TY - THES
AB - Quantum information and computation has become a vast field paved with opportunities for researchers and investors. As large multinational companies and international funds are heavily investing in quantum technologies it is still a question which platform is best suited for the task of realizing a scalable quantum processor. In this work we investigate hole spins in Ge quantum wells. These hold great promise as they possess several favorable properties: a small effective mass, a strong spin-orbit coupling, long relaxation time and an inherent immunity to hyperfine noise. All these characteristics helped Ge hole spin qubits to evolve from a single qubit to a fully entangled four qubit processor in only 3 years. Here, we investigated a qubit approach leveraging the large out-of-plane g-factors of heavy hole states in Ge quantum dots. We found this qubit to be reproducibly operable at extremely low magnetic field and at large speeds while maintaining coherence. This was possible because large differences of g-factors in adjacent dots can be achieved in the out-of-plane direction. In the in-plane direction the small g-factors, on the other hand, can be altered very effectively by the confinement potentials. Here, we found that this can even lead to a sign change of the g-factors. The resulting g-factor difference alters the dynamics of the system drastically and produces effects typically attributed to a spin-orbit induced spin-flip term. The investigations carried out in this thesis give further insights into the possibilities of holes in Ge and reveal new physical properties that need to be considered when designing future spin qubit experiments.
AU - Jirovec, Daniel
ID - 10058
KW - qubits
KW - quantum computing
KW - holes
SN - 2663-337X
TI - Singlet-Triplet qubits and spin-orbit interaction in 2-dimensional Ge hole gases
ER -
TY - THES
AB - Quantum computation enables the execution of algorithms that have exponential complexity. This might open the path towards the synthesis of new materials or medical drugs, optimization of transport or financial strategies etc., intractable on even the fastest classical computers. A quantum computer consists of interconnected two level quantum systems, called qubits, that satisfy DiVincezo’s criteria. Worldwide, there are ongoing efforts to find the qubit architecture which will unite quantum error correction compatible single and two qubit fidelities, long distance qubit to qubit coupling and
calability. Superconducting qubits have gone the furthest in this race, demonstrating an algorithm running on 53 coupled qubits, but still the fidelities are not even close to those required for realizing a single logical qubit. emiconductor qubits offer extremely good characteristics, but they are currently investigated across different platforms. Uniting those good characteristics into a single platform might be a big step towards the quantum computer realization.
Here we describe the implementation of a hole spin qubit hosted in a Ge hut wire double quantum dot. The high and tunable spin-orbit coupling together with a heavy hole state character is expected to allow fast spin manipulation and long coherence times. Furthermore large lever arms, for hut wire devices, should allow good coupling to superconducting resonators enabling efficient long distance spin to spin coupling and a sensitive gate reflectometry spin readout. The developed cryogenic setup (printed circuit board sample holders, filtering, high-frequency wiring) enabled us to perform low temperature spin dynamics experiments. Indeed, we measured the fastest single spin qubit Rabi frequencies reported so far, reaching 140 MHz, while the dephasing times of 130 ns oppose the long decoherence predictions. In order to further investigate this, a double quantum dot gate was connected directly to a lumped element
resonator which enabled gate reflectometry readout. The vanishing inter-dot transition signal, for increasing external magnetic field, revealed the spin nature of the measured quantity.
AU - Kukucka, Josip
ID - 7996
TI - Implementation of a hole spin qubit in Ge hut wires and dispersive spin sensing
ER -
TY - THES
AB - Nowadays, quantum computation is receiving more and more attention as an alternative to the classical way of computing. For realizing a quantum computer, different devices are investigated as potential quantum bits. In this thesis, the focus is on Ge hut wires, which turned out to be promising candidates for implementing hole spin quantum bits. The advantages of Ge as a material system are the low hyperfine interaction for holes and the strong spin orbit coupling, as well as the compatibility with the highly developed CMOS processes in industry. In addition, Ge can also be isotopically purified which is expected to boost the spin coherence times. The strong spin orbit interaction for holes in Ge on the one hand enables the full electrical control of the quantum bit and on the other hand should allow short spin manipulation times. Starting with a bare Si wafer, this work covers the entire process reaching from growth over the fabrication and characterization of hut wire devices up to the demonstration of hole spin resonance. From experiments with single quantum dots, a large g-factor anisotropy between the in-plane and the out-of-plane direction was found. A comparison to a theoretical model unveiled the heavy-hole character of the lowest energy states. The second part of the thesis addresses double quantum dot devices, which were realized by adding two gate electrodes to a hut wire. In such devices, Pauli spin blockade was observed, which can serve as a read-out mechanism for spin quantum bits. Applying oscillating electric fields in spin blockade allowed the demonstration of continuous spin rotations and the extraction of a lower bound for the spin dephasing time. Despite the strong spin orbit coupling in Ge, the obtained value for the dephasing time is comparable to what has been recently reported for holes in Si. All in all, the presented results point out the high potential of Ge hut wires as a platform for long-lived, fast and fully electrically tunable hole spin quantum bits.
AU - Watzinger, Hannes
ID - 49
TI - Ge hut wires - from growth to hole spin resonance
ER -
TY - THES
AB - A qubit, a unit of quantum information, is essentially any quantum mechanical two-level system which can be coherently controlled. Still, to be used for computation, it has to fulfill criteria. Qubits, regardless of the system in which they are realized, suffer from decoherence. This leads to loss of the information stored in the qubit. The upper bound of the time scale on which decoherence happens is set by the spin relaxation time. In this thesis I studied a two-level system consisting of a Zeeman-split hole spin confined in a quantum dot formed in a Ge hut wire. Such Ge hut wires have emerged as a promising material system for the realization of spin qubits, due to the combination of two significant properties: long spin coherence time as expected for group IV semiconductors due to the low hyperfine interaction and a strong valence band spin-orbit coupling. Here, I present how to fabricate quantum dot devices suitable for electrical transport measurements. Coupled quantum dot devices allowed the realization of a charge sensor, which is electrostatically and tunnel coupled to a quantum dot. By integrating the charge sensor into a radio-frequency reflectometry setup, I performed for the first time single-shot readout measurements of hole spins and extracted the hole spin relaxation times in Ge hut wires.
AU - Vukušić, Lada
ID - 69
TI - Charge sensing and spin relaxation times of holes in Ge hut wires
ER -