TY - CONF
AB - Geodesic active contours and graph cuts are two standard image segmentation techniques. We introduce a new segmentation method combining some of their benefits. Our main intuition is that any cut on a graph embedded in some continuous space can be interpreted as a contour (in 2D) or a surface (in 3D). We show how to build a grid graph and set its edge weights so that the cost of cuts is arbitrarily close to the length (area) of the corresponding contours (surfaces) for any anisotropic Riemannian metric. There are two interesting consequences of this technical result. First, graph cut algorithms can be used to find globally minimum geodesic contours (minimal surfaces in 3D) under arbitrary Riemannian metric for a given set of boundary conditions. Second, we show how to minimize metrication artifacts in existing graph-cut based methods in vision. Theoretically speaking, our work provides an interesting link between several branches of mathematics -differential geometry, integral geometry, and combinatorial optimization. The main technical problem is solved using Cauchy-Crofton formula from integral geometry.
AU - Boykov, Yuri
AU - Vladimir Kolmogorov
ID - 3170
TI - Computing geodesics and minimal surfaces via graph cuts
VL - 1
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Reconstructing a 3-D scene from more than one camera is a classical problem in computer vision. One of the major sources of difficulty is the fact that not all scene elements are visible from all cameras. In the last few years, two promising approaches have been developed 11,12 that formulate the scene reconstruction problem in terms of energy minimization, and minimize the energy using graph cuts. These energy minimization approaches treat the input images symmetrically, handle visibility constraints correctly, and allow spatial smoothness to be enforced. However, these algorithm propose different problem formulations, and handle a limited class of smoothness terms. One algorithm 11 uses a problem formulation that is restricted to two-camera stereo, and imposes smoothness between a pair of cameras. The other algorithm 12 can handle an arbitrary number of cameras, but imposes smoothness only with respect to a single camera. In this paper we give a more general energy minimization formulation for the problem, which allows a larger class of spatial smoothness constraints. We show that our formulation includes both of the previous approaches as special cases, as well as permitting new energy functions. Experimental results on real data with ground truth are also included.
AU - Vladimir Kolmogorov
AU - Zabih, Ramin
AU - Gortler, Steven
ID - 3171
TI - Generalized multi camera scene reconstruction using graph cuts
VL - 2683
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We address visual correspondence problems without assuming that scene points have similar intensities in different views. This situation is common, usually due to non-lambertian scenes or to differences between cameras. We use maximization of mutual information, a powerful technique for registering images that requires no a priori model of the relationship between scene intensities in different views. However, it has proven difficult to use mutual information to compute dense visual correspondence. Comparing fixed-size windows via mutual information suffers from the well-known problems of fixed windows, namely poor performance at discontinuities and in low-texture regions. In this paper, we show how to compute visual correspondence using mutual information without suffering from these problems. Using 'a simple approximation, mutual information can be incorporated into the standard energy minimization framework used in early vision. The energy can then be efficiently minimized using graph cuts, which preserve discontinuities and handle low-texture regions. The resulting algorithm combines the accurate disparity maps that come from graph cuts with the tolerance for intensity changes that comes from mutual information.
AU - Kim, Junhwan
AU - Vladimir Kolmogorov
AU - Zabih, Ramin
ID - 3174
TI - Visual correspondence using energy minimization and mutual information
VL - 2
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We show that the fixed alphabet shortest common supersequence (SCS) and the fixed alphabet longest common subsequence (LCS) problems parameterized in the number of strings are W[1]-hard. Unless W[1]=FPT, this rules out the existence of algorithms with time complexity of O(f(k)nα) for those problems. Here n is the size of the problem instance, α is constant, k is the number of strings and f is any function of k. The fixed alphabet version of the LCS problem is of particular interest considering the importance of sequence comparison (e.g. multiple sequence alignment) in the fixed length alphabet world of DNA and protein sequences.
AU - Krzysztof Pietrzak
ID - 3209
IS - 4
JF - Journal of Computer and System Sciences
TI - On the parameterized complexity of the fixed alphabet shortest common supersequence and longest common subsequence problems
VL - 67
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Luby and Rackoff showed how to construct a (super-)pseudo-random permutation {0,1}2n→ {0,1}2n from some number r of pseudo-random functions {0,1}n → {0,1}n. Their construction, motivated by DES, consists of a cascade of r Feistel permutations. A Feistel permutation 1for a pseudo-random function f is defined as (L, R) → (R,L ⊕ f (R)), where L and R are the left and right part of the input and ⊕ denotes bitwise XOR or, in this paper, any other group operation on {0,1}n. The only non-trivial step of the security proof consists of proving that the cascade of r Feistel permutations with independent uniform random functions {0,1}n → {0,1}n, denoted Ψ2nr is indistinguishable from a uniform random permutation {0,1}2n → {0,1}2n by any computationally unbounded adaptive distinguisher making at most O(2cn) combined chosen plaintext/ciphertext queries for any c < α, where a is a security parameter. Luby and Rackoff proved α = 1/2 for r = 4. A natural problem, proposed by Pieprzyk is to improve on α for larger r. The best known result, α = 3/4 for r = 6, is due to Patarin. In this paper we prove a = 1 -O(1/r), i.e., the trivial upper bound α = 1 can be approached. The proof uses some new techniques that can be of independent interest.
AU - Maurer, Ueli M
AU - Krzysztof Pietrzak
ID - 3210
TI - The security of many round Luby Rackoff pseudo random permutations
VL - 2656
ER -
TY - CHAP
AU - Peter Jonas
AU - Unsicker, Klaus
ED - Schmidt, R. F.
ID - 3458
T2 - Lehrbuch Vorklinik
TI - Molekulare und zelluläre Grundlagen des Nervensystems.
VL - B
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Neurons can produce action potentials with high temporal precision(1). A fundamental issue is whether, and how, this capability is used in information processing. According to the `cell assembly' hypothesis, transient synchrony of anatomically distributed groups of neurons underlies processing of both external sensory input and internal cognitive mechanisms(2-4). Accordingly, neuron populations should be arranged into groups whose synchrony exceeds that predicted by common modulation by sensory input. Here we find that the spike times of hippocampal pyramidal cells can be predicted more accurately by using the spike times of simultaneously recorded neurons in addition to the animals location in space. This improvement remained when the spatial prediction was refined with a spatially dependent theta phase modulation(5-8). The time window in which spike times are best predicted from simultaneous peer activity is 10-30 ms, suggesting that cell assemblies are synchronized at this timescale. Because this temporal window matches the membrane time constant of pyramidal neurons(9), the period of the hippocampal gamma oscillation(10) and the time window for synaptic plasticity(11), we propose that cooperative activity at this timescale is optimal for information transmission and storage in cortical circuits.
AU - Harris, Kenneth D
AU - Jozsef Csicsvari
AU - Hirase, Hajima
AU - Dragoi, George
AU - Buzsáki, György
ID - 3526
IS - 6948
JF - Nature
TI - Organization of cell assemblies in the hippocampus
VL - 424
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Gamma frequency oscillations (30-100 Hz) have been suggested to underlie various cognitive and motor functions. Here, we examine the generation of gamma oscillation currents in the hippocampus, using two-dimensional, 96-site silicon probes. Two gamma generators were identified, one in the dentate gyrus and another in the CA3-CA1 regions. The coupling strength between the two oscillators varied during both theta and nontheta states. Both pyramidal cells and interneurons were phase-locked to gamma waves. Anatomical connectivity, rather than physical distance, determined the coupling strength of the oscillating neurons. CA3 pyramidal neurons discharged CA3 and CA1 interneurons at latencies indicative of monosynaptic connections. Intrahippocampal gamma oscillation emerges in the CA3 recurrent system, which entrains the CA1 region via its interneurons.
AU - Jozsef Csicsvari
AU - Jamieson, Brian G
AU - Wise, Kensall D
AU - Buzsáki, György
ID - 3528
IS - 2
JF - Neuron
TI - Mechanisms of gamma oscillations in the hippocampus of the behaving rat
VL - 37
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Parallel recording of neuronal activity in the behaving animal is a prerequisite for our understanding of neuronal representation and storage of information. Here we describe the development of micro-machined silicon microelectrode arrays for unit and local field recordings. The two-dimensional probes with 96 or 64 recording sites provided high-density recording of unit and field activity with minimal tissue displacement or damage. The on-chip active circuit eliminated movement and other artifacts and greatly reduced the weight of the headgear. The precise geometry of the recording tips allowed for the estimation of the spatial location of the recorded neurons and for high-resolution estimation of extracellular current source density. Action potentials could be simultaneously recorded from the soma and dendrites of the same neurons. Silicon technology is a promising approach for high-density, high-resolution sampling of neuronal activity in both basic research and prosthetic devices.
AU - Jozsef Csicsvari
AU - Henze, Darrell A
AU - Jamieson, Brian G
AU - Harris, Kenneth D
AU - Sirota, Anton M
AU - Bartho, Peter
AU - Wise, Kensall D
AU - Buzsáki, György
ID - 3529
IS - 2
JF - Journal of Neurophysiology
TI - Massively parallel recording of unit and local field potentials with silicon-based electrodes
VL - 90
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Genetic engineering of the mouse brain allows investigators to address novel hypotheses in vivo. Because of the paucity of information on the network patterns of the mouse hippocampus, we investigated the electrical patterns in the behaving animal using multisite silicon probes and wire tetrodes. Theta (6-9 Hz) and gamma (40-100 Hz) oscillations were present during exploration and rapid eye movement sleep. Gamma power and theta power were comodulated and gamma power varied as a function of the theta cycle. Pyramidal cells and putative interneurons were phase-locked to theta oscillations. During immobility, consummatory behaviors and slow-wave sleep, sharp waves were present in cornu ammonis region CA1 of the hippocampus stratum radiatum associated with 140-200-Hz “ripples” in the pyramidal cell layer and population burst of CA1 neurons. In the hilus, large-amplitude “dentate spikes” occurred in association with increased discharge of hilar neurons. The amplitude of field patterns was larger in the mouse than in the rat, likely reflecting the higher neuron density in a smaller brain. We suggest that the main hippocampal network patterns are mediated by similar pathways and mechanisms in mouse and rat.
AU - Buzsáki, György
AU - Buhl, Derek L
AU - Harris, Kenneth D
AU - Jozsef Csicsvari
AU - Czéh, Boldizsár
AU - Morozov, Alexei
ID - 3536
IS - 1
JF - Neuroscience
TI - Hippocampal network patterns of activity in the mouse
VL - 116
ER -