TY - CONF
AB - We consider the problem of amplifying the "lossiness" of functions. We say that an oracle circuit C*: {0,1} m → {0,1}* amplifies relative lossiness from ℓ/n to L/m if for every function f:{0,1} n → {0,1} n it holds that 1 If f is injective then so is C f. 2 If f has image size of at most 2 n-ℓ, then C f has image size at most 2 m-L. The question is whether such C* exists for L/m ≫ ℓ/n. This problem arises naturally in the context of cryptographic "lossy functions," where the relative lossiness is the key parameter. We show that for every circuit C* that makes at most t queries to f, the relative lossiness of C f is at most L/m ≤ ℓ/n + O(log t)/n. In particular, no black-box method making a polynomial t = poly(n) number of queries can amplify relative lossiness by more than an O(logn)/n additive term. We show that this is tight by giving a simple construction (cascading with some randomization) that achieves such amplification.
AU - Pietrzak, Krzysztof Z
AU - Rosen, Alon
AU - Segev, Gil
ID - 3281
TI - Lossy functions do not amplify well
VL - 7194
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Traditionally, symmetric-key message authentication codes (MACs) are easily built from pseudorandom functions (PRFs). In this work we propose a wide variety of other approaches to building efficient MACs, without going through a PRF first. In particular, unlike deterministic PRF-based MACs, where each message has a unique valid tag, we give a number of probabilistic MAC constructions from various other primitives/assumptions. Our main results are summarized as follows: We show several new probabilistic MAC constructions from a variety of general assumptions, including CCA-secure encryption, Hash Proof Systems and key-homomorphic weak PRFs. By instantiating these frameworks under concrete number theoretic assumptions, we get several schemes which are more efficient than just using a state-of-the-art PRF instantiation under the corresponding assumption. For probabilistic MACs, unlike deterministic ones, unforgeability against a chosen message attack (uf-cma ) alone does not imply security if the adversary can additionally make verification queries (uf-cmva ). We give an efficient generic transformation from any uf-cma secure MAC which is "message-hiding" into a uf-cmva secure MAC. This resolves the main open problem of Kiltz et al. from Eurocrypt'11; By using our transformation on their constructions, we get the first efficient MACs from the LPN assumption. While all our new MAC constructions immediately give efficient actively secure, two-round symmetric-key identification schemes, we also show a very simple, three-round actively secure identification protocol from any weak PRF. In particular, the resulting protocol is much more efficient than the trivial approach of building a regular PRF from a weak PRF. © 2012 International Association for Cryptologic Research.
AU - Dodis, Yevgeniy
AU - Pietrzak, Krzysztof Z
AU - Kiltz, Eike
AU - Wichs, Daniel
ID - 3282
TI - Message authentication, revisited
VL - 7237
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We study the complexity of valued constraint satisfaction problems (VCSP). A problem from VCSP is characterised by a constraint language, a fixed set of cost functions over a finite domain. An instance of the problem is specified by a sum of cost functions from the language and the goal is to minimise the sum. Under the unique games conjecture, the approximability of finite-valued VCSPs is well-understood, see Raghavendra [FOCS’08]. However, there is no characterisation of finite-valued VCSPs, let alone general-valued VCSPs, that can be solved exactly in polynomial time, thus giving insights from a combinatorial optimisation perspective.
We consider the case of languages containing all possible unary cost functions. In the case of languages consisting of only {0, ∞}-valued cost functions (i.e. relations), such languages have been called conservative and studied by Bulatov [LICS’03] and recently by Barto [LICS’11]. Since we study valued languages, we call a language conservative if it contains all finite-valued unary cost functions. The computational complexity of conservative valued languages has been studied by Cohen et al. [AIJ’06] for languages over Boolean domains, by Deineko et al. [JACM’08] for {0,1}-valued languages (a.k.a Max-CSP), and by Takhanov [STACS’10] for {0,∞}-valued languages containing all finite- valued unary cost functions (a.k.a. Min-Cost-Hom).
We prove a Schaefer-like dichotomy theorem for conservative valued languages: if all cost functions in the language satisfy a certain condition (specified by a complementary combination of STP and MJN multimorphisms), then any instance can be solved in polynomial time (via a new algorithm developed in this paper), otherwise the language is NP-hard. This is the first complete complexity classification of general-valued constraint languages over non-Boolean domains. It is a common phenomenon that complexity classifications of problems over non-Boolean domains is significantly harder than the Boolean case. The polynomial-time algorithm we present for the tractable cases is a generalisation of the submodular minimisation problem and a result of Cohen et al. [TCS’08].
Our results generalise previous results by Takhanov [STACS’10] and (a subset of results) by Cohen et al. [AIJ’06] and Deineko et al. [JACM’08]. Moreover, our results do not rely on any computer-assisted search as in Deineko et al. [JACM’08], and provide a powerful tool for proving hardness of finite-valued and general-valued languages.
AU - Vladimir Kolmogorov
AU - Živný, Stanislav
ID - 3284
TI - The complexity of conservative valued CSPs
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Viral manipulation of transduction pathways associated with key cellular functions such as survival, response to microbial infection, and cytoskeleton reorganization can provide the supportive milieu for a productive infection. Here, we demonstrate that vaccinia virus (VACV) infection leads to activation of the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 4/7 (MKK4/7)-c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) pathway; further, the stimulation of this pathway requires postpenetration, prereplicative events in the viral replication cycle. Although the formation of intracellular mature virus (IMV) was not affected in MKK4/7- or JNK1/2-knockout (KO) cells, we did note an accentuated deregulation of microtubule and actin network organization in infected JNK1/2-KO cells. This was followed by deregulated viral trafficking to the periphery and enhanced enveloped particle release. Furthermore, VACV infection induced alterations in the cell contractility and morphology, and cell migration was reduced in the JNK-KO cells. In addition, phosphorylation of proteins implicated with early cell contractility and cell migration, such as microtubule-associated protein 1B and paxillin, respectively, was not detected in the VACV-infected KO cells. In sum, our findings uncover a regulatory role played by the MKK4/7-JNK1/2 pathway in cytoskeleton reorganization during VACV infection.
AU - Pereira, Anna
AU - Leite, Flávia
AU - Brasil, Bruno
AU - Soares Martins, Jamaria
AU - Torres, Alice
AU - Pimenta, Paulo
AU - Souto Padrón, Thais
AU - Tranktman, Paula
AU - Ferreira, Paulo
AU - Kroon, Erna
AU - Bonjardim, Cláudio
ID - 3289
IS - 1
JF - Journal of Virology
TI - A vaccinia virus-driven interplay between the MKK4/7-JNK1/2 pathway and cytoskeleton reorganization
VL - 86
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - A procedure for the continuous production of Cu 2ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) nanoparticles with controlled composition is presented. CZTS nanoparticles were prepared through the reaction of the metals' amino complexes with elemental sulfur in a continuous-flow reactor at moderate temperatures (300-330 °C). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis showed the nanocrystals to have a crystallographic structure compatible with that of the kesterite. Chemical characterization of the materials showed the presence of the four elements in each individual nanocrystal. Composition control was achieved by adjusting the solution flow rate through the reactor and the proper choice of the nominal precursor concentration within the flowing solution. Single-particle analysis revealed a composition distribution within each sample, which was optimized at the highest synthesis temperatures used.
AU - Shavel, Alexey
AU - Cadavid, Doris
AU - Ibáñez, Maria
AU - Carrete, Alex
AU - Cabot, Andreu
ID - 330
IS - 3
JF - Journal of the American Chemical Society
TI - Continuous production of Cu inf 2 inf ZnSnS inf 4 inf nanocrystals in a flow reactor
VL - 134
ER -