@phdthesis{278,
abstract = {Consortial subscription contracts regulate the digital access to publications between publishers and scientific libraries. However, since a couple of years the tendency towards a freely accessible publishing (Open Access) intensifies. As a consequence of this trend the contractual relationship between licensor and licensee is gradually changing as well: More and more contracts exercise influence on open access publishing. The present study attempts to compare Austrian examples of consortial licence contracts, which include components of open access. It describes the difference between pure subscription contracts and differing innovative deals including open access components. Thereby it becomes obvious that for the evaluation of this licence contracts new methods are needed. An essential new element of such analyses is the evaluation of the open access publication numbers. So this study tries to carry out such publication analyses for Austrian open access deals focusing on quantitative questions: How does the number of publications evolve? How does the open access share change? Publications reports of the publishers and database queries from Scopus form the data basis. The analysis of the data points out that differing approaches of contracts result in highly divergent results: Particular deals can prioritize a saving in costs or else the increase of the open access rate. It is to be assumed that within the following years further numerous open access deals will be negotiated. The finding of this study shall provide guidance.},
author = {Villányi, Márton},
pages = {94},
publisher = {Universität Wien},
title = {{Lizenzverträge mit Open-Access-Komponenten an österreichischen Bibliotheken}},
year = {2018},
}
@phdthesis{83,
abstract = {A proof system is a protocol between a prover and a verifier over a common input in which an honest prover convinces the verifier of the validity of true statements. Motivated by the success of decentralized cryptocurrencies, exemplified by Bitcoin, the focus of this thesis will be on proof systems which found applications in some sustainable alternatives to Bitcoin, such as the Spacemint and Chia cryptocurrencies. In particular, we focus on proofs of space and proofs of sequential work.
Proofs of space (PoSpace) were suggested as more ecological, economical, and egalitarian alternative to the energy-wasteful proof-of-work mining of Bitcoin. However, the state-of-the-art constructions of PoSpace are based on sophisticated graph pebbling lower bounds, and are therefore complex. Moreover, when these PoSpace are used in cryptocurrencies like Spacemint, miners can only start mining after ensuring that a commitment to their space is already added in a special transaction to the blockchain. Proofs of sequential work (PoSW) are proof systems in which a prover, upon receiving a statement x and a time parameter T, computes a proof which convinces the verifier that T time units had passed since x was received. Whereas Spacemint assumes synchrony to retain some interesting Bitcoin dynamics, Chia requires PoSW with unique proofs, i.e., PoSW in which it is hard to come up with more than one accepting proof for any true statement. In this thesis we construct simple and practically-efficient PoSpace and PoSW. When using our PoSpace in cryptocurrencies, miners can start mining on the fly, like in Bitcoin, and unlike current constructions of PoSW, which either achieve efficient verification of sequential work, or faster-than-recomputing verification of correctness of proofs, but not both at the same time, ours achieve the best of these two worlds.},
author = {Abusalah, Hamza M},
pages = {59},
publisher = {IST Austria},
title = {{Proof systems for sustainable decentralized cryptocurrencies}},
doi = {10.15479/AT:ISTA:TH_1046},
year = {2018},
}
@phdthesis{197,
abstract = {Modern computer vision systems heavily rely on statistical machine learning models, which typically require large amounts of labeled data to be learned reliably. Moreover, very recently computer vision research widely adopted techniques for representation learning, which further increase the demand for labeled data. However, for many important practical problems there is relatively small amount of labeled data available, so it is problematic to leverage full potential of the representation learning methods. One way to overcome this obstacle is to invest substantial resources into producing large labelled datasets. Unfortunately, this can be prohibitively expensive in practice. In this thesis we focus on the alternative way of tackling the aforementioned issue. We concentrate on methods, which make use of weakly-labeled or even unlabeled data. Specifically, the first half of the thesis is dedicated to the semantic image segmentation task. We develop a technique, which achieves competitive segmentation performance and only requires annotations in a form of global image-level labels instead of dense segmentation masks. Subsequently, we present a new methodology, which further improves segmentation performance by leveraging tiny additional feedback from a human annotator. By using our methods practitioners can greatly reduce the amount of data annotation effort, which is required to learn modern image segmentation models. In the second half of the thesis we focus on methods for learning from unlabeled visual data. We study a family of autoregressive models for modeling structure of natural images and discuss potential applications of these models. Moreover, we conduct in-depth study of one of these applications, where we develop the state-of-the-art model for the probabilistic image colorization task.},
author = {Kolesnikov, Alexander},
pages = {113},
publisher = {IST Austria},
title = {{Weakly-Supervised Segmentation and Unsupervised Modeling of Natural Images}},
doi = {10.15479/AT:ISTA:th_1021},
year = {2018},
}
@phdthesis{200,
abstract = {This thesis is concerned with the inference of current population structure based on geo-referenced genetic data. The underlying idea is that population structure affects its spatial genetic structure. Therefore, genotype information can be utilized to estimate important demographic parameters such as migration rates. These indirect estimates of population structure have become very attractive, as genotype data is now widely available. However, there also has been much concern about these approaches. Importantly, genetic structure can be influenced by many complex patterns, which often cannot be disentangled. Moreover, many methods merely fit heuristic patterns of genetic structure, and do not build upon population genetics theory. Here, I describe two novel inference methods that address these shortcomings. In Chapter 2, I introduce an inference scheme based on a new type of signal, identity by descent (IBD) blocks. Recently, it has become feasible to detect such long blocks of genome shared between pairs of samples. These blocks are direct traces of recent coalescence events. As such, they contain ample signal for inferring recent demography. I examine sharing of IBD blocks in two-dimensional populations with local migration. Using a diffusion approximation, I derive formulas for an isolation by distance pattern of long IBD blocks and show that sharing of long IBD blocks approaches rapid exponential decay for growing sample distance. I describe an inference scheme based on these results. It can robustly estimate the dispersal rate and population density, which is demonstrated on simulated data. I also show an application to estimate mean migration and the rate of recent population growth within Eastern Europe. Chapter 3 is about a novel method to estimate barriers to gene flow in a two dimensional population. This inference scheme utilizes geographically localized allele frequency fluctuations - a classical isolation by distance signal. The strength of these local fluctuations increases on average next to a barrier, and there is less correlation across it. I again use a framework of diffusion of ancestral lineages to model this effect, and provide an efficient numerical implementation to fit the results to geo-referenced biallelic SNP data. This inference scheme is able to robustly estimate strong barriers to gene flow, as tests on simulated data confirm.},
author = {Ringbauer, Harald},
pages = {146},
publisher = {IST Austria},
title = {{Inferring recent demography from spatial genetic structure}},
doi = {10.15479/AT:ISTA:th_963},
year = {2018},
}
@phdthesis{201,
abstract = {We describe arrangements of three-dimensional spheres from a geometrical and topological point of view. Real data (fitting this setup) often consist of soft spheres which show certain degree of deformation while strongly packing against each other. In this context, we answer the following questions: If we model a soft packing of spheres by hard spheres that are allowed to overlap, can we measure the volume in the overlapped areas? Can we be more specific about the overlap volume, i.e. quantify how much volume is there covered exactly twice, three times, or k times? What would be a good optimization criteria that rule the arrangement of soft spheres while making a good use of the available space? Fixing a particular criterion, what would be the optimal sphere configuration? The first result of this thesis are short formulas for the computation of volumes covered by at least k of the balls. The formulas exploit information contained in the order-k Voronoi diagrams and its closely related Level-k complex. The used complexes lead to a natural generalization into poset diagrams, a theoretical formalism that contains the order-k and degree-k diagrams as special cases. In parallel, we define different criteria to determine what could be considered an optimal arrangement from a geometrical point of view. Fixing a criterion, we find optimal soft packing configurations in 2D and 3D where the ball centers lie on a lattice. As a last step, we use tools from computational topology on real physical data, to show the potentials of higher-order diagrams in the description of melting crystals. The results of the experiments leaves us with an open window to apply the theories developed in this thesis in real applications.},
author = {Iglesias Ham, Mabel},
pages = {171},
publisher = {IST Austria},
title = {{Multiple covers with balls}},
doi = {10.15479/AT:ISTA:th_1026},
year = {2018},
}