TY - CONF
AB - The (decisional) learning with errors problem (LWE) asks to distinguish "noisy" inner products of a secret vector with random vectors from uniform. The learning parities with noise problem (LPN) is the special case where the elements of the vectors are bits. In recent years, the LWE and LPN problems have found many applications in cryptography. In this paper we introduce a (seemingly) much stronger adaptive assumption, called "subspace LWE" (SLWE), where the adversary can learn the inner product of the secret and random vectors after they were projected into an adaptively and adversarially chosen subspace. We prove that, surprisingly, the SLWE problem mapping into subspaces of dimension d is almost as hard as LWE using secrets of length d (the other direction is trivial.) This result immediately implies that several existing cryptosystems whose security is based on the hardness of the LWE/LPN problems are provably secure in a much stronger sense than anticipated. As an illustrative example we show that the standard way of using LPN for symmetric CPA secure encryption is even secure against a very powerful class of related key attacks.
AU - Pietrzak, Krzysztof Z
ID - 3280
TI - Subspace LWE
VL - 7194
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We consider the problem of amplifying the "lossiness" of functions. We say that an oracle circuit C*: {0,1} m → {0,1}* amplifies relative lossiness from ℓ/n to L/m if for every function f:{0,1} n → {0,1} n it holds that 1 If f is injective then so is C f. 2 If f has image size of at most 2 n-ℓ, then C f has image size at most 2 m-L. The question is whether such C* exists for L/m ≫ ℓ/n. This problem arises naturally in the context of cryptographic "lossy functions," where the relative lossiness is the key parameter. We show that for every circuit C* that makes at most t queries to f, the relative lossiness of C f is at most L/m ≤ ℓ/n + O(log t)/n. In particular, no black-box method making a polynomial t = poly(n) number of queries can amplify relative lossiness by more than an O(logn)/n additive term. We show that this is tight by giving a simple construction (cascading with some randomization) that achieves such amplification.
AU - Pietrzak, Krzysztof Z
AU - Rosen, Alon
AU - Segev, Gil
ID - 3281
TI - Lossy functions do not amplify well
VL - 7194
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Traditionally, symmetric-key message authentication codes (MACs) are easily built from pseudorandom functions (PRFs). In this work we propose a wide variety of other approaches to building efficient MACs, without going through a PRF first. In particular, unlike deterministic PRF-based MACs, where each message has a unique valid tag, we give a number of probabilistic MAC constructions from various other primitives/assumptions. Our main results are summarized as follows: We show several new probabilistic MAC constructions from a variety of general assumptions, including CCA-secure encryption, Hash Proof Systems and key-homomorphic weak PRFs. By instantiating these frameworks under concrete number theoretic assumptions, we get several schemes which are more efficient than just using a state-of-the-art PRF instantiation under the corresponding assumption. For probabilistic MACs, unlike deterministic ones, unforgeability against a chosen message attack (uf-cma ) alone does not imply security if the adversary can additionally make verification queries (uf-cmva ). We give an efficient generic transformation from any uf-cma secure MAC which is "message-hiding" into a uf-cmva secure MAC. This resolves the main open problem of Kiltz et al. from Eurocrypt'11; By using our transformation on their constructions, we get the first efficient MACs from the LPN assumption. While all our new MAC constructions immediately give efficient actively secure, two-round symmetric-key identification schemes, we also show a very simple, three-round actively secure identification protocol from any weak PRF. In particular, the resulting protocol is much more efficient than the trivial approach of building a regular PRF from a weak PRF. © 2012 International Association for Cryptologic Research.
AU - Dodis, Yevgeniy
AU - Pietrzak, Krzysztof Z
AU - Kiltz, Eike
AU - Wichs, Daniel
ID - 3282
TI - Message authentication, revisited
VL - 7237
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We study the complexity of valued constraint satisfaction problems (VCSP). A problem from VCSP is characterised by a constraint language, a fixed set of cost functions over a finite domain. An instance of the problem is specified by a sum of cost functions from the language and the goal is to minimise the sum. Under the unique games conjecture, the approximability of finite-valued VCSPs is well-understood, see Raghavendra [FOCS’08]. However, there is no characterisation of finite-valued VCSPs, let alone general-valued VCSPs, that can be solved exactly in polynomial time, thus giving insights from a combinatorial optimisation perspective.
We consider the case of languages containing all possible unary cost functions. In the case of languages consisting of only {0, ∞}-valued cost functions (i.e. relations), such languages have been called conservative and studied by Bulatov [LICS’03] and recently by Barto [LICS’11]. Since we study valued languages, we call a language conservative if it contains all finite-valued unary cost functions. The computational complexity of conservative valued languages has been studied by Cohen et al. [AIJ’06] for languages over Boolean domains, by Deineko et al. [JACM’08] for {0,1}-valued languages (a.k.a Max-CSP), and by Takhanov [STACS’10] for {0,∞}-valued languages containing all finite- valued unary cost functions (a.k.a. Min-Cost-Hom).
We prove a Schaefer-like dichotomy theorem for conservative valued languages: if all cost functions in the language satisfy a certain condition (specified by a complementary combination of STP and MJN multimorphisms), then any instance can be solved in polynomial time (via a new algorithm developed in this paper), otherwise the language is NP-hard. This is the first complete complexity classification of general-valued constraint languages over non-Boolean domains. It is a common phenomenon that complexity classifications of problems over non-Boolean domains is significantly harder than the Boolean case. The polynomial-time algorithm we present for the tractable cases is a generalisation of the submodular minimisation problem and a result of Cohen et al. [TCS’08].
Our results generalise previous results by Takhanov [STACS’10] and (a subset of results) by Cohen et al. [AIJ’06] and Deineko et al. [JACM’08]. Moreover, our results do not rely on any computer-assisted search as in Deineko et al. [JACM’08], and provide a powerful tool for proving hardness of finite-valued and general-valued languages.
AU - Vladimir Kolmogorov
AU - Živný, Stanislav
ID - 3284
TI - The complexity of conservative valued CSPs
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Viral manipulation of transduction pathways associated with key cellular functions such as survival, response to microbial infection, and cytoskeleton reorganization can provide the supportive milieu for a productive infection. Here, we demonstrate that vaccinia virus (VACV) infection leads to activation of the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 4/7 (MKK4/7)-c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) pathway; further, the stimulation of this pathway requires postpenetration, prereplicative events in the viral replication cycle. Although the formation of intracellular mature virus (IMV) was not affected in MKK4/7- or JNK1/2-knockout (KO) cells, we did note an accentuated deregulation of microtubule and actin network organization in infected JNK1/2-KO cells. This was followed by deregulated viral trafficking to the periphery and enhanced enveloped particle release. Furthermore, VACV infection induced alterations in the cell contractility and morphology, and cell migration was reduced in the JNK-KO cells. In addition, phosphorylation of proteins implicated with early cell contractility and cell migration, such as microtubule-associated protein 1B and paxillin, respectively, was not detected in the VACV-infected KO cells. In sum, our findings uncover a regulatory role played by the MKK4/7-JNK1/2 pathway in cytoskeleton reorganization during VACV infection.
AU - Pereira, Anna
AU - Leite, Flávia
AU - Brasil, Bruno
AU - Soares Martins, Jamaria
AU - Torres, Alice
AU - Pimenta, Paulo
AU - Souto Padrón, Thais
AU - Tranktman, Paula
AU - Ferreira, Paulo
AU - Kroon, Erna
AU - Bonjardim, Cláudio
ID - 3289
IS - 1
JF - Journal of Virology
TI - A vaccinia virus-driven interplay between the MKK4/7-JNK1/2 pathway and cytoskeleton reorganization
VL - 86
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - A procedure for the continuous production of Cu 2ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) nanoparticles with controlled composition is presented. CZTS nanoparticles were prepared through the reaction of the metals' amino complexes with elemental sulfur in a continuous-flow reactor at moderate temperatures (300-330 °C). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis showed the nanocrystals to have a crystallographic structure compatible with that of the kesterite. Chemical characterization of the materials showed the presence of the four elements in each individual nanocrystal. Composition control was achieved by adjusting the solution flow rate through the reactor and the proper choice of the nominal precursor concentration within the flowing solution. Single-particle analysis revealed a composition distribution within each sample, which was optimized at the highest synthesis temperatures used.
AU - Shavel, Alexey
AU - Cadavid, Doris
AU - Ibáñez, Maria
AU - Carrete, Alex
AU - Cabot, Andreu
ID - 330
IS - 3
JF - Journal of the American Chemical Society
TI - Continuous production of Cu inf 2 inf ZnSnS inf 4 inf nanocrystals in a flow reactor
VL - 134
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The theory of persistent homology opens up the possibility to reason about topological features of a space or a function quantitatively and in combinatorial terms. We refer to this new angle at a classical subject within algebraic topology as a point calculus, which we present for the family of interlevel sets of a real-valued function. Our account of the subject is expository, devoid of proofs, and written for non-experts in algebraic topology.
AU - Bendich, Paul
AU - Cabello, Sergio
AU - Edelsbrunner, Herbert
ID - 3310
IS - 11
JF - Pattern Recognition Letters
TI - A point calculus for interlevel set homology
VL - 33
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We introduce two-level discounted and mean-payoff games played by two players on a perfect-information stochastic game graph. The upper level game is a discounted or mean-payoff game and the lower level game is a (undiscounted) reachability game. Two-level games model hierarchical and sequential decision making under uncertainty across different time scales. For both discounted and mean-payoff two-level games, we show the existence of pure memoryless optimal strategies for both players and an ordered field property. We show that if there is only one player (Markov decision processes), then the values can be computed in polynomial time. It follows that whether the value of a player is equal to a given rational constant in two-level discounted or mean-payoff games can be decided in NP ∩ coNP. We also give an alternate strategy improvement algorithm to compute the value. © 2012 World Scientific Publishing Company.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Majumdar, Ritankar
ID - 3314
IS - 3
JF - International Journal of Foundations of Computer Science
TI - Discounting and averaging in games across time scales
VL - 23
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The physical distance between presynaptic Ca2+ channels and the Ca2+ sensors that trigger exocytosis of neurotransmitter-containing vesicles is a key determinant of the signalling properties of synapses in the nervous system. Recent functional analysis indicates that in some fast central synapses, transmitter release is triggered by a small number of Ca2+ channels that are coupled to Ca2+ sensors at the nanometre scale. Molecular analysis suggests that this tight coupling is generated by protein–protein interactions involving Ca2+ channels, Ca2+ sensors and various other synaptic proteins. Nanodomain coupling has several functional advantages, as it increases the efficacy, speed and energy efficiency of synaptic transmission.
AU - Eggermann, Emmanuel
AU - Bucurenciu, Iancu
AU - Goswami, Sarit
AU - Jonas, Peter M
ID - 3317
IS - 1
JF - Nature Reviews Neuroscience
TI - Nanodomain coupling between Ca(2+) channels and sensors of exocytosis at fast mammalian synapses
VL - 13
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Computing the topology of an algebraic plane curve C means computing a combinatorial graph that is isotopic to C and thus represents its topology in R2. We prove that, for a polynomial of degree n with integer coefficients bounded by 2ρ, the topology of the induced curve can be computed with bit operations ( indicates that we omit logarithmic factors). Our analysis improves the previous best known complexity bounds by a factor of n2. The improvement is based on new techniques to compute and refine isolating intervals for the real roots of polynomials, and on the consequent amortized analysis of the critical fibers of the algebraic curve.
AU - Kerber, Michael
AU - Sagraloff, Michael
ID - 3331
IS - 3
JF - Journal of Symbolic Computation
TI - A worst case bound for topology computation of algebraic curves
VL - 47
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We consider two-player stochastic games played on a finite state space for an infinite number of rounds. The games are concurrent: in each round, the two players (player 1 and player 2) choose their moves independently and simultaneously; the current state and the two moves determine a probability distribution over the successor states. We also consider the important special case of turn-based stochastic games where players make moves in turns, rather than concurrently. We study concurrent games with \omega-regular winning conditions specified as parity objectives. The value for player 1 for a parity objective is the maximal probability with which the player can guarantee the satisfaction of the objective against all strategies of the opponent. We study the problem of continuity and robustness of the value function in concurrent and turn-based stochastic parity gameswith respect to imprecision in the transition probabilities. We present quantitative bounds on the difference of the value function (in terms of the imprecision of the transition probabilities) and show the value continuity for structurally equivalent concurrent games (two games are structurally equivalent if the support of the transition function is same and the probabilities differ). We also show robustness of optimal strategies for structurally equivalent turn-based stochastic parity games. Finally we show that the value continuity property breaks without the structurally equivalent assumption (even for Markov chains) and show that our quantitative bound is asymptotically optimal. Hence our results are tight (the assumption is both necessary and sufficient) and optimal (our quantitative bound is asymptotically optimal).
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
ID - 3341
TI - Robustness of structurally equivalent concurrent parity games
VL - 7213
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The ample chemical and structural freedom of quaternary compounds permits engineering materials that fulfill the requirements of a wide variety of applications. In this work, the mechanisms to achieve unprecedented size, shape, and composition control in quaternary nanocrystals are detailed. The described procedure allows obtaining tetrahedral and penta-tetrahedral quaternary nanocrystals with tuned size distributions and controlled compositions from a plethora of I 2-II-IV-VI 4 semiconductors.
AU - Ibáñez, Maria
AU - Zamani, Reza
AU - Li, Wenhua
AU - Shavel, Alexey
AU - Arbiol, Jordi
AU - Morante, Joan
AU - Cabot, Andreu
ID - 338
IS - 3
JF - Crystal Growth and Design
TI - Extending the nanocrystal synthesis control to quaternary compositions
VL - 12
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - A high-yield and upscalable colloidal synthesis route for the production of quaternary I 2-II-IV-VI 4 nanocrystals, particularly stannite Cu 2+xCd 1-xSnSe 4, with narrow size distribution and precisely controlled composition is presented. It is also shown here how the diversity of valences in the constituent elements allows an effective control of their electrical conductivity through the adjustment of the cation ratios. At the same time, while the crystallographic complexity of quaternary chalcogenides is associated with intrinsically low thermal conductivities, the reduction of the lattice dimensions to the nanoscale further reduces the materials thermal conductivity. In the specific case of the stannite crystal structure, a convenient slab distribution of the valence band maximum states permits a partial decoupling of the p-type electrical conductivity from both the Seebeck coefficient and the thermal conductivity. Combining these features, we demonstrate how an initial optimization of the nanocrystals Cd/Cu ratio allowed us to obtain low-temperature solution-processed materials with ZT values up to 0.71 at 685 K.
AU - Ibáñez, Maria
AU - Cadavid, Doris
AU - Zamani, Reza
AU - García Castelló, Nuria
AU - Izquierdo Roca, Victora
AU - Li, Wenhua
AU - Fairbrother, Andrew
AU - Prades, Joan
AU - Shavel, Alexey
AU - Arbiol, Jordi
AU - Pérez Rodríguez, Alejandro
AU - Morante, Joan
AU - Cabot, Andreu
ID - 339
IS - 3
JF - Chemistry of Materials
TI - Composition control and thermoelectric properties of quaternary chalcogenide nanocrystals: The case of stannite Cu2CdSnSe4
VL - 24
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - A procedure for the continuous production of Cu 2ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) nanoparticles with controlled composition is presented. CZTS nanoparticles were prepared through the reaction of the metals' amino complexes with elemental sulfur in a continuous-flow reactor at moderate temperatures (300-330 °C). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis showed the nanocrystals to have a crystallographic structure compatible with that of the kesterite. Chemical characterization of the materials showed the presence of the four elements in each individual nanocrystal. Composition control was achieved by adjusting the solution flow rate through the reactor and the proper choice of the nominal precursor concentration within the flowing solution. Single-particle analysis revealed a composition distribution within each sample, which was optimized at the highest synthesis temperatures used.
AU - Shavel, Alexey
AU - Cadavid, Doris
AU - Ibáñez, Maria
AU - Carrete, Alex
AU - Cabot, Andreu
ID - 340
IS - 3
JF - Journal of the American Chemical Society
TI - Continuous production of Cu inf 2 inf ZnSnS inf 4 inf nanocrystals in a flow reactor
VL - 134
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Nanocomposites are highly promising materials to enhance the efficiency of current thermoelectric devices. A straightforward and at the same time highly versatile and controllable approach to produce nanocomposites is the assembly of solution-processed nanocrystal building blocks. The convenience of this bottom-up approach to produce nanocomposites with homogeneous phase distributions and adjustable composition is demonstrated here by blending Ag2Te and PbTe colloidal nanocrystals to form Ag2Te–PbTe bulk nanocomposites. The thermoelectric properties of these nanocomposites are analyzed in the temperature range from 300 to 700 K. The evolution of their electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient is discussed in terms of the blend composition and the characteristics of the constituent materials.
AU - Cadavid, Doris
AU - Ibáñez, Maria
AU - Gorsse, Stéphane
AU - López, Antonio
AU - Cirera, Albert
AU - Morante, Joan
AU - Cabot, Andreu
ID - 345
IS - 12
JF - Journal of Nanoparticle Research
TI - Bottom-up processing of thermoelectric nanocomposites from colloidal nanocrystal building blocks: The case of Ag2Te–PbTe
VL - 14
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Arrays of vertically aligned ZnO : Cl/TiO2 and ZnO : Cl/ZnxTiOy/TiO2 core–shell nanowires (NWs) were prepared by means of the combination of two solution-growth processes. First, single-crystal ZnO NWs with controlled n-type doping were grown on conducting substrates by a low-cost, high-yield and seed-free electrochemical route. These NWs were covered by a titanium oxide shell of tunable thickness mediating successive adsorption-hydrolysis-condensation steps. Using this atomic-layer growth procedure, titania shells with controlled thickness and the anatase TiO2 phase were obtained after sintering at 450 °C. Higher sintering temperatures resulted in the formation of ZnO : Cl/ZnxTiOy/TiO2 core–shell NWs by the interdiffusion of Zn and Ti ions at the ZnO–TiO2 interface. The performance of ZnO : Cl/TiO2 and ZnO : Cl/ZnxTiOy/TiO2 core–shell NWs towards photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting was investigated as a function of the titania shell thickness. Furthermore, the performance of such core–shell NWs as photoelectrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells was also characterized. The TiO2 presence at the ZnO : Cl surface promoted a two-fold increase on the produced photocurrent densities, probing their potential for PEC and optoelectronic applications. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to corroborate the lower resistance for charge transfer between the NWs and the electrolyte in the presence of the TiO2 shell.
AU - Fan, Jiandong
AU - Zamani, Reza
AU - Fábrega, Cristina
AU - Shavel, Alexey
AU - Flox, Cristina
AU - Ibáñez, Maria
AU - Andreu, Teresa
AU - López, Amtonio
AU - Arbiol, Jordi
AU - Morante, Joan
AU - Cabot, Andreu
ID - 346
IS - 41
JF - Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics
TI - Solution-growth and optoelectronic performance of ZnO : Cl/TiO2 and ZnO : Cl/ZnxTiOy/TiO2 core–shell nanowires with tunable shell thickness
VL - 45
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - A synthetic route for producing Cu 2ZnGeSe 4 nanocrystals with narrow size distributions and controlled composition is presented. These nanocrystals were used to produce densely packed nanomaterials by hot-pressing. From the characterization of the thermoelectric properties of these nanomaterials, Cu 2ZnGeSe 4 is demonstrated to show excellent thermoelectric properties. A very preliminary adjustment of the nanocrystal composition has already resulted in a figure of merit of up to 0.55 at 450°C.
AU - Ibáñez, Maria
AU - Zamani, Reza
AU - Lalonde, Aaron
AU - Cadavid, Doris
AU - Li, Wenhua
AU - Shavel, Alexey
AU - Arbiol, Jordi
AU - Morante, Joan
AU - Gorsse, Stéphane
AU - Snyder, G Jeffrey
AU - Cabot, Andreu
ID - 347
IS - 9
JF - Journal of the American Chemical Society
TI - Cu 2ZnGeSe 4 nanocrystals: Synthesis and thermoelectric properties
VL - 134
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Many infinite state systems can be seen as well-structured transition systems (WSTS), i.e., systems equipped with a well-quasi-ordering on states that is also a simulation relation. WSTS are an attractive target for formal analysis because there exist generic algorithms that decide interesting verification problems for this class. Among the most popular algorithms are acceleration-based forward analyses for computing the covering set. Termination of these algorithms can only be guaranteed for flattable WSTS. Yet, many WSTS of practical interest are not flattable and the question whether any given WSTS is flattable is itself undecidable. We therefore propose an analysis that computes the covering set and captures the essence of acceleration-based algorithms, but sacrifices precision for guaranteed termination. Our analysis is an abstract interpretation whose abstract domain builds on the ideal completion of the well-quasi-ordered state space, and a widening operator that mimics acceleration and controls the loss of precision of the analysis. We present instances of our framework for various classes of WSTS. Our experience with a prototype implementation indicates that, despite the inherent precision loss, our analysis often computes the precise covering set of the analyzed system.
AU - Zufferey, Damien
AU - Wies, Thomas
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
ID - 3251
TI - Ideal abstractions for well structured transition systems
VL - 7148
ER -