TY - CONF
AB - We introduce the term cosegmentation which denotes the task of segmenting simultaneously the common parts of an image pair. A generative model for cosegmentation is presented. Inference in the model leads to minimizing an energy with an MRF term encoding spatial coherency and a global constraint which attempts to match the appearance histograms of the common parts. This energy has not been proposed previously and its optimization is challenging and NP-hard. For this problem a novel optimization scheme which we call trust region graph cuts is presented. We demonstrate that this framework has the potential to improve a wide range of research: Object driven image retrieval, video tracking and segmentation, and interactive image editing. The power of the framework lies in its generality, the common part can be a rigid/non-rigid object (or scene), observed from different viewpoints or even similar objects of the same class.
AU - Rother, Carsten
AU - Vladimir Kolmogorov
AU - Minka, Thomas P
AU - Blake, Andrew
ID - 3188
TI - Cosegmentation of image pairs by histogram matching - Incorporating a global constraint into MRFs
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - This paper presents an algorithm capable of real-time separation of foreground from background in monocular video sequences. Automatic segmentation of layers from colour/contrast or from motion alone is known to be error-prone. Here motion, colour and contrast cues are probabilistically fused together with spatial and temporal priors to infer layers accurately and efficiently. Central to our algorithm is the fact that pixel velocities are not needed, thus removing the need for optical flow estimation, with its tendency to error and computational expense. Instead, an efficient motion vs non-motion classifier is trained to operate directly and jointly on intensity-change and contrast. Its output is then fused with colour information. The prior on segmentation is represented by a second order, temporal, Hidden Markov Model, together with a spatial MRF favouring coherence except where contrast is high. Finally, accurate layer segmentation and explicit occlusion detection are efficiently achieved by binary graph cut. The segmentation accuracy of the proposed algorithm is quantitatively evaluated with respect to existing ground-truth data and found to be comparable to the accuracy of a state of the art stereo segmentation algorithm. Fore-ground/background segmentation is demonstrated in the application of live background substitution and shown to generate convincingly good quality composite video.
AU - Criminisi, Antonio
AU - Cross, Geoffrey
AU - Blake, Andrew
AU - Vladimir Kolmogorov
ID - 3189
TI - Bilayer segmentation of live video
VL - 1
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Algorithms for discrete energy minimization are of fundamental importance in computer vision. In this paper, we focus on the recent technique proposed by Wainwright et al. (Nov. 2005)- tree-reweighted max-product message passing (TRW). It was inspired by the problem of maximizing a lower bound on the energy. However, the algorithm is not guaranteed to increase this bound - it may actually go down. In addition, TRW does not always converge. We develop a modification of this algorithm which we call sequential tree-reweighted message passing. Its main property is that the bound is guaranteed not to decrease. We also give a weak tree agreement condition which characterizes local maxima of the bound with respect to TRW algorithms. We prove that our algorithm has a limit point that achieves weak tree agreement. Finally, we show that, our algorithm requires half as much memory as traditional message passing approaches. Experimental results demonstrate that on certain synthetic and real problems, our algorithm outperforms both the ordinary belief propagation and tree-reweighted algorithm in (M. J. Wainwright, et al., Nov. 2005). In addition, on stereo problems with Potts interactions, we obtain a lower energy than graph cuts.
AU - Vladimir Kolmogorov
ID - 3190
IS - 10
JF - IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
TI - Convergent tree reweighted message passing for energy minimization
VL - 28
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - The Feistel-network is a popular structure underlying many block-ciphers where the cipher is constructed from many simpler rounds, each defined by some function which is derived from the secret key.
Luby and Rackoff showed that the three-round Feistel-network – each round instantiated with a pseudorandom function secure against adaptive chosen plaintext attacks (CPA) – is a CPA secure pseudorandom permutation, thus giving some confidence in the soundness of using a Feistel-network to design block-ciphers.
But the round functions used in actual block-ciphers are – for efficiency reasons – far from being pseudorandom. We investigate the security of the Feistel-network against CPA distinguishers when the only security guarantee we have for the round functions is that they are secure against non-adaptive chosen plaintext attacks (nCPA). We show that in the information-theoretic setting, four rounds with nCPA secure round functions are sufficient (and necessary) to get a CPA secure permutation. Unfortunately, this result does not translate into the more interesting pseudorandom setting. In fact, under the so-called Inverse Decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption the Feistel-network with four rounds, each instantiated with a nCPA secure pseudorandom function, is in general not a CPA secure pseudorandom permutation.
AU - Maurer, Ueli M
AU - Oswald, Yvonne A
AU - Krzysztof Pietrzak
AU - Sjödin, Johan
ID - 3214
TI - Luby Rackoff ciphers from weak round functions
VL - 4004
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Most cryptographic primitives such as encryption, authentication or secret sharing require randomness. Usually one assumes that perfect randomness is available, but those primitives might also be realized under weaker assumptions. In this work we continue the study of building secure cryptographic primitives from imperfect random sources initiated by Dodis and Spencer (FOCS’02). Their main result shows that there exists a (high-entropy) source of randomness allowing for perfect encryption of a bit, and yet from which one cannot extract even a single weakly random bit, separating encryption from extraction. Our main result separates encryption from 2-out-2 secret sharing (both in the information-theoretic and in the computational settings): any source which can be used to achieve one-bit encryption also can be used for 2-out-2 secret sharing of one bit, but the converse is false, even for high-entropy sources. Therefore, possibility of extraction strictly implies encryption, which in turn strictly implies 2-out-2 secret sharing.
AU - Dodis, Yevgeniy
AU - Krzysztof Pietrzak
AU - Przydatek, Bartosz
ID - 3215
TI - Separating sources for encryption and secret sharing
VL - 3876
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We prove a new upper bound on the advantage of any adversary for distinguishing the encrypted CBC-MAC (EMAC) based on random permutations from a random function. Our proof uses techniques recently introduced in [BPR05], which again were inspired by [DGH + 04].
The bound we prove is tight — in the sense that it matches the advantage of known attacks up to a constant factor — for a wide range of the parameters: let n denote the block-size, q the number of queries the adversary is allowed to make and ℓ an upper bound on the length (i.e. number of blocks) of the messages, then for ℓ ≤ 2 n/8 and q≥ł2 the advantage is in the order of q 2/2 n (and in particular independent of ℓ). This improves on the previous bound of q 2ℓΘ(1/ln ln ℓ)/2 n from [BPR05] and matches the trivial attack (which thus is basically optimal) where one simply asks random queries until a collision is found.
AU - Krzysztof Pietrzak
ID - 3216
TI - A tight bound for EMAC
VL - 4052
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - To prove that a secure key-agreement protocol exists one must at least show P ≠NP. Moreover any proof that the sequential composition of two non-adaptively secure pseudorandom functions is secure against at least two adaptive queries must falsify the decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption, a standard assumption from public-key cryptography. Hence proving any of this two seemingly unrelated statements would require a significant breakthrough. We show that at least one of the two statements is true.
To our knowledge this gives the first positive cryptographic result (namely that composition implies some weak adaptive security) which holds in Minicrypt, but not in Cryptomania, i.e. under the assumption that one-way functions exist, but public-key cryptography does not.
AU - Krzysztof Pietrzak
ID - 3217
TI - Composition implies adaptive security in minicrypt
VL - 4004
ER -
TY - CHAP
AU - Harald Janovjak
AU - Sawhney, Ravi K
AU - Stark, Martin
AU - Mueller, Daniel J
ID - 3404
T2 - Techniques in Microscopy for Biomedical Applications
TI - Atomic force microscopy
VL - 2
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Despite their crucial importance for cellular function, little is known about the folding mechanisms of membrane proteins. Recently details of the folding energy landscape were elucidated by atomic force microscope (AFM)-based single molecule force spectroscopy. Upon unfolding and extraction of individual membrane proteins energy barriers in structural elements such as loops and helices were mapped and quantified with the precision of a few amino acids.
Here we report on the next logical step: controlled refolding of single proteins into the membrane. First individual bacteriorhodopsin monomers were partially unfolded and extracted from the purple membrane by pulling at the C-terminal end with an AFM tip. Then by gradually lowering the tip, the protein was allowed to refold into the membrane while the folding force was recorded.
We discovered that upon refolding certain helices are pulled into the membraneagainst a sizable externalforce of several tens of picoNewton. From the mechanical work, which the helix performs on the AFM cantilever, we derive an upper limit for the Gibbs free folding energy. Subsequent unfolding allowed us to analyze the pattern of unfolding barriers and corroborate that the protein had refolded into the native state.
AU - Kessler, Max
AU - Gottschalk, Kay E
AU - Harald Janovjak
AU - Mueller, Daniel J
AU - Gaub, Hermann
ID - 3413
IS - 2
JF - Journal of Molecular Biology
TI - Bacteriorhodopsin folds into the membrane against an external force
VL - 357
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Mechanisms of folding and misfolding of membrane proteins are of interest in cell biology. Recently, we have established single-molecule force spectroscopy to observe directly the stepwise folding of the Na+/H+antiporter NhaA from Escherichia coli in vitro. Here, we improved this approach significantly to track the folding intermediates of asingle NhaA polypeptide forming structural segments such as the Na+-binding site, transmembrane α-helices, and helical pairs. The folding rates of structural segments ranged from 0.31 s−1 to 47 s−1, providing detailed insight into a distinct folding hierarchy of an unfolded polypeptide into the native membrane protein structure. In some cases, however, the folding chain formed stable and kinetically trapped non-native structures, which could be assigned to misfolding events of the antiporter.
AU - Kedrov, Alexej
AU - Harald Janovjak
AU - Ziegler, Christine
AU - Kühlbrandt, Werner
AU - Mueller, Daniel J
ID - 3414
IS - 1
JF - Journal of Molecular Biology
TI - Observing folding pathways and kinetics of a single sodium-proton antiporter from Escherichia coli
VL - 355
ER -