TY - JOUR
AB - Rigorous analysis of synaptic transmission in the central nervous system requires access to presynaptic terminals. However, cortical terminals have been largely inaccessible to presynaptic patch-clamp recording, due to their small size. Using improved patch-clamp techniques in brain slices, we recorded from mossy fiber terminals in the CA3 region of the hippocampus, which have a diameter of 2-5 microm. The major steps of improvement were the enhanced visibility provided by high-numerical aperture objectives and infrared illumination, the development of vibratomes with minimal vertical blade vibrations and the use of sucrose-based solutions for storage and cutting. Based on these improvements, we describe a protocol that allows us to routinely record from hippocampal mossy fiber boutons. Presynaptic recordings can be obtained in slices from both rats and mice. Presynaptic recordings can be also obtained in slices from transgenic mice in which terminals are labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein.
AU - Bischofberger, Josef
AU - Engel, Dominique
AU - Li, Liyi
AU - Geiger, Jörg R
AU - Peter Jonas
ID - 3818
IS - 4
JF - Nature Protocols
TI - Patch-clamp recording from mossy fiber terminals in hippocampal slices
VL - 1
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - A stochastic graph game is played by two players on a game graph with probabilistic transitions. We consider stochastic graph games with omega-regular winning conditions specified as Rabin or Streett objectives. These games are NP-complete and coNP-complete, respectively. The value of the game for a player at a state s given an objective Phi is the maximal probability with which the player can guarantee the satisfaction of Phi from s. We present a strategy-improvement algorithm to compute values in stochastic Rabin games, where an improvement step involves solving Markov decision processes (MDPs) and nonstochastic Rabin games. The algorithm also computes values for stochastic Streett games but does not directly yield an optimal strategy for Streett objectives. We then show how to obtain an optimal strategy for Streett objectives by solving certain nonstochastic Streett games.
AU - Krishnendu Chatterjee
AU - Thomas Henzinger
ID - 3888
TI - Strategy improvement for stochastic Rabin and Streett games
VL - 4137
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We study observation-based strategies for two-player turn-based games on graphs with omega-regular objectives. An observation-based strategy relies on imperfect information about the history of a play, namely, on the past sequence of observations. Such games occur in the synthesis of a controller that does not see the private state of the plant. Our main results are twofold. First, we give a fixed-point algorithm for computing the set of states from which a player can win with a deterministic observation-based strategy for any omega-regular objective. The fixed point is computed in the lattice of antichains of state sets. This algorithm has the advantages of being directed by the objective and of avoiding an explicit subset construction on the game graph. Second, we give an algorithm for computing the set of states from which a player can win with probability 1 with a randomized observation-based strategy for a Buchi objective. This set is of interest because in the absence of perfect information, randomized strategies are more powerful than deterministic ones. We show that our algorithms are optimal by proving matching lower bounds.
AU - Krishnendu Chatterjee
AU - Doyen, Laurent
AU - Thomas Henzinger
AU - Raskin, Jean-François
ID - 3889
TI - Algorithms for omega-regular games with imperfect information
VL - 4207
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We consider two-player infinite games played on graphs. The games are concurrent, in that at each state the players choose their moves simultaneously and independently, and stochastic, in that the moves determine a probability distribution for the successor state. The value of a game is the maximal probability with which a player can guarantee the satisfaction of her objective. We show that the values of concurrent games with w-regular objectives expressed as parity conditions can be decided in NP boolean AND coNP. This result substantially improves the best known previous bound of 3EXPTIME. It also shows that the full class of concurrent parity games is no harder than the special case of turn-based stochastic reachability games, for which NP boolean AND coNP is the best known bound. While the previous, more restricted NP boolean AND coNP results for graph games relied on the existence of particularly simple (pure memoryless) optimal strategies, in concurrent games with parity objectives optimal strategies may not exist, and epsilon-optimal strategies (which achieve the value of the game within a parameter epsilon > 0) require in general both randomization and infinite memory. Hence our proof must rely on a more detailed analysis of strategies and, in addition to the main result, yields two results that are interesting on their own. First, we show that there exist epsilon-optimal strategies that in the limit coincide with memoryless strategies; this parallels the celebrated result of Mertens-Neyman for concurrent games with limit-average objectives. Second, we complete the characterization of the memory requirements for epsilon-optimal strategies for concurrent games with parity conditions, by showing that memoryless strategies suffice for epsilon-optimality for coBachi conditions.
AU - Krishnendu Chatterjee
AU - de Alfaro, Luca
AU - Thomas Henzinger
ID - 3890
TI - The complexity of quantitative concurrent parity games
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We study infinite stochastic games played by two-players over a finite state space, with objectives specified by sets of infinite traces. The games are concurrent (players make moves simultaneously and independently), stochastic (the next state is determined by a probability distribution that depends on the current state and chosen moves of the players) and infinite (proceeds for infinite number of rounds). The analysis of concurrent stochastic games can be classified into: quantitative analysis, analyzing the optimum value of the game; and qualitative analysis, analyzing the set of states with optimum value 1. We consider concurrent games with tail objectives, i.e., objectives that are independent of the finite-prefix of traces, and show that the class of tail objectives are strictly richer than the omega-regular objectives. We develop new proof techniques to extend several properties of concurrent games with omega-regular objectives to concurrent games with tail objectives. We prove the positive limit-one property for tail objectives, that states for all concurrent games if the optimum value for a player is positive for a tail objective Phi at some state, then there is a state where the optimum value is 1 for Phi, for the player. We also show that the optimum values of zero-sum (strictly conflicting objectives) games with tail objectives can be related to equilibrium values of nonzero-sum (not strictly conflicting objectives) games with simpler reachability objectives. A consequence of our analysis presents a polynomial time reduction of the quantitative analysis of tail objectives to the qualitative analysis for the sub-class of one-player stochastic games (Markov decision processes).
AU - Krishnendu Chatterjee
ID - 3891
TI - Concurrent games with tail objectives
VL - 4207
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Wnt11 is a key signal, determining cell polarization and migration during vertebrate gastrulation. It is known that Wnt11 functionally interacts with several signaling components, the homologues of which control planar cell polarity in Drosophila melanogaster. Although in D. melanogaster these components are thought to polarize cells by asymmetrically localizing at the plasma membrane, it is not yet clear whether their subcellular localization plays a similarly important role in vertebrates. We show that in zebrafish embryonic cells, Wnt11 locally functions at the plasma membrane by accumulating its receptor, Frizzled 7, on adjacent sites of cell contacts. Wnt11-induced Frizzled 7 accumulations recruit the intracellular Wnt signaling mediator Dishevelled, as well as Wnt11 itself, and locally increase cell contact persistence. This increase in cell contact persistence is mediated by the local interaction of Wnt11, Frizzled 7, and the atypical cadherin Flamingo at the plasma membrane, and it does not require the activity of further downstream effectors of Wnt11 signaling, such as RhoA and Rok2. We propose that Wnt11, by interacting with Frizzled 7 and Flamingo, modulates local cell contact persistence to coordinate cell movements during gastrulation.
AU - Witzel, Sabine
AU - Zimyanin, Vitaly
AU - Carreira Barbosa, Filipa
AU - Tada, Masazumi
AU - Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp J
ID - 4140
IS - 5
JF - Journal of Cell Biology
TI - Wnt11 controls cell contact persistence by local accumulation of Frizzled 7 at the plasma membrane
VL - 175
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Systems of three interacting particles are notorious for their complex physical behaviour. A landmark theoretical result in few-body quantum physics is Efimov\'s prediction1,2 of a universal set of bound trimer states appearing for three identical bosons with a resonant two-body interaction. Counterintuitively, these states even exist in the absence of a corresponding two-body bound state. Since the formulation of Efimov\'s problem in the context of nuclear physics 35 years ago, it has attracted great interest in many areas of physics3-8. However, the observation of Efimov quantum states has remained an elusive goal3,5. Here we report the observation of an Efimov resonance in an ultracold gas of caesium atoms. The resonance occurs in the range of large negative two-body scattering lengths, arising from the coupling of three free atoms to an Efimov trimer. Experimentally, we observe its signature as a giant three-body recombination loss9,10 when the strength of the two-body interaction is varied. We also detect a minimum 9,11,12 in the recombination loss for positive scattering lengths, indicating destructive interference of decay pathways. Our results confirm central theoretical predictions of Efimov physics and represent a starting point with which to explore the universal properties of resonantly interacting few-body systems7. While Feshbach resonances13,14 have provided the key to control quantum-mechanical interactions on the two-body level, Efimov resonances connect ultracold matter15 to the world of few-body quantum phenomena.
AU - Kraemer, Tobias
AU - Mark, Michael
AU - Waldburger, Philipp
AU - Danzl, Johann G
AU - Chin, Cheng
AU - Engeser, Bastian
AU - Lange, Adam
AU - Pilch, Karl
AU - Jaakkola, Antti
AU - Nägerl, Hanns
AU - Grimm, Rudolf
ID - 1033
IS - 7082
JF - Nature
TI - Evidence for Efimov quantum states in an ultracold gas of caesium atoms
VL - 440
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Three interacting particles form a system which is well known for its complex physical behavior. A landmark theoretical result in few-body quantum physics is Efimov\'s prediction of a universal set of weakly bound trimer states appearing for three identical bosons with a resonant two-body interaction [1, 2]. Surprisingly, these states even exist in the absence of a corresponding two-body bound state and their precise nature is largely independent of the particular type of the two-body interaction potential. Efimov\'s scenario has attracted great interest in many areas of physics; an experimental test however has not been achieved. We report the observation of an Efimov resonance in an ultracold thermal gas of cesium atoms [3]. The resonance occurs in the range of large negative two-body scattering lengths and arises from the coupling of three free atoms to an Efimov trimer. We observe its signature as a giant three-body recombination loss when the strength of the two-body interaction is varied near a Feshbach resonance. This resonance develops into a continuum resonance at non-zero collision energies, and we observe a shift of the resonance position as a function of temperature. We also report on a minimum in the recombination loss for positive scattering lengths, indicating destructive interference of decay pathways. Our results confirm central theoretical predictions of Efimov physics and represent a starting point from which to explore the universal properties of resonantly interacting few-body systems.
AU - Nägerl, Hanns
AU - Kraemer, Tobias
AU - Mark, Michael
AU - Waldburger, Philipp
AU - Danzl, Johann G
AU - Engeser, Bastian
AU - Lange, Adam
AU - Pilch, Karl
AU - Jaakkola, Antti
AU - Chin, Cheng
AU - Grimm, Rudolf
ID - 1034
TI - Experimental evidence for Efimov quantum states
VL - 869
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Control of physical simulation has become a popular topic in the field of computer graphics. Keyframe control has been applied to simulations of rigid bodies, smoke, liquid, flocks, and finite element-based elastic bodies. In this paper, we create a framework for controlling systems of interacting particles -- paying special attention to simulations of cloth and flocking behavior. We introduce a novel integrator-swapping approximation in order to apply the adjoint method to linearized implicit schemes appropriate for cloth simulation. This allows the control of cloth while avoiding computationally infeasible derivative calculations. Meanwhile, flocking control using the adjoint method is significantly more efficient than currently-used methods for constraining group behaviors, allowing the controlled simulation of greater numbers of agents in fewer optimization iterations.
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
AU - Mucha, Peter
AU - Turk, Greg
ID - 3758
TI - Keyframe control of complex particle systems using the adjoint method
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The detection of microRNAs (miRNAs) at single-cell resolution is important for studying the role of these posttranscriptional regulators. Here, we use a dual-fluorescent green fluorescent protein (GFP)-reporter/monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP)-sensor (DFRS) plasmid, injected into zebrafish blastomeres or electroporated into defined tissues of mouse embryos in utero or ex utero, to monitor the dynamics of specific miRNAs in individual live cells. This approach reveals, for example, that in the developing mouse central nervous system,, miR-124a is expressed not only in postmitotic neurons but also in neuronal progenitor cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate that acute administration of DFRS plasmids.offers an alternative to previous in situ hybridization and transgenic approaches and allows the monitoring of miRNA appearance and disappearance in defined cell lineages during vertebrate development.
AU - Tonelli, Davide
AU - Calegari, Frederico
AU - Fei, Ji
AU - Nomura, Tadashi
AU - Osumi, Noriko
AU - Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp J
AU - Huttner, Wieland
ID - 4145
IS - 6
JF - Biotechniques
TI - Single-cell detection of microRNAs in developing vertebrate embryos after acute administration of a dual-fluorescence reporter/sensor plasmid
VL - 41
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - During vertebrate gastrulation, a well-orchestrated series of morphogenetic changes leads to the formation of the three germ layers: the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. The analysis of gene expression patterns during gastrulation has been central to the identification of genes involved in germ layer formation. However, many proteins are regulated on a translational or post-translational level and are thus undetectable by gene expression analysis. Therefore, we developed a 2D-gel-based comparative proteomic approach to target proteins involved in germ layer morphogenesis during zebrafish gastrulation. Proteomes of ectodermal and mesendodermal progenitor cells were compared and 35 significantly regulated proteins were identified by mass spectrometry, including several proteins with predicted functions in cytoskeletal organization. A comparison of our proteomic results with data obtained in an accompanying microarray-based gene expression analysis revealed no significant overlap, confirming the complementary nature of proteomics and transcriptomics. The regulation of ezrin2, which was identified based on a reduction in spot intensity in mesendodermal cells, was independently validated. Furthermore, we show that ezrin2 is activated by phosphorylation in mesendodermal cells and is required for proper germ layer morphogenesis. We demonstrate the feasibility of proteomics in zebrafish, concluding that proteomics is a valuable tool for analysis of early development.
AU - Link, Vinzenz
AU - Carvalho, Lara
AU - Castanon, Irinka
AU - Stockinger, Petra
AU - Shevchenko, Andrej
AU - Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp J
ID - 4176
IS - 10
JF - Journal of Cell Science
TI - Identification of regulators of germ layer morphogenesis using proteomics in zebrafish
VL - 119
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Background: Zebrafish (D. rerio) has become a powerful and widely used model system for the analysis of vertebrate embryogenesis and organ development. While genetic methods are readily available in zebrafish, protocols for two dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and proteomics have yet to be developed. Results: As a prerequisite to carry out proteomic experiments with early zebrafish embryos, we developed a method to efficiently remove the yolk from large batches of embryos. This method enabled high resolution 2D gel electrophoresis and improved Western blotting considerably. Here, we provide detailed protocols for proteomics in zebrafish from sample preparation to mass spectrometry (MS), including a comparison of databases for MS identification of zebrafish proteins. Conclusion: The provided protocols for proteomic analysis of early embryos enable research to be taken in novel directions in embryogenesis.
AU - Link, Vinzenz
AU - Shevchenko, Andrej
AU - Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp J
ID - 4173
JF - BMC Developmental Biology
TI - Proteomics of early zebrafish embryos
VL - 6
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Detailed reconstruction of the spatiotemporal history of embryonic cells is key to understanding tissue formation processes but is often complicated by the large number of cells involved, particularly so in vertebrates. Through a combination of high-resolution time-lapse lineage tracing and antibody staining, we have analyzed the movement of mesencephalic and metencephalic cell populations in the early zebrafish embryo. To facilitate the analysis of our cell tracking data, we have created TracePilot, a software tool that allows interactive manipulation and visualization of tracking data. We demonstrate its utility by showing novel visualizations of cell movement in the developing zebrafish brain. TracePilot (http://www.mpi-cbg.de/tracepilot) is Java-based, available free of charge, and has a program structure that allows the incorporation of additional analysis tools.
AU - Langenberg, Tobias
AU - Dracz, Tadeusz
AU - Oates, Andrew
AU - Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp J
AU - Brand, Michael
ID - 4178
IS - 4
JF - Developmental Dynamics
TI - Analysis and visualization of cell movement in the developing zebrafish brain
VL - 235
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Epithelial morphogenesis depends on coordinated changes in cell shape, a process that is still poorly understood. During zebrafish epiboly and Drosophila dorsal closure, cell-shape changes at the epithelial margin are of critical importance. Here evidence is provided for a conserved mechanism of local actin and myosin 2 recruitment during theses events. It was found that during epiboly of the zebrafish embryo, the movement of the outer epithelium (enveloping layer) over the yolk cell surface involves the constriction of marginal cells. This process depends on the recruitment of actin and myosin 2 within the yolk cytoplasm along the margin of the enveloping layer. Actin and myosin 2 recruitment within the yolk cytoplasm requires the Ste20-like kinase Msn1, an orthologue of Drosophila Misshapen. Similarly, in Drosophila, actin and myosin 2 localization and cell constriction at the margin of the epidermis mediate dorsal closure and are controlled by Misshapen. Thus, this study has characterized a conserved mechanism underlying coordinated cell-shape changes during epithelial morphogenesis.
AU - Köppen, Mathias
AU - Fernández, Beatriz
AU - Carvalho, Lara
AU - Jacinto, António
AU - Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp J
ID - 4184
IS - 14
JF - Development
TI - Coordinated cell-shape changes control epithelial movement in zebrafish and Drosophila
VL - 133
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The molecular and cellular mechanisms governing cell motility and directed migration in response to the chemokine SDF-1 are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that zebrafish primordial germ cells whose migration is guided by SDF-1 generate bleb-like protrusions that are powered by cytoplasmic flow. Protrusions are formed at sites of higher levels of free calcium where activation of myosin contraction occurs. Separation of the acto-myosin cortex from the plasma membrane at these sites is followed by a flow of cytoplasm into the forming bleb. We propose that polarized activation of the receptor CXCR4 leads to a rise in free calcium that in turn activates myosin contraction in the part of the cell responding to higher levels of the ligand SDF-1. The biased formation of new protrusions in a particular region of the cell in response to SDF-1 defines the leading edge and the direction of cell migration.
AU - Blaser, Heiko
AU - Reichman Fried, Michal
AU - Castanon, Irinka
AU - Dumstrei, Karin
AU - Marlow, Florence
AU - Kawakami, Koichi
AU - Solnica Krezel, Lilianna
AU - Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp J
AU - Raz, Erez
ID - 4218
IS - 5
JF - Developmental Cell
TI - Migration of zebrafish primordial germ cells: A role for myosin contraction and cytoplasmic flow
VL - 11
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The growth function of populations is central in biomathematics. The main dogma is the existence of density-dependence mechanisms, which can be modelled with distinct functional forms that depend on the size of the Population. One important class of regulatory functions is the theta-logistic, which generalizes the logistic equation. Using this model as a motivation, this paper introduces a simple dynamical reformulation that generalizes many growth functions. The reformulation consists of two equations, one for population size, and one for the growth rate. Furthermore, the model shows that although population is density-dependent, the dynamics of the growth rate does not depend either on population size, nor on the carrying capacity. Actually, the growth equation is uncoupled from the population size equation, and the model has only two parameters, a Malthusian parameter rho and a competition coefficient theta. Distinct sign combinations of these parameters reproduce not only the family of theta-logistics, but also the van Bertalanffy, Gompertz and Potential Growth equations, among other possibilities. It is also shown that, except for two critical points, there is a general size-scaling relation that includes those appearing in the most important allometric theories, including the recently proposed Metabolic Theory of Ecology. With this model, several issues of general interest are discussed such as the growth of animal population, extinctions, cell growth and allometry, and the effect of environment over a population. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
AU - de Vladar, Harold
ID - 4237
IS - 2
JF - Journal of Theoretical Biology
TI - Density-dependence as a size-independent regulatory mechanism
VL - 238
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We study the extent to which the Hausdorff dimension of a compact subset of an infinite-dimensional Banach space is affected by a typical mapping into a finite-dimensional space. It is possible that the dimension drops under all such mappings, but the amount by which it typically drops is controlled by the ‘thickness exponent’ of the set, which was defined by Hunt and Kaloshin (Nonlinearity12 (1999), 1263–1275). More precisely, let $X$ be a compact subset of a Banach space $B$ with thickness exponent $\tau$ and Hausdorff dimension $d$. Let $M$ be any subspace of the (locally) Lipschitz functions from $B$ to $\mathbb{R}^{m}$ that contains the space of bounded linear functions. We prove that for almost every (in the sense of prevalence) function $f \in M$, the Hausdorff dimension of $f(X)$ is at least $\min\{ m, d / (1 + \tau) \}$. We also prove an analogous result for a certain part of the dimension spectra of Borel probability measures supported on $X$. The factor $1 / (1 + \tau)$ can be improved to $1 / (1 + \tau / 2)$ if $B$ is a Hilbert space. Since dimension cannot increase under a (locally) Lipschitz function, these theorems become dimension preservation results when $\tau = 0$. We conjecture that many of the attractors associated with the evolution equations of mathematical physics have thickness exponent zero. We also discuss the sharpness of our results in the case $\tau > 0$.
AU - OTT, WILLIAM
AU - HUNT, BRIAN
AU - Kaloshin, Vadim
ID - 8514
IS - 3
JF - Ergodic Theory and Dynamical Systems
SN - 0143-3857
TI - The effect of projections on fractal sets and measures in Banach spaces
VL - 26
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We consider the evolution of a set carried by a space periodic incompressible stochastic flow in a Euclidean space. We
report on three main results obtained in [8, 9, 10] concerning long time behaviour for a typical realization of the stochastic flow. First, at time t most of the particles are at a distance of order √t away from the origin. Moreover, we prove a Central Limit Theorem for the evolution of a measure carried by the flow, which holds for almost every realization of the flow. Second, we show the existence of a zero measure full Hausdorff dimension set of points, which
escape to infinity at a linear rate. Third, in the 2-dimensional case, we study the set of points visited by the original set by time t. Such a set, when scaled down by the factor of t, has a limiting non random shape.
AU - Kaloshin, Vadim
AU - DOLGOPYAT, D.
AU - KORALOV, L.
ID - 8515
SN - 9789812562012
T2 - XIVth International Congress on Mathematical Physics
TI - Long time behaviour of periodic stochastic flows
ER -
TY - JOUR
AU - Kaloshin, Vadim
AU - Saprykina, Maria
ID - 8513
IS - 2
JF - Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - A
SN - 1553-5231
TI - Generic 3-dimensional volume-preserving diffeomorphisms with superexponential growth of number of periodic orbits
VL - 15
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We demonstrate the feasibility of recording 1H–15N correlation spectra of proteins in only one second of acquisition time. The experiment combines recently proposed SOFAST-HMQC with Hadamard-type 15N frequency encoding. This allows site-resolved real-time NMR studies of kinetic processes in proteins with an increased time resolution. The sensitivity of the experiment is sufficient to be applicable to a wide range of molecular systems available at millimolar concentration on a high magnetic field spectrometer.
AU - Schanda, Paul
AU - Brutscher, Bernhard
ID - 8490
IS - 2
JF - Journal of Magnetic Resonance
KW - Nuclear and High Energy Physics
KW - Biophysics
KW - Biochemistry
KW - Condensed Matter Physics
SN - 1090-7807
TI - Hadamard frequency-encoded SOFAST-HMQC for ultrafast two-dimensional protein NMR
VL - 178
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Structure elucidation of proteins by either NMR or X‐ray crystallography often requires the screening of a large number of samples for promising protein constructs and optimum solution conditions. For large‐scale screening of protein samples in solution, robust methods are needed that allow a rapid assessment of the folding of a polypeptide under diverse sample conditions. Here we present HET‐SOFAST NMR, a highly sensitive new method for semi‐quantitative characterization of the structural compactness and heterogeneity of polypeptide chains in solution. On the basis of one‐dimensional 1H HET‐SOFAST NMR data, obtained on well‐folded, molten globular, partially‐ and completely unfolded proteins, we define empirical thresholds that can be used as quantitative benchmarks for protein compactness. For 15N‐enriched protein samples, two‐dimensional 1H‐15N HET‐SOFAST correlation spectra provide site‐specific information about the structural heterogeneity along the polypeptide chain.
AU - Schanda, Paul
AU - Forge, Vincent
AU - Brutscher, Bernhard
ID - 8489
IS - S1
JF - Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry
SN - 0749-1581
TI - HET-SOFAST NMR for fast detection of structural compactness and heterogeneity along polypeptide chains
VL - 44
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We demonstrate for different protein samples that three-dimensional HNCO and HNCA correlation spectra may be recorded in a few minutes acquisition time using the band-selective excitation short-transient sequences presented here. This opens new perspectives for the NMR structural investigation of unstable protein samples and real-time site-resolved studies of protein kinetics.
AU - Schanda, Paul
AU - Van Melckebeke, Hélène
AU - Brutscher, Bernhard
ID - 8488
IS - 28
JF - Journal of the American Chemical Society
KW - Colloid and Surface Chemistry
KW - Biochemistry
KW - General Chemistry
KW - Catalysis
SN - 0002-7863
TI - Speeding up three-dimensional protein NMR experiments to a few minutes
VL - 128
ER -