@misc{2664,
abstract = {Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlus) are a family of G-protein-coupled receptors activated by the neurotransmitter glutamate. Molecular cloning has revealed eight different subtypes (mGlu1-8) with distinct molecular and pharmacological properties. Multiplicity in this receptor family is further generated through alternative splicing. mGlus activate a multitude of signalling pathways important for modulating neuronal excitability, synaptic plasticity and feedback regulation of neurotransmitter release. In this review, we summarize anatomical findings (from our work and that of other laboratories) describing their distribution in the central nervous system. Recent evidence regarding the localization of these receptors in peripheral tissues will also be examined. The distinct regional, cellular and subcellular distribution of mGlus in the brain will be discussed in view of their relationship to neurotransmitter release sites and of possible functional implications.},
author = {Ferraguti, Francesco and Ryuichi Shigemoto},
booktitle = {Cell and Tissue Research},
number = {2},
pages = {483 -- 504},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Metabotropic glutamate receptors}},
doi = {10.1007/s00441-006-0266-5},
volume = {326},
year = {2006},
}
@article{2366,
abstract = {Inequalities are derived for power sums of the real part and the modulus of the eigenvalues of a Schrödinger operator with a complex-valued potential.},
author = {Frank, Rupert L and Laptev, Ari and Lieb, Élliott H and Robert Seiringer},
journal = {Letters in Mathematical Physics},
number = {3},
pages = {309 -- 316},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Lieb-Thirring inequalities for Schrödinger operators with complex-valued potentials}},
doi = {10.1007/s11005-006-0095-1},
volume = {77},
year = {2006},
}
@article{2429,
abstract = {We show, with an elementary proof, that the number of halving simplices in a set of n points in 4 in general position is O(n4-2/45). This improves the previous bound of O(n4-1/134). Our main new ingredient is a bound on the maximum number of halving simplices intersecting a fixed 2-plane. },
author = {Matoušek, Jiří and Sharir, Micha and Smorodinsky, Shakhar and Uli Wagner},
journal = {Discrete & Computational Geometry},
number = {2},
pages = {177 -- 191},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{K-sets in four dimensions}},
doi = {10.1007/s00454-005-1200-4},
volume = {35},
year = {2006},
}
@inproceedings{2431,
abstract = {We prove an upper bound, tight up to a factor of 2, for the number of vertices of level at most t in an arrangement of n halfspaces in R , for arbitrary n and d (in particular, the dimension d is not considered constant). This partially settles a conjecture of Eckhoff, Linhart, and Welzl. Up to the factor of 2, the result generalizes McMullen's Upper Bound Theorem for convex polytopes (the case ℓ = O) and extends a theorem of Linhart for the case d ≤ 4. Moreover, the bound sharpens asymptotic estimates obtained by Clarkson and Shor. The proof is based on the h-matrix of the arrangement (a generalization, introduced by Mulmuley, of the h-vector of a convex polytope). We show that bounding appropriate sums of entries of this matrix reduces to a lemma about quadrupels of sets with certain intersection properties, and we prove this lemma, up to a factor of 2, using tools from multilinear algebra. This extends an approach of Alon and Kalai, who used linear algebra methods for an alternative proof of the classical Upper Bound Theorem. The bounds for the entries of the h-matrix also imply bounds for the number of i-dimensional faces, i > 0, at level at most ℓ. Furthermore, we discuss a connection with crossing numbers of graphs that was one of the main motivations for investigating exact bounds that are valid for arbitrary dimensions.},
author = {Uli Wagner},
pages = {635 -- 645},
publisher = {IEEE},
title = {{On a geometric generalization of the Upper Bound Theorem}},
doi = {10.1109/FOCS.2006.53},
year = {2006},
}
@inproceedings{2746,
abstract = {We consider random Schrödinger equations on Rd or Zd for d ≥ 3 with uncorrelated, identically distributed random potential. Denote by λ the coupling constant and ψt the solution with initial data ψ0.},
author = {László Erdös and Salmhofer, Manfred and Yau, Horng-Tzer},
pages = {233 -- 257},
publisher = {World Scientific Publishing},
title = {{Towards the quantum Brownian motion}},
doi = {10.1007/3-540-34273-7_18},
volume = {690},
year = {2006},
}
@article{2791,
abstract = {Generally, the motion of fluids is smooth and laminar at low speeds but becomes highly disordered and turbulent as the velocity increases. The transition from laminar to turbulent flow can involve a sequence of instabilities in which the system realizes progressively more complicated states, or it can occur suddenly. Once the transition has taken place, it is generally assumed that, under steady conditions, the turbulent state will persist indefinitely. The flow of a fluid down a straight pipe provides a ubiquitous example of a shear flow undergoing a sudden transition from laminar to turbulent motion. Extensive calculations and experimental studies have shown that, at relatively low flow rates, turbulence in pipes is transient, and is characterized by an exponential distribution of lifetimes. They also suggest that for Reynolds numbers exceeding a critical value the lifetime diverges (that is, becomes infinitely large), marking a change from transient to persistent turbulence. Here we present experimental data and numerical calculations covering more than two decades of lifetimes, showing that the lifetime does not in fact diverge but rather increases exponentially with the Reynolds number. This implies that turbulence in pipes is only a transient event (contrary to the commonly accepted view), and that the turbulent and laminar states remain dynamically connected, suggesting avenues for turbulence control.},
author = {Björn Hof and Westerweel, Jerry and Schneider, Tobias M and Eckhardt, Bruno},
journal = {Nature},
number = {7107},
pages = {59 -- 62},
publisher = {Nature Publishing Group},
title = {{Finite lifetime of turbulence in shear flows}},
doi = {10.1038/nature05089},
volume = {443},
year = {2006},
}
@article{3009,
author = {Paciorek, Tomasz and Friml, Jirí},
journal = {Journal of Cell Science},
number = {7},
pages = {1199 -- 1202},
publisher = {Company of Biologists},
title = {{Auxin signaling}},
doi = {10.1242/jcs.02910},
volume = {119},
year = {2006},
}
@article{3011,
abstract = {Polar flow of the phytohormone auxin requires plasma membrane‐associated PIN proteins and underlies multiple developmental processes in plants. Here we address the importance of the polarity of subcellular PIN localization for the directionality of auxin transport in Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression of different PINs in the root epidermis revealed the importance of PIN polar positions for directional auxin flow and root gravitropic growth. Interfering with sequence-embedded polarity signals directly demonstrates that PIN polarity is a primary factor in determining the direction of auxin flow in meristematic tissues. This finding provides a crucial piece in the puzzle of how auxin flow can be redirected via rapid changes in PIN polarity.},
author = {Wiśniewska, Justyna and Xu, Jian and Seifertová, Daniela and Brewer, Philip B and Růžička, Kamil and Blilou, Ikram and Rouquié, David and Eva Benková and Scheres, Ben and Jirí Friml},
journal = {Science},
number = {5775},
publisher = {American Association for the Advancement of Science},
title = {{Polar PIN localization directs auxin flow in plants}},
doi = {10.1126/science.1121356},
volume = {312},
year = {2006},
}
@article{3016,
abstract = {Plant development is characterized by a profound ability to regenerate and form tissues with new axes of polarity. An unsolved question concerns how the position within a tissue and cues from neighboring cells are integrated to specify the polarity of individual cells. The canalization hypothesis proposes a feedback effect of the phytohormone auxin on the directionality of intercellular auxin flow as a means to polarize tissues. Here we identify a cellular and molecular mechanism for canalization. Local auxin application, wounding, or auxin accumulation during de novo organ formation lead to rearrangements in the subcellular polar localization of PIN auxin transport components. This auxin effect on PIN polarity is cell-specific, does not depend on PIN transcription, and involves the Aux/IAA-ARF (indole-3-acetic acid-auxin response factor) signaling pathway. Our data suggest that auxin acts as polarizing cue, which links individual cell polarity with tissue and organ polarity through control of PIN polar targeting. This feedback regulation provides a conceptual framework for polarization during multiple regenerative and patterning processes in plants.},
author = {Sauer, Michael and Balla, Jozef and Luschnig, Christian and Wiśniewska, Justyna and Reinöhl, Vilém and Jirí Friml and Eva Benková},
journal = {Genes and Development},
number = {20},
pages = {2902 -- 2911},
publisher = {Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press},
title = {{Canalization of auxin flow by Aux/IAA-ARF-dependent feedback regulation of PIN polarity}},
doi = {10.1101/gad.390806},
volume = {20},
year = {2006},
}
@inproceedings{3186,
abstract = {We introduce a new approach to modelling gradient flows of contours and surfaces. While standard variational methods (e.g. level sets) compute local interface motion in a differential fashion by estimating local contour velocity via energy derivatives, we propose to solve surface evolution PDEs by explicitly estimating integral motion of the whole surface. We formulate an optimization problem directly based on an integral characterization of gradient flow as an infinitesimal move of the (whole) surface giving the largest energy decrease among all moves of equal size. We show that this problem can be efficiently solved using recent advances in algorithms for global hypersurface optimization [4, 2, 11]. In particular, we employ the geo-cuts method [4] that uses ideas from integral geometry to represent continuous surfaces as cuts on discrete graphs. The resulting interface evolution algorithm is validated on some 2D and 3D examples similar to typical demonstrations of level-set methods. Our method can compute gradient flows of hypersurfaces with respect to a fairly general class of continuous functional and it is flexible with respect to distance metrics on the space of contours/surfaces. Preliminary tests for standard L2 distance metric demonstrate numerical stability, topological changes and an absence of any oscillatory motion.},
author = {Boykov, Yuri and Vladimir Kolmogorov and Cremers, Daniel and Delong, Andrew},
pages = {409 -- 422},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{An integral solution to surface evolution PDEs via geo cuts}},
doi = {10.1007/11744078_32},
volume = {3953},
year = {2006},
}
@misc{3415,
author = {Harald Janovjak and Kedrov, Alexej and Cisneros, David and Sapra, Tanuj K and Struckmeier, Jens and Mueller, Daniel J},
booktitle = {Neurobiology of Aging},
pages = {546 -- 561},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Imaging and detecting molecular interactions of single membrane proteins}},
doi = {10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2005.03.031},
volume = {27},
year = {2006},
}
@misc{3511,
abstract = {Methods, apparatus and computer program products provide efficient techniques for designing and printing shells of hearing-aid devices with a high degree of quality assurance and reliability and with a reduced number of manual and time consuming production steps and operations. These techniques also preferably provide hearing-aid shells having internal volumes that can approach a maximum allowable ratio of internal volume relative to external volume. These high internal volumes facilitate the inclusion of hearing-aid electrical components having higher degrees of functionality and/or the use of smaller and less conspicuous hearing-aid shells. A preferred method includes operations to generate a watertight digital model of a hearing-aid shell by thickening a three-dimensional digital model of a shell surface in a manner that eliminates self-intersections and results in a thickened model having an internal volume that is a high percentage of an external volume of the model. },
author = {Fu, Ping and Nekhayev, Dmitry V and Herbert Edelsbrunner},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Manufacturing methods and systems for rapid production of hearing-aid shells}},
doi = {US 7,050,876 B1},
year = {2006},
}
@inproceedings{3559,
abstract = {Persistent homology is the mathematical core of recent work on shape, including reconstruction, recognition, and matching. Its per- tinent information is encapsulated by a pairing of the critical values of a function, visualized by points forming a diagram in the plane. The original algorithm in [10] computes the pairs from an ordering of the simplices in a triangulation and takes worst-case time cubic in the number of simplices. The main result of this paper is an algorithm that maintains the pairing in worst-case linear time per transposition in the ordering. A side-effect of the algorithm’s anal- ysis is an elementary proof of the stability of persistence diagrams [7] in the special case of piecewise-linear functions. We use the algorithm to compute 1-parameter families of diagrams which we apply to the study of protein folding trajectories.},
author = {Cohen-Steiner, David and Herbert Edelsbrunner and Morozov, Dmitriy},
pages = {119 -- 126},
publisher = {ACM},
title = {{Vines and vineyards by updating persistence in linear time}},
doi = {10.1145/1137856.1137877},
year = {2006},
}
@inproceedings{3679,
abstract = {This paper describes a new system for "Finding Satellite Tracks” in astronomical images based on the modern geometric approach. There is an increasing need of using methods with solid mathematical and statistical foundation in astronomical image processing. Where the computational methods are serving in all disciplines of science, they are becoming popular in the field of astronomy as well. Currently different computational systems are required to be numerically optimized before to get applied on astronomical images. So at present there is no single system which solves the problems of astronomers using computational methods based on modern approaches. The system "Finding Satellite Tracks” is based on geometric matching method "Recognition by Adaptive Subdivision of Transformation Space (RAST)".},
author = {Ali,Haider and Christoph Lampert and Breuel,Thomas M},
pages = {892 -- 901},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Satellite tracks removal in astronomical images}},
doi = {10.1007/11892755_92},
volume = {4225},
year = {2006},
}
@inproceedings{3693,
abstract = {Gaussian filtering in one, two or three dimensions is among the most commonly needed tasks in signal and image processing. Finite impulse response filters in the time domain with Gaussian masks are easy to implement in either floating or fixed point arithmetic, because Gaussian kernels are strictly positive and bounded. But these implementations are slow for large images or kernels. With the recursive IIR-filters and FFT-based methods, there are at least two alternative methods to perform Gaussian filtering in a faster way, but so far they are only applicable when floating-point hardware is available. In this paper, a fixed-point implementation of recursive Gaussian filtering is discussed and applied to isotropic and anisotropic image filtering by making use of a non-orthogonal separation scheme of the Gaussian filter.},
author = {Christoph Lampert and Wirjadi,Oliver},
pages = {1565 -- 1568},
publisher = {IEEE},
title = {{Anisotropic Gaussian filtering using fixed point arithmetic}},
doi = {10.1109/ICIP.2006.312606},
year = {2006},
}
@misc{3814,
abstract = {The axon terminals (mossy fibers) of hippocampal dentate granule cells form characteristic synaptic connections with large spines or excrescences of both hilar mossy cells and CA3 pyramidal neurons. Interneurons of the hilar region and area CA3 are also prominent targets of mossy fibers. The tracing of biocytin-filled mossy fibers and immunolabeling of target cells with interneuron markers has revealed that the majority of mossy fiber synapses project to gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic inhibitory interneurons rather than to excitatory principal cells, although the functional implications of these quantitative differences are unclear. Following a brief description of the "classical" mossy fiber synapse on excrescences of CA3 pyramidal cells, the present review focuses on the contacts formed between granule cells and GABAergic interneurons, both normally and after synaptic reorganization. In response to deafferentation of mossy cell target cells, which include both granule cells and interneurons, mossy fibers "sprout" new axon collaterals that form a band of supragranular mossy fibers in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. Although most newly formed recurrent mossy fibers establish synapses with granule cells, there is an apparently convergent input of new mossy fibers onto GABA-immunoreactive interneuron dendrites that traverse the inner molecular layer. These mossy fiber-interneuron synapses in the dentate gyrus are observed in chronically epileptic rats and may be the structural correlate of the granule cell hyperinhibition observed in these animals in vivo. Together, the findings reviewed here establish mossy fiber synapses as an important component of inhibitory circuits in the hippocampus.},
author = {Frotscher, Michael and Peter Jonas and Sloviter, Robert S},
booktitle = {Cell and Tissue Research},
number = {2},
pages = {361 -- 7},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Synapses formed by normal and abnormal hippocampal mossy fibers (Review)}},
doi = {10.1007/s00441-006-0269-2},
volume = {326},
year = {2006},
}
@inproceedings{3888,
abstract = {A stochastic graph game is played by two players on a game graph with probabilistic transitions. We consider stochastic graph games with omega-regular winning conditions specified as Rabin or Streett objectives. These games are NP-complete and coNP-complete, respectively. The value of the game for a player at a state s given an objective Phi is the maximal probability with which the player can guarantee the satisfaction of Phi from s. We present a strategy-improvement algorithm to compute values in stochastic Rabin games, where an improvement step involves solving Markov decision processes (MDPs) and nonstochastic Rabin games. The algorithm also computes values for stochastic Streett games but does not directly yield an optimal strategy for Streett objectives. We then show how to obtain an optimal strategy for Streett objectives by solving certain nonstochastic Streett games.},
author = {Krishnendu Chatterjee and Thomas Henzinger},
pages = {375 -- 389},
publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik},
title = {{Strategy improvement for stochastic Rabin and Streett games}},
doi = {10.1007/11817949_25},
volume = {4137},
year = {2006},
}
@inproceedings{3890,
abstract = {We consider two-player infinite games played on graphs. The games are concurrent, in that at each state the players choose their moves simultaneously and independently, and stochastic, in that the moves determine a probability distribution for the successor state. The value of a game is the maximal probability with which a player can guarantee the satisfaction of her objective. We show that the values of concurrent games with w-regular objectives expressed as parity conditions can be decided in NP boolean AND coNP. This result substantially improves the best known previous bound of 3EXPTIME. It also shows that the full class of concurrent parity games is no harder than the special case of turn-based stochastic reachability games, for which NP boolean AND coNP is the best known bound. While the previous, more restricted NP boolean AND coNP results for graph games relied on the existence of particularly simple (pure memoryless) optimal strategies, in concurrent games with parity objectives optimal strategies may not exist, and epsilon-optimal strategies (which achieve the value of the game within a parameter epsilon > 0) require in general both randomization and infinite memory. Hence our proof must rely on a more detailed analysis of strategies and, in addition to the main result, yields two results that are interesting on their own. First, we show that there exist epsilon-optimal strategies that in the limit coincide with memoryless strategies; this parallels the celebrated result of Mertens-Neyman for concurrent games with limit-average objectives. Second, we complete the characterization of the memory requirements for epsilon-optimal strategies for concurrent games with parity conditions, by showing that memoryless strategies suffice for epsilon-optimality for coBachi conditions.},
author = {Krishnendu Chatterjee and de Alfaro, Luca and Thomas Henzinger},
pages = {678 -- 687},
publisher = {SIAM},
title = {{The complexity of quantitative concurrent parity games}},
doi = {10.1145/1109557.1109631},
year = {2006},
}
@article{3908,
abstract = {It is commonly believed that both the average length and the frequency of microsatellites correlate with genome size. We have estimated the frequency and the average length for 69 perfect dinucleotide microsatellites in an insect with an exceptionally large genome: Chorthippus biguttulus (Orthoptera, Acrididae). Dinucleotide microsatellites are not more frequent in C. biguttulus, but repeat arrays are 1.4 to 2 times longer than in other insect species. The average repeat number in C. biguttulus lies in the range of higher vertebrates. Natural populations are highly variable. At least 30 alleles per locus were found and the expected heterozygosity is above 0.95 at all three loci studied. In contrast, the observed heterozygosity is much lower (≤0.51), which could be caused by long null alleles.},
author = {Ustinova, Jana and Achmann, Roland and Cremer, Sylvia and Mayer, Frieder},
journal = {Journal of Molecular Evolution},
number = {2},
pages = {158 -- 167},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Long repeats in a huge gemome: microsatellite loci in the grasshopper Chorthippus biguttulus}},
doi = {10.1007/s00239-005-0022-6},
volume = {62},
year = {2006},
}
@article{3934,
abstract = {T cells develop in the thymus in a highly specialized cellular and extracellular microenvironment. The basement membrane molecule, laminin-5 (LN-5), is predominantly found in the medulla of the human thymic lobules. Using high-resolution light microscopy, we show here that LN-5 is localized in a bi-membranous conduit-like structure, together with other typical basement membrane components including collagen type IV, nidogen and perlecan. Other interstitial matrix components, such as fibrillin-1 or -2, tenascin-C or fibrillar collagen types, were also associated with these structures. Three-dimensional (3D) confocal microscopy suggested a tubular structure, whereas immunoelectron and transmission electron microscopy showed that the core of these tubes contained fibrillar collagens enwrapped by the LN-5-containing membrane. These medullary conduits are surrounded by thymic epithelial cells, which in vitro were found to bind LN-5, but also fibrillin and tenascin-C. Dendritic cells were also detected in close vicinity to the conduits. Both of these stromal cell types express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules capable of antigen presentation. The conduits are connected to blood vessels but, with an average diameter of 2 mum, they are too small to transport cells. However, evidence is provided that smaller molecules such as a 10 kDa dextran, but not large molecules (>500 kDa), can be transported in the conduits. These results clearly demonstrate that a conduit system, which is also known from secondary lymphatic organs such as lymph nodes and spleen, is present in the medulla of the human thymus, and that it might serve to transport small blood-borne molecules or chemokines to defined locations within the medulla.},
author = {Drumea-Mirancea, Mihaela and Wessels, Johannes T and Müller, Claudia A and Essl, Mike and Eble, Johannes A and Tolosa, Eva and Koch, Manuel and Reinhardt, Dieter P and Michael Sixt and Sorokin, Lydia and Stierhof, York-Dieter and Schwarz, Heinz and Klein, Gerd},
journal = {Journal of Cell Science},
number = {Pt 7},
pages = {1396 -- 1405},
publisher = {Company of Biologists},
title = {{Characterization of a conduit system containing laminin-5 in the human thymus: a potential transport system for small molecules}},
doi = {10.1242/jcs.02840},
volume = {119},
year = {2006},
}