TY - JOUR
AB - The pink dolphin (Inia geoffrensis) is widely distributed along the Amazon and Orinoco basins, covering an area of approximately 7 million km2. Previous morphological and genetic studies have proposed the existence of at least two evolutionary significant units: one distributed across the Orinoco and Amazon basins and another confined to the Bolivian Amazon. The presence of barriers in the riverine environment has been suggested to play a significant role in shaping present-day patterns of ecological and genetic structure for this species. In the present study, we examined the phylogeographic structure, lineage divergence time and historical demography using mitochondrial (mt)DNA sequences in different pink dolphin populations distributed in large and small spatial scales, including two neighbouring Brazilian Amazon populations. mtDNA control region (CR) analysis revealed that the Brazilian haplotypes occupy an intermediate position compared to three previously studied geographic locations: the Colombian Amazon, the Colombian Orinoco, and the Bolivian Amazon. On a local scale, we have identified a pattern of maternal isolation between two neighbouring populations from Brazil. Six mtDNA CR haplotypes were identified in Brazil with no sharing between the two populations, as well as specific cytochrome b (cyt b) haplotypes identified in each locality. In addition, we analyzed autosomal microsatellites to investigate male-mediated gene flow and demographic changes within the study area in Brazil. Data analysis of 14 microsatellite loci failed to detect significant population subdivision, suggesting that male-mediated gene flow may maintain homogeneity between these two locations. Moreover, both mtDNA and microsatellite data indicate a major demographic collapse within Brazil in the late Pleistocene. Bayesian skyline plots (BSP) of mtDNA data revealed a stable population for Colombian and Brazilian Amazon lineages through time, whereas a population decline was demonstrated in the Colombian Orinoco lineage. Moreover, BSP and Tajima's D and Fu's Fs tests revealed a recent population expansion exclusively in the Bolivian sample. Finally, we estimated that the diversification of the Inia sp. lineage began in the Late Pliocene (approximately 3.1 Mya) and continued throughout the Pleistocene.
AU - Hollatz, Claudia
AU - Vilaça, Sibelle
AU - Fernandes Redondo, Rodrigo A
AU - Marmontel, Míriam
AU - Baker, Cyndi
AU - Santos, Fabrício
ID - 3770
IS - 4
JF - Biological Journal of the Linnean Society
TI - The Amazon River system as an ecological barrier driving genetic differentiation of the pink dolphin (Inia geoffrensis)
VL - 102
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The small-sized frugivorous bat Carollia perspicillata is an understory specialist and occurs in a wide range of lowland habitats, tending to be more common in tropical dry or moist forests of South and Central America. Its sister species, Carollia brevicauda, occurs almost exclusively in the Amazon rainforest. A recent phylogeographic study proposed a hypothesis of origin and subsequent diversification for C. perspicillata along the Atlantic coastal forest of Brazil. Additionally, it also found two allopatric clades for C. brevicauda separated by the Amazon Basin. We used cytochrome b gene sequences and a more extensive sampling to test hypotheses related to the origin and diversification of C. perspicillata plus C. brevicauda clade in South America. The results obtained indicate that there are two sympatric evolutionary lineages within each species. In C. perspicillata, one lineage is limited to the Southern Atlantic Forest, whereas the other is widely distributed. Coalescent analysis points to a simultaneous origin for C. perspicillata and C. brevicauda, although no place for the diversification of each species can be firmly suggested. The phylogeographic pattern shown by C. perspicillata is also congruent with the Pleistocene refugia hypothesis as a likely vicariant phenomenon shaping the present distribution of its intraspecific lineages.
AU - Pavan, Ana
AU - Martins, Felipe
AU - Santos, Fabrício
AU - Ditchfield, Albert
AU - Fernandes Redondo, Rodrigo A
ID - 3771
IS - 3
JF - Biological Journal of the Linnean Society
TI - Patterns of diversification in two species of short-tailed bats (Carollia Gray, 1838): the effects of historical fragmentation of Brazilian rainforests.
VL - 102
ER -
TY - JOUR
AU - Barton, Nicholas H
ID - 3778
IS - 2
JF - Heredity
TI - Estimating linkage disequilibria
VL - 106
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We bound the difference in length of two curves in terms of their total curvatures and the Fréchet distance. The bound is independent of the dimension of the ambient Euclidean space, it improves upon a bound by Cohen-Steiner and Edelsbrunner, and it generalizes a result by Fáry and Chakerian.
AU - Fasy, Brittany Terese
ID - 3781
IS - 1-2
JF - Acta Sci. Math. (Szeged)
TI - The difference in length of curves in R^n
VL - 77
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Advanced stages of Scyllarus phyllosoma larvae were collected by demersal trawling during fishery research surveys in the western Mediterranean Sea in 2003–2005. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene allowed the final-stage phyllosoma of Scyllarus arctus to be identified among these larvae. Its morphology is described and illustrated. This constitutes the second complete description of a Scyllaridae phyllosoma with its specific identity being validated by molecular techniques (the first was S. pygmaeus). These results also solved a long lasting taxonomic anomaly of several species assigned to the ancient genus Phyllosoma Leach, 1814. Detailed examination indicated that the final-stage phyllosoma of S. arctus shows closer affinities with the American scyllarid Scyllarus depressus or with the Australian Scyllarus sp. b (sensu Phillips et al., 1981) than to its sympatric species S. pygmaeus.
AU - Palero, Ferran
AU - Guerao, Guillermo
AU - Clark, Paul
AU - Abello, Pere
ID - 3784
IS - 2
JF - Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom
TI - Scyllarus arctus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Scyllaridae) final stage phyllosoma identified by DNA analysis, with morphological description
VL - 91
ER -
TY - CHAP
AB - During the development of multicellular organisms, cell fate specification is followed by the sorting of different cell types into distinct domains from where the different tissues and organs are formed. Cell sorting involves both the segregation of a mixed population of cells with different fates and properties into distinct domains, and the active maintenance of their segregated state. Because of its biological importance and apparent resemblance to fluid segregation in physics, cell sorting was extensively studied by both biologists and physicists over the last decades. Different theories were developed that try to explain cell sorting on the basis of the physical properties of the constituent cells. However, only recently the molecular and cellular mechanisms that control the physical properties driving cell sorting, have begun to be unraveled. In this review, we will provide an overview of different cell-sorting processes in development and discuss how these processes can be explained by the different sorting theories, and how these theories in turn can be connected to the molecular and cellular mechanisms driving these processes.
AU - Krens, Gabriel
AU - Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp J
ED - Labouesse, Michel
ID - 3791
T2 - Forces and Tension in Development
TI - Cell sorting in development
VL - 95
ER -
TY - CHAP
AB - We address the problem of covering ℝ n with congruent balls, while minimizing the number of balls that contain an average point. Considering the 1-parameter family of lattices defined by stretching or compressing the integer grid in diagonal direction, we give a closed formula for the covering density that depends on the distortion parameter. We observe that our family contains the thinnest lattice coverings in dimensions 2 to 5. We also consider the problem of packing congruent balls in ℝ n , for which we give a closed formula for the packing density as well. Again we observe that our family contains optimal configurations, this time densest packings in dimensions 2 and 3.
AU - Edelsbrunner, Herbert
AU - Kerber, Michael
ED - Calude, Cristian
ED - Rozenberg, Grzegorz
ED - Salomaa, Arto
ID - 3796
T2 - Rainbow of Computer Science
TI - Covering and packing with spheres by diagonal distortion in R^n
VL - 6570
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We present a detailed study of the local density of states (LDOS) associated with the surface-state band near a step edge of the strong topological insulator Bi2Te3 and reveal a one-dimensional bound state that runs parallel to the step edge and is bound to it at some characteristic distance. This bound state is clearly observed in the bulk gap region, while it becomes entangled with the oscillations of the warped surface band at high energy, and with the valence-band states near the Dirac point. We obtain excellent fits to theoretical predictions [Alpichshev, 2011] that properly incorporate the three-dimensional nature of the problem to the surface state. Fitting the data at different energies, we can recalculate the LDOS originating from the Dirac band without the contribution of the bulk bands or incoherent tunneling effects.
AU - Alpichshev, Zhanybek
AU - Analytis, J G
AU - Chu, J H
AU - Fisher, I R
AU - Kapitulnik, A
ID - 386
IS - 4
JF - Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics
TI - STM imaging of a bound state along a step on the surface of the topological insulator Bi2Te3
VL - 84
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The elevation function on a smoothly embedded 2-manifold in R-3 reflects the multiscale topography of cavities and protrusions as local maxima. The function has been useful in identifying coarse docking configurations for protein pairs. Transporting the concept from the smooth to the piecewise linear category, this paper describes an algorithm for finding all local maxima. While its worst-case running time is the same as of the algorithm used in prior work, its performance in practice is orders of magnitudes superior. We cast light on this improvement by relating the running time to the total absolute Gaussian curvature of the 2-manifold.
AU - Wang, Bei
AU - Edelsbrunner, Herbert
AU - Morozov, Dmitriy
ID - 3965
IS - 2.2
JF - Journal of Experimental Algorithmics
TI - Computing elevation maxima by searching the Gauss sphere
VL - 16
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We address the problem of localizing homology classes, namely, finding the cycle representing a given class with the most concise geometric measure. We study the problem with different measures: volume, diameter and radius. For volume, that is, the 1-norm of a cycle, two main results are presented. First, we prove that the problem is NP-hard to approximate within any constant factor. Second, we prove that for homology of dimension two or higher, the problem is NP-hard to approximate even when the Betti number is O(1). The latter result leads to the inapproximability of the problem of computing the nonbounding cycle with the smallest volume and computing cycles representing a homology basis with the minimal total volume. As for the other two measures defined by pairwise geodesic distance, diameter and radius, we show that the localization problem is NP-hard for diameter but is polynomial for radius. Our work is restricted to homology over the ℤ2 field.
AU - Chen, Chao
AU - Freedman, Daniel
ID - 3267
IS - 3
JF - Discrete & Computational Geometry
TI - Hardness results for homology localization
VL - 45
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - We introduce TopoCut: a new way to integrate knowledge about topological properties (TPs) into random field image segmentation model. Instead of including TPs as additional constraints during minimization of the energy function, we devise an efficient algorithm for modifying the unary potentials such that the resulting segmentation is guaranteed with the desired properties. Our method is more flexible in the sense that it handles more topology constraints than previous methods, which were only able to enforce pairwise or global connectivity. In particular, our method is very fast, making it for the first time possible to enforce global topological properties in practical image segmentation tasks.
AU - Chen, Chao
AU - Freedman, Daniel
AU - Lampert, Christoph
ID - 5386
SN - 2664-1690
TI - Enforcing topological constraints in random field image segmentation
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We introduce TopoCut: a new way to integrate knowledge about topological properties (TPs) into random field image segmentation model. Instead of including TPs as additional constraints during minimization of the energy function, we devise an efficient algorithm for modifying the unary potentials such that the resulting segmentation is guaranteed with the desired properties. Our method is more flexible in the sense that it handles more topology constraints than previous methods, which were only able to enforce pairwise or global connectivity. In particular, our method is very fast, making it for the first time possible to enforce global topological properties in practical image segmentation tasks.
AU - Chen, Chao
AU - Freedman, Daniel
AU - Lampert, Christoph
ID - 3336
SN - 978-1-4577-0394-2
T2 - CVPR: Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
TI - Enforcing topological constraints in random field image segmentation
ER -
TY - CHAP
AB - Alpha shapes have been conceived in 1981 as an attempt to define the shape of a finite set of point in the plane. Since then, connections to diverse areas in the sciences and engineering have developed, including to pattern recognition, digital shape sampling and processing, and structural molecular biology. This survey begins with a historical account and discusses geometric, algorithmic, topological, and combinatorial aspects of alpha shapes in this sequence.
AU - Edelsbrunner, Herbert
ED - van de Weygaert, R
ED - Vegter, G
ED - Ritzerveld, J
ED - Icke, V
ID - 3311
T2 - Tessellations in the Sciences: Virtues, Techniques and Applications of Geometric Tilings
TI - Alpha shapes - a survey
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - This paper presents a method to create a model of an articulated object using the planar motion in an initialization video. The model consists of rigid parts connected by points of articulation. The rigid parts are described by the positions of salient feature-points tracked throughout the video. Following a filtering step that identifies points that belong to different objects, rigid parts are found by a grouping process in a graph pyramid. Valid articulation points are selected by verifying multiple hypotheses for each pair of parts.
AU - Artner, Nicole M.
AU - Ion, Adrian
AU - Kropatsch, Walter G.
ED - Jiang, Xiaoyi
ED - Ferrer, Miquel
ED - Torsello, Andrea
ID - 10907
SN - 0302-9743
T2 - Graph-Based Representations in Pattern Recognition
TI - Spatio-temporal extraction of articulated models in a graph pyramid
VL - 6658
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We present faster and dynamic algorithms for the following problems arising in probabilistic verification: Computation of the maximal end-component (mec) decomposition of Markov decision processes (MDPs), and of the almost sure winning set for reachability and parity objectives in MDPs. We achieve the following running time for static algorithms in MDPs with graphs of n vertices and m edges: (1) O(m · min{ √m, n2/3 }) for the mec decomposition, improving the longstanding O(m·n) bound; (2) O(m·n2/3) for reachability objectives, improving the previous O(m · √m) bound for m > n4/3; and (3) O(m · min{ √m, n2/3 } · log(d)) for parity objectives with d priorities, improving the previous O(m · √m · d) bound. We also give incremental and decremental algorithms in linear time for mec decomposition and reachability objectives and O(m · log d) time for parity ob jectives.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Henzinger, Monika
ID - 3343
TI - Faster and dynamic algorithms for maximal end-component decomposition and related graph problems in probabilistic verification
ER -
TY - JOUR
AU - HETZER, Martin W
AU - Cavalli, Giacomo
ID - 11095
IS - 3
JF - Current Opinion in Cell Biology
KW - Cell Biology
SN - 0955-0674
TI - Editorial overview
VL - 23
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) assemble at the end of mitosis during nuclear envelope (NE) reformation and into an intact NE as cells progress through interphase. Although recent studies have shown that NPC formation occurs by two different molecular mechanisms at two distinct cell cycle stages, little is known about the molecular players that mediate the fusion of the outer and inner nuclear membranes to form pores. In this paper, we provide evidence that the transmembrane nucleoporin (Nup), POM121, but not the Nup107–160 complex, is present at new pore assembly sites at a time that coincides with inner nuclear membrane (INM) and outer nuclear membrane (ONM) fusion. Overexpression of POM121 resulted in juxtaposition of the INM and ONM. Additionally, Sun1, an INM protein that is known to interact with the cytoskeleton, was specifically required for interphase assembly and localized with POM121 at forming pores. We propose a model in which POM121 and Sun1 interact transiently to promote early steps of interphase NPC assembly.
AU - Talamas, Jessica A.
AU - HETZER, Martin W
ID - 11094
IS - 1
JF - Journal of Cell Biology
KW - Cell Biology
SN - 0021-9525
TI - POM121 and Sun1 play a role in early steps of interphase NPC assembly
VL - 194
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Eukaryotic cell function depends on the physical separation of nucleoplasmic and cytoplasmic components by the nuclear envelope (NE). Molecular communication between the two compartments involves active, signal-mediated trafficking, a function that is exclusively performed by nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). The individual NPC components and the mechanisms that are involved in nuclear trafficking are well documented and have become textbook knowledge. However, in addition to their roles as nuclear gatekeepers, NPC components-nucleoporins-have been shown to have critical roles in chromatin organization and gene regulation. These findings have sparked new enthusiasm to study the roles of this multiprotein complex in nuclear organization and explore novel functions that in some cases appear to go beyond a role in transport. Here, we discuss our present view of NPC biogenesis, which is tightly linked to proper cell cycle progression and cell differentiation. In addition, we summarize new data suggesting that NPCs represent dynamic hubs for the integration of gene regulation and nuclear transport processes.
AU - Capelson, M.
AU - Doucet, C.
AU - HETZER, Martin W
ID - 11100
JF - Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
KW - Genetics
KW - Molecular Biology
KW - Biochemistry
SN - 0091-7451
TI - Nuclear pore complexes: Guardians of the nuclear genome
VL - 75
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - As the gatekeepers of the eukaryotic cell nucleus, nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) mediate all molecular trafficking between the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm. In recent years, transport-independent functions of NPC components, nucleoporins, have been identified including roles in chromatin organization and gene regulation. Here, we summarize our current view of the NPC as a dynamic hub for the integration of chromatin regulation and nuclear trafficking and discuss the functional interplay between nucleoporins and the nuclear genome.
AU - Liang, Yun
AU - HETZER, Martin W
ID - 11096
IS - 1
JF - Current Opinion in Cell Biology
KW - Cell Biology
SN - 0955-0674
TI - Functional interactions between nucleoporins and chromatin
VL - 23
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We consider Markov decision processes (MDPs) with ω-regular specifications given as parity objectives. We consider the problem of computing the set of almost-sure winning states from where the objective can be ensured with probability 1. The algorithms for the computation of the almost-sure winning set for parity objectives iteratively use the solutions for the almost-sure winning set for Büchi objectives (a special case of parity objectives). Our contributions are as follows: First, we present the first subquadratic symbolic algorithm to compute the almost-sure winning set for MDPs with Büchi objectives; our algorithm takes O(nm) symbolic steps as compared to the previous known algorithm that takes O(n 2) symbolic steps, where n is the number of states and m is the number of edges of the MDP. In practice MDPs often have constant out-degree, and then our symbolic algorithm takes O(nn) symbolic steps, as compared to the previous known O(n 2) symbolic steps algorithm. Second, we present a new algorithm, namely win-lose algorithm, with the following two properties: (a) the algorithm iteratively computes subsets of the almost-sure winning set and its complement, as compared to all previous algorithms that discover the almost-sure winning set upon termination; and (b) requires O(nK) symbolic steps, where K is the maximal number of edges of strongly connected components (scc’s) of the MDP. The win-lose algorithm requires symbolic computation of scc’s. Third, we improve the algorithm for symbolic scc computation; the previous known algorithm takes linear symbolic steps, and our new algorithm improves the constants associated with the linear number of steps. In the worst case the previous known algorithm takes 5·n symbolic steps, whereas our new algorithm takes 4 ·n symbolic steps.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Henzinger, Monika H
AU - Joglekar, Manas
AU - Nisarg, Shah
ED - Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh
ED - Qadeer, Shaz
ID - 3342
TI - Symbolic algorithms for qualitative analysis of Markov decision processes with Büchi objectives
VL - 6806
ER -