TY - CONF
AB - We study Multi-party computation (MPC) in the setting of subversion, where the adversary tampers with the machines of honest parties. Our goal is to construct actively secure MPC protocols where parties are corrupted adaptively by an adversary (as in the standard adaptive security setting), and in addition, honest parties’ machines are compromised.
The idea of reverse firewalls (RF) was introduced at EUROCRYPT’15 by Mironov and Stephens-Davidowitz as an approach to protecting protocols against corruption of honest parties’ devices. Intuitively, an RF for a party P is an external entity that sits between P and the outside world and whose scope is to sanitize P ’s incoming and outgoing messages in the face of subversion of their computer. Mironov and Stephens-Davidowitz constructed a protocol for passively-secure two-party computation. At CRYPTO’20, Chakraborty, Dziembowski and Nielsen constructed a protocol for secure computation with firewalls that improved on this result, both by extending it to multi-party computation protocol, and considering active security in the presence of static corruptions. In this paper, we initiate the study of RF for MPC in the adaptive setting. We put forward a definition for adaptively secure MPC in the reverse firewall setting, explore relationships among the security notions, and then construct reverse firewalls for MPC in this stronger setting of adaptive security. We also resolve the open question of Chakraborty, Dziembowski and Nielsen by removing the need for a trusted setup in constructing RF for MPC. Towards this end, we construct reverse firewalls for adaptively secure augmented coin tossing and adaptively secure zero-knowledge protocols and obtain a constant round adaptively secure MPC protocol in the reverse firewall setting without setup. Along the way, we propose a new multi-party adaptively secure coin tossing protocol in the plain model, that is of independent interest.
AU - Chakraborty, Suvradip
AU - Ganesh, Chaya
AU - Pancholi, Mahak
AU - Sarkar, Pratik
ID - 10609
SN - 0302-9743
T2 - 27th International Conference on the Theory and Application of Cryptology and Information Security
TI - Reverse firewalls for adaptively secure MPC without setup
VL - 13091
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Digital hardware Trojans are integrated circuits whose implementation differ from the specification in an arbitrary and malicious way. For example, the circuit can differ from its specified input/output behavior after some fixed number of queries (known as “time bombs”) or on some particular input (known as “cheat codes”). To detect such Trojans, countermeasures using multiparty computation (MPC) or verifiable computation (VC) have been proposed. On a high level, to realize a circuit with specification F one has more sophisticated circuits F⋄ manufactured (where F⋄ specifies a MPC or VC of F ), and then embeds these F⋄ ’s into a master circuit which must be trusted but is relatively simple compared to F . Those solutions impose a significant overhead as F⋄ is much more complex than F , also the master circuits are not exactly trivial. In this work, we show that in restricted settings, where F has no evolving state and is queried on independent inputs, we can achieve a relaxed security notion using very simple constructions. In particular, we do not change the specification of the circuit at all (i.e., F=F⋄ ). Moreover the master circuit basically just queries a subset of its manufactured circuits and checks if they’re all the same. The security we achieve guarantees that, if the manufactured circuits are initially tested on up to T inputs, the master circuit will catch Trojans that try to deviate on significantly more than a 1/T fraction of the inputs. This bound is optimal for the type of construction considered, and we provably achieve it using a construction where 12 instantiations of F need to be embedded into the master. We also discuss an extremely simple construction with just 2 instantiations for which we conjecture that it already achieves the optimal bound.
AU - Chakraborty, Suvradip
AU - Dziembowski, Stefan
AU - Gałązka, Małgorzata
AU - Lizurej, Tomasz
AU - Pietrzak, Krzysztof Z
AU - Yeo, Michelle X
ID - 10407
SN - 0302-9743
TI - Trojan-resilience without cryptography
VL - 13043
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Automated contract tracing aims at supporting manual contact tracing during pandemics by alerting users of encounters with infected people. There are currently many proposals for protocols (like the “decentralized” DP-3T and PACT or the “centralized” ROBERT and DESIRE) to be run on mobile phones, where the basic idea is to regularly broadcast (using low energy Bluetooth) some values, and at the same time store (a function of) incoming messages broadcasted by users in their proximity. In the existing proposals one can trigger false positives on a massive scale by an “inverse-Sybil” attack, where a large number of devices (malicious users or hacked phones) pretend to be the same user, such that later, just a single person needs to be diagnosed (and allowed to upload) to trigger an alert for all users who were in proximity to any of this large group of devices.
We propose the first protocols that do not succumb to such attacks assuming the devices involved in the attack do not constantly communicate, which we observe is a necessary assumption. The high level idea of the protocols is to derive the values to be broadcasted by a hash chain, so that two (or more) devices who want to launch an inverse-Sybil attack will not be able to connect their respective chains and thus only one of them will be able to upload. Our protocols also achieve security against replay, belated replay, and one of them even against relay attacks.
AU - Auerbach, Benedikt
AU - Chakraborty, Suvradip
AU - Klein, Karen
AU - Pascual Perez, Guillermo
AU - Pietrzak, Krzysztof Z
AU - Walter, Michael
AU - Yeo, Michelle X
ID - 9826
SN - 03029743
T2 - Topics in Cryptology – CT-RSA 2021
TI - Inverse-Sybil attacks in automated contact tracing
VL - 12704
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Reverse firewalls were introduced at Eurocrypt 2015 by Miro-nov and Stephens-Davidowitz, as a method for protecting cryptographic protocols against attacks on the devices of the honest parties. In a nutshell: a reverse firewall is placed outside of a device and its goal is to “sanitize” the messages sent by it, in such a way that a malicious device cannot leak its secrets to the outside world. It is typically assumed that the cryptographic devices are attacked in a “functionality-preserving way” (i.e. informally speaking, the functionality of the protocol remains unchanged under this attacks). In their paper, Mironov and Stephens-Davidowitz construct a protocol for passively-secure two-party computations with firewalls, leaving extension of this result to stronger models as an open question.
In this paper, we address this problem by constructing a protocol for secure computation with firewalls that has two main advantages over the original protocol from Eurocrypt 2015. Firstly, it is a multiparty computation protocol (i.e. it works for an arbitrary number n of the parties, and not just for 2). Secondly, it is secure in much stronger corruption settings, namely in the active corruption model. More precisely: we consider an adversary that can fully corrupt up to 𝑛−1 parties, while the remaining parties are corrupt in a functionality-preserving way.
Our core techniques are: malleable commitments and malleable non-interactive zero-knowledge, which in particular allow us to create a novel protocol for multiparty augmented coin-tossing into the well with reverse firewalls (that is based on a protocol of Lindell from Crypto 2001).
AU - Chakraborty, Suvradip
AU - Dziembowski, Stefan
AU - Nielsen, Jesper Buus
ID - 8322
SN - 03029743
T2 - Advances in Cryptology – CRYPTO 2020
TI - Reverse firewalls for actively secure MPCs
VL - 12171
ER -
TY - CHAP
AB - We introduce the notion of Witness Maps as a cryptographic notion of a proof system. A Unique Witness Map (UWM) deterministically maps all witnesses for an NP statement to a single representative witness, resulting in a computationally sound, deterministic-prover, non-interactive witness independent proof system. A relaxation of UWM, called Compact Witness Map (CWM), maps all the witnesses to a small number of witnesses, resulting in a “lossy” deterministic-prover, non-interactive proof-system. We also define a Dual Mode Witness Map (DMWM) which adds an “extractable” mode to a CWM.
Our main construction is a DMWM for all NP relations, assuming sub-exponentially secure indistinguishability obfuscation ( iO ), along with standard cryptographic assumptions. The DMWM construction relies on a CWM and a new primitive called Cumulative All-Lossy-But-One Trapdoor Functions (C-ALBO-TDF), both of which are in turn instantiated based on iO and other primitives. Our instantiation of a CWM is in fact a UWM; in turn, we show that a UWM implies Witness Encryption. Along the way to constructing UWM and C-ALBO-TDF, we also construct, from standard assumptions, Puncturable Digital Signatures and a new primitive called Cumulative Lossy Trapdoor Functions (C-LTDF). The former improves up on a construction of Bellare et al. (Eurocrypt 2016), who relied on sub-exponentially secure iO and sub-exponentially secure OWF.
As an application of our constructions, we show how to use a DMWM to construct the first leakage and tamper-resilient signatures with a deterministic signer, thereby solving a decade old open problem posed by Katz and Vaikunthanathan (Asiacrypt 2009), by Boyle, Segev and Wichs (Eurocrypt 2011), as well as by Faonio and Venturi (Asiacrypt 2016). Our construction achieves the optimal leakage rate of 1−o(1) .
AU - Chakraborty, Suvradip
AU - Prabhakaran, Manoj
AU - Wichs, Daniel
ED - Kiayias, A
ID - 10865
SN - 0302-9743
T2 - Public-Key Cryptography
TI - Witness maps and applications
VL - 12110
ER -