@phdthesis{539,
abstract = {The whole life cycle of plants as well as their responses to environmental stimuli is governed by a complex network of hormonal regulations. A number of studies have demonstrated an essential role of both auxin and cytokinin in the regulation of many aspects of plant growth and development including embryogenesis, postembryonic organogenic processes such as root, and shoot branching, root and shoot apical meristem activity and phyllotaxis. Over the last decades essential knowledge on the key molecular factors and pathways that spatio-temporally define auxin and cytokinin activities in the plant body has accumulated. However, how both hormonal pathways are interconnected by a complex network of interactions and feedback circuits that determines the final outcome of the individual hormone actions is still largely unknown. Root system architecture establishment and in particular formation of lateral organs is prime example of developmental process at whose regulation both auxin and cytokinin pathways converge. To dissect convergence points and pathways that tightly balance auxin - cytokinin antagonistic activities that determine the root branching pattern transcriptome profiling was applied. Genome wide expression analyses of the xylem pole pericycle, a tissue giving rise to lateral roots, led to identification of genes that are highly responsive to combinatorial auxin and cytokinin treatments and play an essential function in the auxin-cytokinin regulated root branching. SYNERGISTIC AUXIN CYTOKININ 1 (SYAC1) gene, which encodes for a protein of unknown function, was detected among the top candidate genes of which expression was synergistically up-regulated by simultaneous hormonal treatment. Plants with modulated SYAC1 activity exhibit severe defects in the root system establishment and attenuate developmental responses to both auxin and cytokinin. To explore the biological function of the SYAC1, we employed different strategies including expression pattern analysis, subcellular localization and phenotypic analyses of the syac1 loss-of-function and gain-of-function transgenic lines along with the identification of the SYAC1 interaction partners. Detailed functional characterization revealed that SYAC1 acts as a developmentally specific regulator of the secretory pathway to control deposition of cell wall components and thereby rapidly fine tune elongation growth.},
author = {Hurny, Andrej},
pages = {147},
publisher = {IST Austria},
title = {{Identification and characterization of novel auxin-cytokinin cross-talk components}},
doi = {10.15479/AT:ISTA:th_930},
year = {2018},
}
@phdthesis{395,
abstract = {Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of genetic disorders often overlapping with other neurological conditions. Despite the remarkable number of scientific breakthroughs of the last 100 years, the treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, epilepsy) remains a great challenge. Recent advancements in geno mics, like whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing, have enabled scientists to identify numerous mutations underlying neurodevelopmental disorders. Given the few hundred risk genes that were discovered, the etiological variability and the heterogeneous phenotypic outcomes, the need for genotype -along with phenotype- based diagnosis of individual patients becomes a requisite. Driven by this rationale, in a previous study our group described mutations, identified via whole - exome sequencing, in the gene BCKDK – encoding for a key regulator of branched chain amin o acid (BCAA) catabolism - as a cause of ASD. Following up on the role of BCAAs, in the study described here we show that the solute carrier transporter 7a5 (SLC7A5), a large neutral amino acid transporter localized mainly at the blood brain barrier (BBB), has an essential role in maintaining normal levels of brain BCAAs. In mice, deletion of Slc7a5 from the endothelial cells of the BBB leads to atypical brain amino acid profile, abnormal mRNA translation and severe neurolo gical abnormalities. Additionally, deletion of Slc7a5 from the neural progenitor cell population leads to microcephaly. Interestingly, we demonstrate that BCAA intracerebroventricular administration ameliorates abnormal behaviors in adult mutant mice. Furthermore, whole - exome sequencing of patients diagnosed with neurological dis o r ders helped us identify several patients with autistic traits, microcephaly and motor delay carrying deleterious homozygous mutations in the SLC7A5 gene. In conclusion, our data elucidate a neurological syndrome defined by SLC7A5 mutations and support an essential role for t he BCAA s in human bra in function. Together with r ecent studies (described in chapter two) that have successfully made the transition into clinical practice, our findings on the role of B CAAs might have a crucial impact on the development of novel individualized therapeutic strategies for ASD. },
author = {Tarlungeanu, Dora-Clara},
pages = {88},
publisher = {IST Austria},
title = {{The branched chain amino acids in autism spectrum disorders }},
doi = {10.15479/AT:ISTA:th_992},
year = {2018},
}
@phdthesis{83,
abstract = {A proof system is a protocol between a prover and a verifier over a common input in which an honest prover convinces the verifier of the validity of true statements. Motivated by the success of decentralized cryptocurrencies, exemplified by Bitcoin, the focus of this thesis will be on proof systems which found applications in some sustainable alternatives to Bitcoin, such as the Spacemint and Chia cryptocurrencies. In particular, we focus on proofs of space and proofs of sequential work.
Proofs of space (PoSpace) were suggested as more ecological, economical, and egalitarian alternative to the energy-wasteful proof-of-work mining of Bitcoin. However, the state-of-the-art constructions of PoSpace are based on sophisticated graph pebbling lower bounds, and are therefore complex. Moreover, when these PoSpace are used in cryptocurrencies like Spacemint, miners can only start mining after ensuring that a commitment to their space is already added in a special transaction to the blockchain. Proofs of sequential work (PoSW) are proof systems in which a prover, upon receiving a statement x and a time parameter T, computes a proof which convinces the verifier that T time units had passed since x was received. Whereas Spacemint assumes synchrony to retain some interesting Bitcoin dynamics, Chia requires PoSW with unique proofs, i.e., PoSW in which it is hard to come up with more than one accepting proof for any true statement. In this thesis we construct simple and practically-efficient PoSpace and PoSW. When using our PoSpace in cryptocurrencies, miners can start mining on the fly, like in Bitcoin, and unlike current constructions of PoSW, which either achieve efficient verification of sequential work, or faster-than-recomputing verification of correctness of proofs, but not both at the same time, ours achieve the best of these two worlds.},
author = {Abusalah, Hamza M},
pages = {59},
publisher = {IST Austria},
title = {{Proof systems for sustainable decentralized cryptocurrencies}},
doi = {10.15479/AT:ISTA:TH_1046},
year = {2018},
}
@phdthesis{200,
abstract = {This thesis is concerned with the inference of current population structure based on geo-referenced genetic data. The underlying idea is that population structure affects its spatial genetic structure. Therefore, genotype information can be utilized to estimate important demographic parameters such as migration rates. These indirect estimates of population structure have become very attractive, as genotype data is now widely available. However, there also has been much concern about these approaches. Importantly, genetic structure can be influenced by many complex patterns, which often cannot be disentangled. Moreover, many methods merely fit heuristic patterns of genetic structure, and do not build upon population genetics theory. Here, I describe two novel inference methods that address these shortcomings. In Chapter 2, I introduce an inference scheme based on a new type of signal, identity by descent (IBD) blocks. Recently, it has become feasible to detect such long blocks of genome shared between pairs of samples. These blocks are direct traces of recent coalescence events. As such, they contain ample signal for inferring recent demography. I examine sharing of IBD blocks in two-dimensional populations with local migration. Using a diffusion approximation, I derive formulas for an isolation by distance pattern of long IBD blocks and show that sharing of long IBD blocks approaches rapid exponential decay for growing sample distance. I describe an inference scheme based on these results. It can robustly estimate the dispersal rate and population density, which is demonstrated on simulated data. I also show an application to estimate mean migration and the rate of recent population growth within Eastern Europe. Chapter 3 is about a novel method to estimate barriers to gene flow in a two dimensional population. This inference scheme utilizes geographically localized allele frequency fluctuations - a classical isolation by distance signal. The strength of these local fluctuations increases on average next to a barrier, and there is less correlation across it. I again use a framework of diffusion of ancestral lineages to model this effect, and provide an efficient numerical implementation to fit the results to geo-referenced biallelic SNP data. This inference scheme is able to robustly estimate strong barriers to gene flow, as tests on simulated data confirm.},
author = {Ringbauer, Harald},
pages = {146},
publisher = {IST Austria},
title = {{Inferring recent demography from spatial genetic structure}},
doi = {10.15479/AT:ISTA:th_963},
year = {2018},
}
@phdthesis{149,
abstract = {The eigenvalue density of many large random matrices is well approximated by a deterministic measure, the self-consistent density of states. In the present work, we show this behaviour for several classes of random matrices. In fact, we establish that, in each of these classes, the self-consistent density of states approximates the eigenvalue density of the random matrix on all scales slightly above the typical eigenvalue spacing. For large classes of random matrices, the self-consistent density of states exhibits several universal features. We prove that, under suitable assumptions, random Gram matrices and Hermitian random matrices with decaying correlations have a 1/3-Hölder continuous self-consistent density of states ρ on R, which is analytic, where it is positive, and has either a square root edge or a cubic root cusp, where it vanishes. We, thus, extend the validity of the corresponding result for Wigner-type matrices from [4, 5, 7]. We show that ρ is determined as the inverse Stieltjes transform of the normalized trace of the unique solution m(z) to the Dyson equation −m(z) −1 = z − a + S[m(z)] on C N×N with the constraint Im m(z) ≥ 0. Here, z lies in the complex upper half-plane, a is a self-adjoint element of C N×N and S is a positivity-preserving operator on C N×N encoding the first two moments of the random matrix. In order to analyze a possible limit of ρ for N → ∞ and address some applications in free probability theory, we also consider the Dyson equation on infinite dimensional von Neumann algebras. We present two applications to random matrices. We first establish that, under certain assumptions, large random matrices with independent entries have a rotationally symmetric self-consistent density of states which is supported on a centered disk in C. Moreover, it is infinitely often differentiable apart from a jump on the boundary of this disk. Second, we show edge universality at all regular (not necessarily extreme) spectral edges for Hermitian random matrices with decaying correlations.},
author = {Alt, Johannes},
pages = {456},
publisher = {IST Austria},
title = {{Dyson equation and eigenvalue statistics of random matrices}},
doi = {10.15479/AT:ISTA:TH_1040},
year = {2018},
}