TY - THES
AU - Harold Vladar
ID - 4232
TI - Stochasticity and Variability in the dynamics and genetics of populations
ER -
TY - THES
AU - Vasu Singh
ID - 4363
T2 - Formalizing and Verifying Transactional Memories
TI - Formalizing and Verifying Transactional Memories
ER -
TY - THES
AB - Models of timed systems must incorporate not only the sequence of system events, but the timings of these events as well to capture the real-time aspects of physical systems. Timed automata are models of real-time systems in which states consist of discrete locations and values for real-time clocks. The presence of real-time clocks leads to an uncountable state space. This thesis studies verification problems on timed automata in a game theoretic framework.
For untimed systems, two systems are close if every sequence of events of one system is also observable in the second system. For timed systems, the difference in timings of the two corresponding sequences is also of importance. We propose the notion of bisimulation distance which quantifies timing differences; if the bisimulation distance between two systems is epsilon, then (a) every sequence of events of one system has a corresponding matching sequence in the other, and (b) the timings of matching events in between the two corresponding traces do not differ by more than epsilon. We show that we can compute the bisimulation distance between two timed automata to within any desired degree of accuracy. We also show that the timed verification logic TCTL is robust with respect to our notion of quantitative bisimilarity, in particular, if a system satisfies a formula, then every close system satisfies a close formula.
Timed games are used for distinguishing between the actions of several agents, typically a controller and an environment. The controller must achieve its objective against all possible choices of the environment. The modeling of the passage of time leads to the presence of zeno executions, and corresponding unrealizable strategies of the controller which may achieve objectives by blocking time. We disallow such unreasonable strategies by restricting all agents to use only receptive strategies --strategies which while not being required to ensure time divergence by any agent, are such that no agent is responsible for blocking time. Time divergence is guaranteed when all players use receptive strategies. We show that timed automaton games with receptive strategies can be solved by a reduction to finite state turn based game graphs. We define the logic timed alternating-time temporal logic for verification of timed automaton games and show that the logic can be model checked in EXPTIME. We also show that the minimum time required by an agent to reach a desired location, and the maximum time an agent can stay safe within a set of locations, against all possible actions of its adversaries are both computable.
We next study the memory requirements of winning strategies for timed automaton games. We prove that finite memory strategies suffice for safety objectives, and that winning strategies for reachability objectives may require infinite memory in general. We introduce randomized strategies in which an agent can propose a probabilistic distribution of moves and show that finite memory randomized strategies suffice for all omega-regular objectives. We also show that while randomization helps in simplifying winning strategies, and thus allows the construction of simpler controllers, it does not help a player in winning at more states, and thus does not allow the construction of more powerful controllers.
Finally we study robust winning strategies in timed games. In a physical system, a controller may propose an action together with a time delay, but the action cannot be assumed to be executed at the exact proposed time delay. We present robust strategies which incorporate such jitters and show that the set of states from which an agent can win robustly is computable.
AU - Prabhu, Vinayak
ID - 4409
TI - Games for the verification of timed systems
ER -
TY - THES
AB - Many computing applications, especially those in safety critical embedded systems, require highly predictable timing properties. However, time is often not present in the prevailing computing and networking abstractions. In fact, most advances in computer architecture, software, and networking favor average-case performance over timing predictability. This thesis studies several methods for the design of concurrent and/or distributed embedded systems with precise timing guarantees. The focus is on flexible and compositional methods for programming and verification of the timing properties. The presented methods together with related formalisms cover two levels of design: (1) Programming language/model level. We propose the distributed variant of Giotto, a coordination programming language with an explicit temporal semanticsâ€”the logical execution time (LET) semantics. The LET of a task is an interval of time that specifies the time instants at which task inputs and outputs become available (task release and termination instants). The LET of a task is always non-zero. This allows us to communicate values across the network without changing the timing information of the task, and without introducing nondeterminism. We show how this methodology supports distributed code generation for distributed real-time systems. The method gives up some performance in favor of composability and predictability. We characterize the tradeoff by comparing the LET semantics with the semantics used in Simulink. (2) Abstract task graph level. We study interface-based design and verification of applications represented with task graphs. We consider task sequence graphs with general event models, and cyclic graphs with periodic event models with jitter and phase. Here an interface of a component exposes time and resource constraints of the component. Together with interfaces we formally define interface composition operations and the refinement relation. For efficient and flexible composability checking two properties are important: incremental design and independent refinement. According to the incremental design property the composition of interfaces can be performed in any order, even if interfaces for some components are not known. The refinement relation is defined such that in a design we can always substitute a refined interface for an abstract one. We show that the framework supports independent refinement, i.e., the refinement relation is preserved under composition operations.
AU - Matic, Slobodan
ID - 4415
TI - Compositionality in deterministic real-time embedded systems
ER -
TY - THES
AB - Complex requirements, time-to-market pressure and regulatory constraints have made the designing of embedded systems extremely challenging. This is evident by the increase in effort and expenditure for design of safety-driven real-time control-dominated applications like automotive and avionic controllers. Design processes are often challenged by lack of proper programming tools for specifying and verifying critical requirements (e.g. timing and reliability) of such applications. Platform based design, an approach for designing embedded systems, addresses the above concerns by separating requirement from architecture. The requirement specifies the intended behavior of an application while the architecture specifies the guarantees (e.g. execution speed, failure rate etc). An implementation, a mapping of the requirement on the architecture, is then analyzed for correctness. The orthogonalization of concerns makes the specification and analyses simpler. An effective use of such design methodology has been proposed in Logical Execution Time (LET) model of real-time tasks. The model separates the timing requirements (specified by release and termination instances of a task) from the architecture guarantees (specified by worst-case execution time of the task).
This dissertation proposes a coordination language, Hierarchical Timing Language (HTL), that captures the timing and reliability requirements of real-time applications. An implementation of the program on an architecture is then analyzed to check whether desired timing and reliability requirements are met or not. The core framework extends the LET model by accounting for reliability and refinement. The reliability model separates the reliability requirements of tasks from the reliability guarantees of the architecture. The requirement expresses the desired long-term reliability while the architecture provides a short-term reliability guarantee (e.g. failure rate for each iteration). The analysis checks if the short-term guarantee ensures the desired long-term reliability. The refinement model allows replacing a task by another task during program execution. Refinement preserves schedulability and reliability, i.e., if a refined task is schedulable and reliable for an implementation, then the refining task is also schedulable and reliable for the implementation. Refinement helps in concise specification without overloading analysis.
The work presents the formal model, the analyses (both with and without refinement), and a compiler for HTL programs. The compiler checks composition and refinement constraints, performs schedulability and reliability analyses, and generates code for implementation of an HTL program on a virtual machine. Three real-time controllers, one each from automatic control, automotive control and avionic control, are used to illustrate the steps in modeling and analyzing HTL programs.
AU - Ghosal, Arkadeb
ID - 4524
TI - A hierarchical coordination language for reliable real-time tasks
ER -