {0302-9743},
location = {Marne-la-Vallée, France},
pages = {27--37},
publisher = {Springer Berlin Heidelberg},
title = {{Rhombic dodecahedron grid—coordinate system and 3D digital object definitions}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-14085-4_3},
volume = {11414},
year = {2019},
}
@article{6186,
abstract = {We prove that the local eigenvalue statistics of real symmetric Wigner-type
matrices near the cusp points of the eigenvalue density are universal. Together
with the companion paper [arXiv:1809.03971], which proves the same result for
the complex Hermitian symmetry class, this completes the last remaining case of
the Wigner-Dyson-Mehta universality conjecture after bulk and edge
universalities have been established in the last years. We extend the recent
Dyson Brownian motion analysis at the edge [arXiv:1712.03881] to the cusp
regime using the optimal local law from [arXiv:1809.03971] and the accurate
local shape analysis of the density from [arXiv:1506.05095, arXiv:1804.07752].
We also present a PDE-based method to improve the estimate on eigenvalue
rigidity via the maximum principle of the heat flow related to the Dyson
Brownian motion.},
author = {Cipolloni, Giorgio and Erdös, László and Krüger, Torben H and Schröder, Dominik J},
issn = {2578-5885},
journal = {Pure and Applied Analysis },
number = {4},
pages = {615–707},
publisher = {MSP},
title = {{Cusp universality for random matrices, II: The real symmetric case}},
doi = {10.2140/paa.2019.1.615},
volume = {1},
year = {2019},
}
@article{6297,
abstract = {Cell-cell and cell-glycocalyx interactions under flow are important for the behaviour of circulating cells in blood and lymphatic vessels. However, such interactions are not well understood due in part to a lack of tools to study them in defined environments. Here, we develop a versatile in vitro platform for the study of cell-glycocalyx interactions in well-defined physical and chemical settings under flow. Our approach is demonstrated with the interaction between hyaluronan (HA, a key component of the endothelial glycocalyx) and its cell receptor CD44. We generate HA brushes in situ within a microfluidic device, and demonstrate the tuning of their physical (thickness and softness) and chemical (density of CD44 binding sites) properties using characterisation with reflection interference contrast microscopy (RICM) and application of polymer theory. We highlight the interactions of HA brushes with CD44-displaying beads and cells under flow. Observations of CD44+ beads on a HA brush with RICM enabled the 3-dimensional trajectories to be generated, and revealed interactions in the form of stop and go phases with reduced rolling velocity and reduced distance between the bead and the HA brush, compared to uncoated beads. Combined RICM and bright-field microscopy of CD44+ AKR1 T-lymphocytes revealed complementary information about the dynamics of cell rolling and cell morphology, and highlighted the formation of tethers and slings, as they interacted with a HA brush under flow. This platform can readily incorporate more complex models of the glycocalyx, and should permit the study of how mechanical and biochemical factors are orchestrated to enable highly selective blood cell-vessel wall interactions under flow.},
author = {Davies, Heather S. and Baranova, Natalia S. and El Amri, Nouha and Coche-Guérente, Liliane and Verdier, Claude and Bureau, Lionel and Richter, Ralf P. and Débarre, Delphine},
issn = {0945-053X},
journal = {Matrix Biology},
pages = {47--59},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{An integrated assay to probe endothelial glycocalyx-blood cell interactions under flow in mechanically and biochemically well-defined environments}},
doi = {10.1016/j.matbio.2018.12.002},
volume = {78-79},
year = {2019},
}
@article{6380,
abstract = {There is a huge gap between the speeds of modern caches and main memories, and therefore cache misses account for a considerable loss of efficiency in programs. The predominant technique to address this issue has been Data Packing: data elements that are frequently accessed within time proximity are packed into the same cache block, thereby minimizing accesses to the main memory. We consider the algorithmic problem of Data Packing on a two-level memory system. Given a reference sequence R of accesses to data elements, the task is to partition the elements into cache blocks such that the number of cache misses on R is minimized. The problem is notoriously difficult: it is NP-hard even when the cache has size 1, and is hard to approximate for any cache size larger than 4. Therefore, all existing techniques for Data Packing are based on heuristics and lack theoretical guarantees. In this work, we present the first positive theoretical results for Data Packing, along with new and stronger negative results. We consider the problem under the lens of the underlying access hypergraphs, which are hypergraphs of affinities between the data elements, where the order of an access hypergraph corresponds to the size of the affinity group. We study the problem parameterized by the treewidth of access hypergraphs, which is a standard notion in graph theory to measure the closeness of a graph to a tree. Our main results are as follows: We show there is a number q* depending on the cache parameters such that (a) if the access hypergraph of order q* has constant treewidth, then there is a linear-time algorithm for Data Packing; (b)the Data Packing problem remains NP-hard even if the access hypergraph of order q*-1 has constant treewidth. Thus, we establish a fine-grained dichotomy depending on a single parameter, namely, the highest order among access hypegraphs that have constant treewidth; and establish the optimal value q* of this parameter. Finally, we present an experimental evaluation of a prototype implementation of our algorithm. Our results demonstrate that, in practice, access hypergraphs of many commonly-used algorithms have small treewidth. We compare our approach with several state-of-the-art heuristic-based algorithms and show that our algorithm leads to significantly fewer cache-misses. },
author = {Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Goharshady, Amir Kafshdar and Okati, Nastaran and Pavlogiannis, Andreas},
issn = {2475-1421},
journal = {Proceedings of the ACM on Programming Languages},
number = {POPL},
publisher = {ACM},
title = {{Efficient parameterized algorithms for data packing}},
doi = {10.1145/3290366},
volume = {3},
year = {2019},
}
@article{6451,
abstract = {Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling controls skin development and homeostasis inmice and humans, and its deficiency causes severe skin inflammation, which might affect epidermalstem cell behavior. Here, we describe the inflammation-independent effects of EGFR deficiency dur-ing skin morphogenesis and in adult hair follicle stem cells. Expression and alternative splicing analysisof RNA sequencing data from interfollicular epidermis and outer root sheath indicate that EGFR con-trols genes involved in epidermal differentiation and also in centrosome function, DNA damage, cellcycle, and apoptosis. Genetic experiments employingp53deletion in EGFR-deficient epidermis revealthat EGFR signaling exhibitsp53-dependent functions in proliferative epidermal compartments, aswell asp53-independent functions in differentiated hair shaft keratinocytes. Loss of EGFR leads toabsence of LEF1 protein specifically in the innermost epithelial hair layers, resulting in disorganizationof medulla cells. Thus, our results uncover important spatial and temporal features of cell-autonomousEGFR functions in the epidermis.},
author = {Amberg, Nicole and Sotiropoulou, Panagiota A. and Heller, Gerwin and Lichtenberger, Beate M. and Holcmann, Martin and Camurdanoglu, Bahar and Baykuscheva-Gentscheva, Temenuschka and Blanpain, Cedric and Sibilia, Maria},
issn = {2589-0042},
journal = {iScience},
pages = {243--256},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{EGFR controls hair shaft differentiation in a p53-independent manner}},
doi = {10.1016/j.isci.2019.04.018},
volume = {15},
year = {2019},
}
@article{6662,
abstract = {In phase retrieval, we want to recover an unknown signal 𝑥∈ℂ𝑑 from n quadratic measurements of the form 𝑦𝑖=|⟨𝑎𝑖,𝑥⟩|2+𝑤𝑖, where 𝑎𝑖∈ℂ𝑑 are known sensing vectors and 𝑤𝑖 is measurement noise. We ask the following weak recovery question: What is the minimum number of measurements n needed to produce an estimator 𝑥^(𝑦) that is positively correlated with the signal 𝑥? We consider the case of Gaussian vectors 𝑎𝑎𝑖. We prove that—in the high-dimensional limit—a sharp phase transition takes place, and we locate the threshold in the regime of vanishingly small noise. For 𝑛≤𝑑−𝑜(𝑑), no estimator can do significantly better than random and achieve a strictly positive correlation. For 𝑛≥𝑑+𝑜(𝑑), a simple spectral estimator achieves a positive correlation. Surprisingly, numerical simulations with the same spectral estimator demonstrate promising performance with realistic sensing matrices. Spectral methods are used to initialize non-convex optimization algorithms in phase retrieval, and our approach can boost the performance in this setting as well. Our impossibility result is based on classical information-theoretic arguments. The spectral algorithm computes the leading eigenvector of a weighted empirical covariance matrix. We obtain a sharp characterization of the spectral properties of this random matrix using tools from free probability and generalizing a recent result by Lu and Li. Both the upper bound and lower bound generalize beyond phase retrieval to measurements 𝑦𝑖 produced according to a generalized linear model. As a by-product of our analysis, we compare the threshold of the proposed spectral method with that of a message passing algorithm.},
author = {Mondelli, Marco and Montanari, Andrea},
issn = {1615-3383},
journal = {Foundations of Computational Mathematics},
number = {3},
pages = {703--773},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Fundamental limits of weak recovery with applications to phase retrieval}},
doi = {10.1007/s10208-018-9395-y},
volume = {19},
year = {2019},
}
@article{6663,
abstract = {Consider the problem of constructing a polar code of block length N for a given transmission channel W. Previous approaches require one to compute the reliability of the N synthetic channels and then use only those that are sufficiently reliable. However, we know from two independent works by Schürch and by Bardet et al. that the synthetic channels are partially ordered with respect to degradation. Hence, it is natural to ask whether the partial order can be exploited to reduce the computational burden of the construction problem. We show that, if we take advantage of the partial order, we can construct a polar code by computing the reliability of roughly a fraction 1/ log 3/2 N of the synthetic channels. In particular, we prove that N/ log 3/2 N is a lower bound on the number of synthetic channels to be considered and such a bound is tight up to a multiplicative factor log log N. This set of roughly N/ log 3/2 N synthetic channels is universal, in the sense that it allows one to construct polar codes for any W, and it can be identified by solving a maximum matching problem on a bipartite graph. Our proof technique consists of reducing the construction problem to the problem of computing the maximum cardinality of an antichain for a suitable partially ordered set. As such, this method is general, and it can be used to further improve the complexity of the construction problem, in case a refined partial order on the synthetic channels of polar codes is discovered.},
author = {Mondelli, Marco and Hassani, Hamed and Urbanke, Rudiger},
journal = {IEEE},
number = {5},
pages = {2782--2791},
publisher = {IEEE},
title = {{Construction of polar codes with sublinear complexity}},
doi = {10.1109/tit.2018.2889667},
volume = {65},
year = {2019},
}
@article{6671,
abstract = {In this paper we discuss three results. The first two concern general sets of positive reach: we first characterize the reach of a closed set by means of a bound on the metric distortion between the distance measured in the ambient Euclidean space and the shortest path distance measured in the set. Secondly, we prove that the intersection of a ball with radius less than the reach with the set is geodesically convex, meaning that the shortest path between any two points in the intersection lies itself in the intersection. For our third result we focus on manifolds with positive reach and give a bound on the angle between tangent spaces at two different points in terms of the reach and the distance between the two points.},
author = {Boissonnat, Jean-Daniel and Lieutier, André and Wintraecken, Mathijs},
issn = {2367-1734},
journal = {Journal of Applied and Computational Topology},
number = {1-2},
pages = {29–58},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{The reach, metric distortion, geodesic convexity and the variation of tangent spaces}},
doi = {10.1007/s41468-019-00029-8},
volume = {3},
year = {2019},
}
@article{6672,
abstract = {The construction of anisotropic triangulations is desirable for various applications, such as the numerical solving of partial differential equations and the representation of surfaces in graphics. To solve this notoriously difficult problem in a practical way, we introduce the discrete Riemannian Voronoi diagram, a discrete structure that approximates the Riemannian Voronoi diagram. This structure has been implemented and was shown to lead to good triangulations in $\mathbb{R}^2$ and on surfaces embedded in $\mathbb{R}^3$ as detailed in our experimental companion paper. In this paper, we study theoretical aspects of our structure. Given a finite set of points $\mathcal{P}$ in a domain $\Omega$ equipped with a Riemannian metric, we compare the discrete Riemannian Voronoi diagram of $\mathcal{P}$ to its Riemannian Voronoi diagram. Both diagrams have dual structures called the discrete Riemannian Delaunay and the Riemannian Delaunay complex. We provide conditions that guarantee that these dual structures are identical. It then follows from previous results that the discrete Riemannian Delaunay complex can be embedded in $\Omega$ under sufficient conditions, leading to an anisotropic triangulation with curved simplices. Furthermore, we show that, under similar conditions, the simplices of this triangulation can be straightened.},
author = {Boissonnat, Jean-Daniel and Rouxel-Labbé, Mael and Wintraecken, Mathijs},
issn = {1095-7111},
journal = {SIAM Journal on Computing},
number = {3},
pages = {1046--1097},
publisher = {Society for Industrial & Applied Mathematics (SIAM)},
title = {{Anisotropic triangulations via discrete Riemannian Voronoi diagrams}},
doi = {10.1137/17m1152292},
volume = {48},
year = {2019},
}
@phdthesis{6681,
abstract = {The first part of the thesis considers the computational aspects of the homotopy groups πd(X) of a topological space X. It is well known that there is no algorithm to decide whether the fundamental group π1(X) of a given finite simplicial complex X is trivial. On the other hand, there are several algorithms that, given a finite simplicial complex X that is simply connected (i.e., with π1(X) trivial), compute the higher homotopy group πd(X) for any given d ≥ 2.
However, these algorithms come with a caveat: They compute the isomorphism type of πd(X), d ≥ 2 as an abstract finitely generated abelian group given by generators and relations, but they work with very implicit representations of the elements of πd(X). We present an algorithm that, given a simply connected space X, computes πd(X) and represents its elements as simplicial maps from suitable triangulations of the d-sphere Sd to X. For fixed d, the algorithm runs in time exponential in size(X), the number of simplices of X. Moreover, we prove that this is optimal: For every fixed d ≥ 2,
we construct a family of simply connected spaces X such that for any simplicial map representing a generator of πd(X), the size of the triangulation of S d on which the map is defined, is exponential in size(X).
In the second part of the thesis, we prove that the following question is algorithmically undecidable for d < ⌊3(k+1)/2⌋, k ≥ 5 and (k, d) ̸= (5, 7), which covers essentially everything outside the meta-stable range: Given a finite simplicial complex K of dimension k, decide whether there exists a piecewise-linear (i.e., linear on an arbitrarily fine subdivision of K) embedding f : K ↪→ Rd of K into a d-dimensional Euclidean space.},
author = {Zhechev, Stephan Y},
issn = {2663-337X},
pages = {104},
publisher = {IST Austria},
title = {{Algorithmic aspects of homotopy theory and embeddability}},
doi = {10.15479/AT:ISTA:6681},
year = {2019},
}
@unpublished{6748,
abstract = {Fitting a function by using linear combinations of a large number N of `simple' components is one of the most fruitful ideas in statistical learning. This idea lies at the core of a variety of methods, from two-layer neural networks to kernel regression, to boosting. In general, the resulting risk minimization problem is non-convex and is solved by gradient descent or its variants. Unfortunately, little is known about global convergence properties of these approaches.
Here we consider the problem of learning a concave function f on a compact convex domain Ω⊆ℝd, using linear combinations of `bump-like' components (neurons). The parameters to be fitted are the centers of N bumps, and the resulting empirical risk minimization problem is highly non-convex. We prove that, in the limit in which the number of neurons diverges, the evolution of gradient descent converges to a Wasserstein gradient flow in the space of probability distributions over Ω. Further, when the bump width δ tends to 0, this gradient flow has a limit which is a viscous porous medium equation. Remarkably, the cost function optimized by this gradient flow exhibits a special property known as displacement convexity, which implies exponential convergence rates for N→∞, δ→0. Surprisingly, this asymptotic theory appears to capture well the behavior for moderate values of δ,N. Explaining this phenomenon, and understanding the dependence on δ,N in a quantitative manner remains an outstanding challenge.},
author = {Javanmard, Adel and Mondelli, Marco and Montanari, Andrea},
booktitle = {arXiv:1901.01375},
pages = {70},
publisher = {ArXiv},
title = {{Analysis of a two-layer neural network via displacement convexity}},
year = {2019},
}
@inproceedings{6780,
abstract = {In this work, we consider the almost-sure termination problem for probabilistic programs that asks whether a
given probabilistic program terminates with probability 1. Scalable approaches for program analysis often
rely on modularity as their theoretical basis. In non-probabilistic programs, the classical variant rule (V-rule)
of Floyd-Hoare logic provides the foundation for modular analysis. Extension of this rule to almost-sure
termination of probabilistic programs is quite tricky, and a probabilistic variant was proposed in [16]. While the
proposed probabilistic variant cautiously addresses the key issue of integrability, we show that the proposed
modular rule is still not sound for almost-sure termination of probabilistic programs.
Besides establishing unsoundness of the previous rule, our contributions are as follows: First, we present a
sound modular rule for almost-sure termination of probabilistic programs. Our approach is based on a novel
notion of descent supermartingales. Second, for algorithmic approaches, we consider descent supermartingales
that are linear and show that they can be synthesized in polynomial time. Finally, we present experimental
results on a variety of benchmarks and several natural examples that model various types of nested while
loops in probabilistic programs and demonstrate that our approach is able to efficiently prove their almost-sure
termination property},
author = {Huang, Mingzhang and Fu, Hongfei and Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Goharshady, Amir Kafshdar},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 34th ACM International Conference on Object-Oriented Programming, Systems, Languages, and Applications },
location = {Athens, Greece},
publisher = {ACM},
title = {{Modular verification for almost-sure termination of probabilistic programs}},
doi = {10.1145/3360555},
volume = {3},
year = {2019},
}
@article{6828,
abstract = {In this paper we construct a family of exact functors from the category of Whittaker modules of the simple complex Lie algebra of type to the category of finite-dimensional modules of the graded affine Hecke algebra of type . Using results of Backelin [2] and of Arakawa-Suzuki [1], we prove that these functors map standard modules to standard modules (or zero) and simple modules to simple modules (or zero). Moreover, we show that each simple module of the graded affine Hecke algebra appears as the image of a simple Whittaker module. Since the Whittaker category contains the BGG category as a full subcategory, our results generalize results of Arakawa-Suzuki [1], which in turn generalize Schur-Weyl duality between finite-dimensional representations of and representations of the symmetric group .},
author = {Brown, Adam},
issn = {0021-8693},
journal = {Journal of Algebra},
pages = {261--289},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Arakawa-Suzuki functors for Whittaker modules}},
doi = {10.1016/j.jalgebra.2019.07.027},
volume = {538},
year = {2019},
}
@phdthesis{6957,
abstract = {In many shear flows like pipe flow, plane Couette flow, plane Poiseuille flow, etc. turbulence emerges subcritically. Here, when subjected to strong enough perturbations, the flow becomes turbulent in spite of the laminar base flow being linearly stable. The nature of this instability has puzzled the scientific community for decades. At onset, turbulence appears in localized patches and flows are spatio-temporally intermittent. In pipe flow the localized turbulent structures are referred to as puffs and in planar flows like plane Couette and channel flow, patches arise in the form of localized oblique bands. In this thesis, we study the onset of turbulence in channel flow in direct numerical simulations from a dynamical system theory perspective, as well as by performing experiments in a large aspect ratio channel.
The aim of the experimental work is to determine the critical Reynolds number where turbulence first becomes sustained. Recently, the onset of turbulence has been described in analogy to absorbing state phase transition (i.e. directed percolation). In particular, it has been shown that the critical point can be estimated from the competition between spreading and decay processes. Here, by performing experiments, we identify the mechanisms underlying turbulence proliferation in channel flow and find the critical Reynolds number, above which turbulence becomes sustained. Above the critical point, the continuous growth at the tip of the stripes outweighs the stochastic shedding of turbulent patches at the tail and the stripes expand. For growing stripes, the probability to decay decreases while the probability of stripe splitting increases. Consequently, and unlike for the puffs in pipe flow, neither of these two processes is time-independent i.e. memoryless. Coupling between stripe expansion and creation of new stripes via splitting leads to a significantly lower critical point ($Re_c=670+/-10$) than most earlier studies suggest.
While the above approach sheds light on how turbulence first becomes sustained, it provides no insight into the origin of the stripes themselves. In the numerical part of the thesis we investigate how turbulent stripes form from invariant solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. The origin of these turbulent stripes can be identified by applying concepts from the dynamical system theory. In doing so, we identify the exact coherent structures underlying stripes and their bifurcations and how they give rise to the turbulent attractor in phase space. We first report a family of localized nonlinear traveling wave solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations in channel flow. These solutions show structural similarities with turbulent stripes in experiments like obliqueness, quasi-streamwise streaks and vortices, etc. A parametric study of these traveling wave solution is performed, with parameters like Reynolds number, stripe tilt angle and domain size, including the stability of the solutions. These solutions emerge through saddle-node bifurcations and form a phase space skeleton for the turbulent stripes observed in the experiments. The lower branches of these TW solutions at different tilt angles undergo Hopf bifurcation and new solutions branches of relative periodic orbits emerge. These RPO solutions do not belong to the same family and therefore the routes to chaos for different angles are different.
In shear flows, turbulence at onset is transient in nature. Consequently,turbulence can not be tracked to lower Reynolds numbers, where the dynamics may simplify. Before this happens, turbulence becomes short-lived and laminarizes. In the last part of the thesis, we show that using numerical simulations we can continue turbulent stripes in channel flow past the 'relaminarization barrier' all the way to their origin. Here, turbulent stripe dynamics simplifies and the fluctuations are no longer stochastic and the stripe settles down to a relative periodic orbit. This relative periodic orbit originates from the aforementioned traveling wave solutions. Starting from the relative periodic orbit, a small increase in speed i.e. Reynolds number gives rise to chaos and the attractor dimension sharply increases in contrast to the classical transition scenario where the instabilities affect the flow globally and give rise to much more gradual route to turbulence.},
author = {Paranjape, Chaitanya S},
issn = {2663-337X},
keywords = {Instabilities, Turbulence, Nonlinear dynamics},
pages = {138},
publisher = {IST Austria},
title = {{Onset of turbulence in plane Poiseuille flow}},
doi = {10.15479/AT:ISTA:6957},
year = {2019},
}
@unpublished{6965,
abstract = {The central object of investigation of this paper is the Hirzebruch class, a
deformation of the Todd class, given by Hirzebruch (for smooth varieties) in
his celebrated book "Topological Methods in Algebraic Geometry". The
generalization for singular varieties is due to Brasselet-Sch\"urmann-Yokura.
Following the work of Weber, we investigate its equivariant version for
(possibly singular) toric varieties. The local decomposition of the Hirzebruch
class to the fixed points of the torus action and a formula for the local class
in terms of the defining fan are mentioned. After this review part, we prove
the positivity of local Hirzebruch classes for all toric varieties, thus
proving false the alleged counterexample given by Weber.},
author = {Rychlewicz, Kamil P},
booktitle = {arXiv},
pages = {14},
publisher = {ArXiv},
title = {{The positivity of local equivariant Hirzebruch class for toric varieties}},
year = {2019},
}
@unpublished{6995,
abstract = {Human brain organoids represent a powerful tool for the study of human neurological diseases particularly those that impact brain growth and structure. However, many neurological diseases lack obvious anatomical abnormalities, yet significantly impact neural network functions, raising the question of whether organoids possess sufficient neural network architecture and complexity to model these conditions. Here, we explore the network level functions of brain organoids using calcium sensor imaging and extracellular recording approaches that together reveal the existence of complex oscillatory network behaviors reminiscent of intact brain preparations. We further demonstrate strikingly abnormal epileptiform network activity in organoids derived from a Rett Syndrome patient despite only modest anatomical differences from isogenically matched controls, and rescue with an unconventional neuromodulatory drug Pifithrin-α. Together, these findings provide an essential foundation for the utilization of human brain organoids to study intact and disordered human brain network formation and illustrate their utility in therapeutic discovery.},
author = {Samarasinghe, Ranmal A. and Miranda, Osvaldo and Mitchell, Simon and Ferando, Isabella and Watanabe, Momoko and Buth, Jessie E. and Kurdian, Arinnae and Golshani, Peyman and Plath, Kathrin and Lowry, William E. and Parent, Jack M. and Mody, Istvan and Novitch, Bennett G.},
booktitle = {bioRxiv},
pages = {34},
publisher = {Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory},
title = {{Identification of neural oscillations and epileptiform changes in human brain organoids}},
year = {2019},
}
@inproceedings{7035,
abstract = {The aim of this short note is to expound one particular issue that was discussed during the talk [10] given at the symposium ”Researches on isometries as preserver problems and related topics” at Kyoto RIMS. That is, the role of Dirac masses by describing the isometry group of various metric spaces of probability measures. This article is of survey character, and it does not contain any essentially new results.From an isometric point of view, in some cases, metric spaces of measures are similar to C(K)-type function spaces. Similarity means here that their isometries are driven by some nice transformations of the underlying space. Of course, it depends on the particular choice of the metric how nice these transformations should be. Sometimes, as we will see, being a homeomorphism is enough to generate an isometry. But sometimes we need more: the transformation must preserve the underlying distance as well. Statements claiming that isometries in questions are necessarily induced by homeomorphisms are called Banach-Stone-type results, while results asserting that the underlying transformation is necessarily an isometry are termed as isometric rigidity results.As Dirac masses can be considered as building bricks of the set of all Borel measures, a natural question arises:Is it enough to understand how an isometry acts on the set of Dirac masses? Does this action extend uniquely to all measures?In what follows, we will thoroughly investigate this question.},
author = {Geher, Gyorgy Pal and Titkos, Tamas and Virosztek, Daniel},
booktitle = {Kyoto RIMS Kôkyûroku},
location = {Kyoto, Japan},
pages = {34--41},
publisher = {Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Kyoto University},
title = {{Dirac masses and isometric rigidity}},
volume = {2125},
year = {2019},
}
@article{7055,
abstract = {A recent class of topological nodal-line semimetals with the general formula MSiX (M = Zr, Hf and X = S, Se, Te) has attracted much experimental and theoretical interest due to their properties, particularly their large magnetoresistances and high carrier mobilities. The plateletlike nature of the MSiX crystals and their extremely low residual resistivities make measurements of the resistivity along the [001] direction extremely challenging. To accomplish such measurements, microstructures of single crystals were prepared using focused ion beam techniques. Microstructures prepared in this manner have very well-defined geometries and maintain their high crystal quality, verified by the observations of quantum oscillations. We present magnetoresistance and quantum oscillation data for currents applied along both [001] and [100] in ZrSiS and ZrSiSe, which are consistent with the nontrivial topology of the Dirac line-node, as determined by a measured π Berry phase. Surprisingly, we find that, despite the three dimensional nature of both the Fermi surfaces of ZrSiS and ZrSiSe, both the resistivity anisotropy under applied magnetic fields and the in-plane angular dependent magnetoresistance differ considerably between the two compounds. Finally, we discuss the role microstructuring can play in the study of these materials and our ability to make these microstructures free-standing.},
author = {Shirer, Kent R. and Modic, Kimberly A and Zimmerling, Tino and Bachmann, Maja D. and König, Markus and Moll, Philip J. W. and Schoop, Leslie and Mackenzie, Andrew P.},
issn = {2166-532X},
journal = {APL Materials},
number = {10},
publisher = {AIP},
title = {{Out-of-plane transport in ZrSiS and ZrSiSe microstructures}},
doi = {10.1063/1.5124568},
volume = {7},
year = {2019},
}
@article{7056,
abstract = {In the Ca1−x La x FeAs2 (1 1 2) family of pnictide superconductors, we have investigated a highly overdoped composition (x = 0.56), prepared by a high-pressure, high-temperature synthesis. Magnetic measurements show an antiferromagnetic transition at T N = 120 K, well above the one at lower doping (0.15 < x < 0.27).
Below the onset of long-range magnetic order at T N, the electrical resistivity is strongly reduced and is dominated by electron–electron interactions, as evident from its temperature dependence. The Seebeck coefficient shows a clear metallic behavior as in narrow band conductors. The temperature dependence of the Hall coefficient and the violation of Kohler's rule agree with the multiband character of the material. No superconductivity was observed down to 1.8 K. The success of the high-pressure synthesis encourages further investigations of the so far only partially explored phase diagram in this family of Iron-based high temperature superconductors.
},
author = {Martino, Edoardo and Bachmann, Maja D and Rossi, Lidia and Modic, Kimberly A and Zivkovic, Ivica and Rønnow, Henrik M and Moll, Philip J W and Akrap, Ana and Forró, László and Katrych, Sergiy},
issn = {1361-648X},
journal = {Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter},
number = {48},
publisher = {IOP Publishing},
title = {{Persistent antiferromagnetic order in heavily overdoped Ca1−x La x FeAs2}},
doi = {10.1088/1361-648x/ab3b43},
volume = {31},
year = {2019},
}