TY - JOUR
AB - We find further implications of the BMV conjecture, which states that for hermitian matrices B≥0 and A, the function λ {mapping} Tr exp(A - λB) is the Laplace transform of a positive measure supported on [0,∞].
AU - Lieb, Élliott H
AU - Robert Seiringer
ID - 2401
IS - 1
JF - Journal of Statistical Physics
TI - Further implications of the Bessis-Moussa-Villani conjecture
VL - 149
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider a model of quantum-mechanical particles interacting via point interactions of infinite scattering length. In the case of fermions we prove a Lieb-Thirring inequality for the energy, i.e., we show that the energy is bounded from below by a constant times the integral of the particle density to the power.
AU - Frank, Rupert L
AU - Robert Seiringer
ID - 2402
IS - 9
JF - Journal of Mathematical Physics
TI - Lieb-Thirring inequality for a model of particles with point interactions
VL - 53
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We study the effects of random scatterers on the ground state of the one-dimensional Lieb-Liniger model of interacting bosons on the unit interval in the Gross-Pitaevskii regime. We prove that Bose-Einstein condensation survives even a strong random potential with a high density of scatterers. The character of the wavefunction of the condensate, however, depends in an essential way on the interplay between randomness and the strength of the two-body interaction. For low density of scatterers and strong interactions the wavefunction extends over the whole interval. A high density of scatterers and weak interactions, on the other hand, lead to localization of the wavefunction in a fragmented subset of the interval.
AU - Robert Seiringer
AU - Yngvason, Jakob
AU - Zagrebnov, Valentin A
ID - 2403
IS - 11
JF - Journal of Statistical Mechanics Theory and Experiment
TI - Disordered Bose-Einstein condensates with interaction in one dimension
VL - 2012
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The representation of integral binary forms as sums of two squares is discussed and applied to establish the Manin conjecture for certain Châtelet surfaces over ℚ.
AU - de la Bretèche, Régis
AU - Timothy Browning
ID - 241
IS - 2
JF - Israel Journal of Mathematics
TI - Binary forms as sums of two squares and Châtelet surfaces
VL - 191
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The kingdom of fungi provides model organisms for biotechnology, cell biology, genetics, and life sciences in general. Only when their phylogenetic relationships are stably resolved, can individual results from fungal research be integrated into a holistic picture of biology. However, and despite recent progress, many deep relationships within the fungi remain unclear. Here, we present the first phylogenomic study of an entire eukaryotic kingdom that uses a consistency criterion to strengthen phylogenetic conclusions. We reason that branches (splits) recovered with independent data and different tree reconstruction methods are likely to reflect true evolutionary relationships. Two complementary phylogenomic data sets based on 99 fungal genomes and 109 fungal expressed sequence tag (EST) sets analyzed with four different tree reconstruction methods shed light from different angles on the fungal tree of life. Eleven additional data sets address specifically the phylogenetic position of Blastocladiomycota, Ustilaginomycotina, and Dothideomycetes, respectively. The combined evidence from the resulting trees supports the deep-level stability of the fungal groups toward a comprehensive natural system of the fungi. In addition, our analysis reveals methodologically interesting aspects. Enrichment for EST encoded data-a common practice in phylogenomic analyses-introduces a strong bias toward slowly evolving and functionally correlated genes. Consequently, the generalization of phylogenomic data sets as collections of randomly selected genes cannot be taken for granted. A thorough characterization of the data to assess possible influences on the tree reconstruction should therefore become a standard in phylogenomic analyses.
AU - Ebersberger, Ingo
AU - De Matos Simoes, Ricardo
AU - Kupczok, Anne
AU - Gube, Matthias
AU - Kothe, Erika
AU - Voigt, Kerstin
AU - Von Haeseler, Arndt
ID - 2411
IS - 5
JF - Molecular Biology and Evolution
TI - A consistent phylogenetic backbone for the fungi
VL - 29
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We investigate the first and second moments of shifted convolutions of the generalized divisor function d 3(n).
AU - Baier, Stephan
AU - Timothy Browning
AU - Marasingha, Gihan
AU - Zhao, Liangyi
ID - 242
IS - 3
JF - Proceedings of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society
TI - Averages of shifted convolutions of d3 (n)
VL - 55
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Let P(t) ∈ ℚ[t] be an irreducible quadratic polynomial and suppose that K is a quartic extension of ℚ containing the roots of P(t). Let N K/ℚ(X) be a full norm form for the extension K/ℚ. We show that the variety P(t) =N K/ℚ(X)≠ 0 satisfies the Hasse principle and weak approximation. The proof uses analytic methods.
AU - Timothy Browning
AU - Heath-Brown, Roger
ID - 243
IS - 5
JF - Geometric and Functional Analysis
TI - Quadratic polynomials represented by norm forms
VL - 22
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The colored Tverberg theorem asserts that for eve;ry d and r there exists t=t(d,r) such that for every set C ⊂ ℝ d of cardinality (d + 1)t, partitioned into t-point subsets C 1, C 2,...,C d+1 (which we think of as color classes; e. g., the points of C 1 are red, the points of C 2 blue, etc.), there exist r disjoint sets R 1, R 2,...,R r⊆C that are rainbow, meaning that {pipe}R i∩C j{pipe}≤1 for every i,j, and whose convex hulls all have a common point. All known proofs of this theorem are topological. We present a geometric version of a recent beautiful proof by Blagojević, Matschke, and Ziegler, avoiding a direct use of topological methods. The purpose of this de-topologization is to make the proof more concrete and intuitive, and accessible to a wider audience.
AU - Matoušek, Jiří
AU - Martin Tancer
AU - Uli Wagner
ID - 2438
IS - 2
JF - Discrete & Computational Geometry
TI - A geometric proof of the colored Tverberg theorem
VL - 47
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - A Monte Carlo approximation algorithm for the Tukey depth problem in high dimensions is introduced. The algorithm is a generalization of an algorithm presented by Rousseeuw and Struyf (1998) . The performance of this algorithm is studied both analytically and experimentally.
AU - Chen, Dan
AU - Morin, Pat
AU - Uli Wagner
ID - 2439
IS - 5
JF - Computational Geometry: Theory and Applications
TI - Absolute approximation of Tukey depth: Theory and experiments
VL - 46
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We investigate the solubility of the congruence xy ≡ 1 (mod p), where p is a prime and x, y are restricted to lie in suitable short intervals. Our work relies on a mean value theorem for incomplete Kloosterman sums.
AU - Timothy Browning
AU - Haynes, Alan K
ID - 244
IS - 2
JF - International Journal of Number Theory
TI - Incomplete kloosterman sums and multiplicative inverses in short intervals
VL - 9
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We present an algorithm for computing [X, Y], i.e., all homotopy classes of continuous maps X → Y, where X, Y are topological spaces given as finite simplicial complexes, Y is (d - 1)-connected for some d ≥ 2 (for example, Y can be the d-dimensional sphere S d), and dim X ≤ 2d - 2. These conditions on X, Y guarantee that [X, Y] has a natural structure of a finitely generated Abelian group, and the algorithm finds generators and relations for it. We combine several tools and ideas from homotopy theory (such as Postnikov systems, simplicial sets, and obstruction theory) with algorithmic tools from effective algebraic topology (objects with effective homology). We hope that a further extension of the methods developed here will yield an algorithm for computing, in some cases of interest, the ℤ 2-index, which is a quantity playing a prominent role in Borsuk-Ulam style applications of topology in combinatorics and geometry, e.g., in topological lower bounds for the chromatic number of a graph. In a certain range of dimensions, deciding the embeddability of a simplicial complex into ℝ d also amounts to a ℤ 2-index computation. This is the main motivation of our work. We believe that investigating the computational complexity of questions in homotopy theory and similar areas presents a fascinating research area, and we hope that our work may help bridge the cultural gap between algebraic topology and theoretical computer science.
AU - Čadek, Martin
AU - Marek Krcál
AU - Matoušek, Jiří
AU - Sergeraert, Francis
AU - Vokřínek, Lukáš
AU - Uli Wagner
ID - 2440
TI - Computing all maps into a sphere
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Eigenvalues associated to graphs are a well-studied subject. In particular the spectra of the adjacency matrix and of the Laplacian of random graphs G(n, p) are known quite precisely. We consider generalizations of these matrices to simplicial complexes of higher dimensions and study their eigenvalues for the Linial-Meshulam model X k(n, p) of random k-dimensional simplicial complexes on n vertices. We show that for p = Ω(log n/n), the eigenvalues of both, the higher-dimensional adjacency matrix and the Laplacian, are a.a.s. sharply concentrated around two values. In a second part of the paper, we discuss a possible higherdimensional analogue of the Discrete Cheeger Inequality. This fundamental inequality expresses a close relationship between the eigenvalues of a graph and its combinatorial expansion properties; in particular, spectral expansion (a large eigenvalue gap) implies edge expansion. Recently, a higher-dimensional analogue of edge expansion for simplicial complexes was introduced by Gromov, and independently by Linial, Meshulam and Wallach and by Newman and Rabinovich. It is natural to ask whether there is a higher-dimensional version of Cheeger's inequality. We show that the most straightforward version of a higher-dimensional Cheeger inequality fails: for every k > 1, there is an infinite family of k-dimensional complexes that are spectrally expanding (there is a large eigenvalue gap for the Laplacian) but not combinatorially expanding.
AU - Gundert, Anna
AU - Uli Wagner
ID - 2441
TI - On Laplacians of random complexes
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Constitutive endocytic recycling is a crucial mechanism allowing regulation of the activity of proteins at the plasma membrane and for rapid changes in their localization, as demonstrated in plants for PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins, the auxin transporters. To identify novel molecular components of endocytic recycling, mainly exocytosis, we designed a PIN1-green fluorescent protein fluorescence imaging-based forward genetic screen for Arabidopsis thaliana mutants that showed increased intracellular accumulation of cargos in response to the trafficking inhibitor brefeldin A (BFA). We identified bex5 (for BFA-visualized exocytic trafficking defective), a novel dominant mutant carrying a missense mutation that disrupts a conserved sequence motif of the small GTPase, RAS GENES FROM RAT BRAINA1b. bex5 displays defects such as enhanced protein accumulation in abnormal BFA compartments, aberrant endosomes, and defective exocytosis and transcytosis. BEX5/RabA1b localizes to trans-Golgi network/early endosomes (TGN/EE) and acts on distinct trafficking processes like those regulated by GTP exchange factors on ADP-ribosylation factors GNOM-LIKE1 and HOPM INTERACTOR7/BFA-VISUALIZED ENDOCYTIC TRAFFICKING DEFECTIVE1, which regulate trafficking at the Golgi apparatus and TGN/EE, respectively. All together, this study identifies Arabidopsis BEX5/RabA1b as a novel regulator of protein trafficking from a TGN/EE compartment to the plasma membrane.
AU - Feraru, Elena
AU - Feraru, Mugurel Ioan
AU - Asaoka, Rin
AU - Paciorek, Tomasz
AU - De Rycke, Riet M
AU - Tanaka, Hirokazu
AU - Nakano, Akihiko
AU - Jirí Friml
ID - 2453
IS - 7
JF - Plant Cell
TI - BEX5/RabA1b regulates trans-Golgi network-to-plasma membrane protein trafficking in Arabidopsis
VL - 24
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The third EMBO Conference on Plant Molecular Biology, which focused on ‘Plant development and environmental interactions’,was held in May 2012 in Matera, Italy. Here, we review some of the topics and themes that emerged from the various contributions; namely, steering technologies, transcriptional networks and hormonal regulation, small RNAs, cell and tissue polarity, environmental control and natural variation. We intend to provide the reader who might have missed this remarkable event with a glimpse of the recent progress made in this blossoming research field.
AU - Beeckman, Tom
AU - Friml, Jirí
ID - 2456
IS - 20
JF - Development
TI - Plant developmental biologists meet on stairways in Matera
VL - 139
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Initiation and successive development of organs induce mechanical stresses at the cellular level. Using the tomato shoot apex, a new study now proposes that mechanical strain regulates the plasma membrane abundance of the PIN1 auxin transporter, thereby reinforcing a positive feed-back loop between growth and auxin accumulation.
AU - Li, Hongjiang
AU - Friml, Jirí
AU - Grunewald, Wim
ID - 2458
IS - 16
JF - Current Biology
TI - Cell polarity: Stretching prevents developmental cramps
VL - 22
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Coordinated, subcellular trafficking of proteins is one of the fundamental properties of the multicellular eukaryotic organisms. Trafficking involves a large diversity of compartments, pathways, cargo molecules, and vesicle-sorting events. It is also crucial in regulating the localization and, thus, the activity of various proteins, but the process is still poorly genetically defined in plants. In the past, forward genetics screens had been used to determine the function of genes by searching for a specific morphological phenotype in the organism population in which mutations had been induced chemically or by irradiation. Unfortunately, these straightforward genetic screens turned out to be limited in identifying new regulators of intracellular protein transport, because mutations affecting essential trafficking pathways often lead to lethality. In addition, the use of these approaches has been restricted by functional redundancy among trafficking regulators. Screens for mutants that rely on the observation of changes in the cellular localization or dynamics of fluorescent subcellular markers enable, at least partially, to circumvent these issues. Hence, such image-based screens provide the possibility to identify either alleles with weak effects or components of the subcellular trafficking machinery that have no strong impact on the plant growth.
AU - Zwiewka, Marta
AU - Friml, Jirí
ID - 2459
IS - May
JF - Frontiers in Plant Science
TI - Fluorescence imaging-based forward genetic screens to identify trafficking regulators in plants
VL - 3
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Interneurons are critical for neuronal circuit function, but how their dendritic morphologies and membrane properties influence information flow within neuronal circuits is largely unknown. We studied the spatiotemporal profile of synaptic integration and short-term plasticity in dendrites of mature cerebellar stellate cells by combining two-photon guided electrical stimulation, glutamate uncaging, electron microscopy, and modeling. Synaptic activation within thin (0.4 μm) dendrites produced somatic responses that became smaller and slower with increasing distance from the soma, sublinear subthreshold input-output relationships, and a somatodendritic gradient of short-term plasticity. Unlike most studies showing that neurons employ active dendritic mechanisms, we found that passive cable properties of thin dendrites determine the sublinear integration and plasticity gradient, which both result from large dendritic depolarizations that reduce synaptic driving force. These integrative properties allow stellate cells to act as spatiotemporal filters of synaptic input patterns, thereby biasing their output in favor of sparse presynaptic activity. Stellate cells are critical sources of inhibition in the cerebellum, but how their dendrites integrate excitatory synaptic inputs is unknown. Abrahamsson et al. show that thin dendrites and passive membrane properties of SCs promote sublinear synaptic summation and distance-dependent short-term plasticity.
AU - Abrahamsson, Therese
AU - Cathala, Laurence
AU - Matsui, Ko
AU - Ryuichi Shigemoto
AU - DiGregorio, David A
ID - 2474
IS - 6
JF - Neuron
TI - Thin dendrites of cerebellar interneurons confer sublinear synaptic integration and a gradient of short-term plasticity
VL - 73
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Background: One of the best-characterized causative factors of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the generation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). AD subjects are at high risk of epileptic seizures accompanied by aberrant neuronal excitability, which in itself enhances Aβ generation. However, the molecular linkage between epileptic seizures and Aβ generation in AD remains unclear. Results: X11 and X11-like (X11L) gene knockout mice suffered from epileptic seizures, along with a malfunction of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide gated (HCN) channels. Genetic ablation of HCN1 in mice and HCN1 channel blockage in cultured Neuro2a (N2a) cells enhanced Aβ generation. Interestingly, HCN1 levels dramatically decreased in the temporal lobe of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) during aging and were significantly diminished in the temporal lobe of sporadic AD patients. Conclusion: Because HCN1 associates with amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) and X11/X11L in the brain, genetic deficiency of X11/X11L may induce aberrant HCN1 distribution along with epilepsy. Moreover, the reduction in HCN1 levels in aged primates may contribute to augmented Aβ generation. Taken together, HCN1 is proposed to play an important role in the molecular linkage between epileptic seizures and Aβ generation, and in the aggravation of sporadic AD.
AU - Saito, Yuhki
AU - Inoue, Tsuyoshi
AU - Zhu, Gang
AU - Kimura, Naoki
AU - Okada, Motohiro
AU - Nishimura, Masaki
AU - Murayama, Shigeo
AU - Kaneko, Sunao
AU - Ryuichi Shigemoto
AU - Imoto, Keiji
AU - Suzuki, Toshiharu
ID - 2475
IS - 1
JF - Molecular Neurodegeneration
TI - Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide gated channels: A potential molecular link between epileptic seizures and Aβ generation in Alzheimer's disease
VL - 7
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Recently developed pharmacogenetic and optogenetic approaches, with their own advantages and disadvantages, have become indispensable tools in modern neuroscience. Here, we employed a previously described knock-in mouse line (GABA ARγ2 77Ilox) in which the γ2 subunit of the GABA A receptor (GABA AR) was mutated to become zolpidem insensitive (γ2 77I) and used viral vectors to swap γ2 77I with wild-type, zolpidem-sensitive γ2 subunits (γ2 77F). The verification of unaltered density and subcellular distribution of the virally introduced γ2 subunits requires their selective labelling. For this we generated six N- and six C-terminal-tagged γ2 subunits, with which cortical cultures of GABA ARγ2 -/- mice were transduced using lentiviruses. We found that the N-terminal AU1 tag resulted in excellent immunodetection and unimpaired synaptic localization. Unaltered kinetic properties of the AU1-tagged γ2 ( AU1γ2 77F) channels were demonstrated with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of spontaneous IPSCs from cultured cells. Next, we carried out stereotaxic injections of lenti- and adeno-associated viruses containing Cre-recombinase and the AU1γ2 77F subunit (Cre-2A- AU1γ2 77F) into the neocortex of GABA ARγ2 77Ilox mice. Light microscopic immunofluorescence and electron microscopic freeze-fracture replica immunogold labelling demonstrated the efficient immunodetection of the AU1 tag and the normal enrichment of the AU1γ2 77F subunits in perisomatic GABAergic synapses. In line with this, miniature and action potential-evoked IPSCs whole-cell recorded from transduced cells had unaltered amplitudes, kinetics and restored zolpidem sensitivity. Our results obtained with a wide range of structural and functional verification methods reveal unaltered subcellular distributions and functional properties of γ2 77I and AU1γ2 77F GABA ARs in cortical pyramidal cells. This transgenic-viral pharmacogenetic approach has the advantage that it does not require any extrinsic protein that might endow some unforeseen alterations of the genetically modified cells. In addition, this virus-based approach opens up the possibility of modifying multiple cell types in distinct brain regions and performing alternative recombination-based intersectional genetic manipulations.
AU - Sümegi, Máté
AU - Fukazawa, Yugo
AU - Matsui, Ko
AU - Lörincz, Andrea
AU - Eyre, Mark D
AU - Nusser, Zoltán
AU - Ryuichi Shigemoto
ID - 2476
IS - 7
JF - Journal of Physiology
TI - Virus-mediated swapping of zolpidem-insensitive with zolpidem-sensitive GABA A receptors in cortical pyramidal cells
VL - 590
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Dynamic activity of glia has repeatedly been demonstrated, but if such activity is independent from neuronal activity, glia would not have any role in the information processing in the brain or in the generation of animal behavior. Evidence for neurons communicating with glia is solid, but the signaling pathway leading back from glial-to-neuronal activity was often difficult to study. Here, we introduced a transgenic mouse line in which channelrhodopsin-2, a light-gated cation channel, was expressed in astrocytes. Selective photostimulation of these astrocytes in vivo triggered neuronal activation. Using slice preparations, we show that glial photostimulation leads to release of glutamate, which was sufficient to activate AMPA receptors on Purkinje cells and to induce long-term depression of parallel fiber-to-Purkinje cell synapses through activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors. In contrast to neuronal synaptic vesicular release, glial activation likely causes preferential activation of extrasynaptic receptors that appose glial membrane. Finally, we show that neuronal activation by glial stimulation can lead to perturbation of cerebellar modulated motor behavior. These findings demonstrate that glia can modulate the tone of neuronal activity and behavior. This animal model is expected to be a potentially powerful approach to study the role of glia in brain function.
AU - Sasaki, Takuya
AU - Beppu, Kaoru
AU - Tanaka, Kenji F
AU - Fukazawa, Yugo
AU - Ryuichi Shigemoto
AU - Matsui, Ko
ID - 2477
IS - 50
JF - PNAS
TI - Application of an optogenetic byway for perturbing neuronal activity via glial photostimulation
VL - 109
ER -