@inproceedings{6430,
abstract = {A proxy re-encryption (PRE) scheme is a public-key encryption scheme that allows the holder of a key pk to derive a re-encryption key for any other key 𝑝𝑘′. This re-encryption key lets anyone transform ciphertexts under pk into ciphertexts under 𝑝𝑘′ without having to know the underlying message, while transformations from 𝑝𝑘′ to pk should not be possible (unidirectional). Security is defined in a multi-user setting against an adversary that gets the users’ public keys and can ask for re-encryption keys and can corrupt users by requesting their secret keys. Any ciphertext that the adversary cannot trivially decrypt given the obtained secret and re-encryption keys should be secure.
All existing security proofs for PRE only show selective security, where the adversary must first declare the users it wants to corrupt. This can be lifted to more meaningful adaptive security by guessing the set of corrupted users among the n users, which loses a factor exponential in Open image in new window , rendering the result meaningless already for moderate Open image in new window .
Jafargholi et al. (CRYPTO’17) proposed a framework that in some cases allows to give adaptive security proofs for schemes which were previously only known to be selectively secure, while avoiding the exponential loss that results from guessing the adaptive choices made by an adversary. We apply their framework to PREs that satisfy some natural additional properties. Concretely, we give a more fine-grained reduction for several unidirectional PREs, proving adaptive security at a much smaller loss. The loss depends on the graph of users whose edges represent the re-encryption keys queried by the adversary. For trees and chains the loss is quasi-polynomial in the size and for general graphs it is exponential in their depth and indegree (instead of their size as for previous reductions). Fortunately, trees and low-depth graphs cover many, if not most, interesting applications.
Our results apply e.g. to the bilinear-map based PRE schemes by Ateniese et al. (NDSS’05 and CT-RSA’09), Gentry’s FHE-based scheme (STOC’09) and the LWE-based scheme by Chandran et al. (PKC’14).},
author = {Fuchsbauer, Georg and Kamath Hosdurg, Chethan and Klein, Karen and Pietrzak, Krzysztof Z},
isbn = {9783030172589},
issn = {16113349},
location = {Beijing, China},
pages = {317--346},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{Adaptively secure proxy re-encryption}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-17259-6_11},
volume = {11443},
year = {2019},
}
@inproceedings{6677,
abstract = {The Fiat-Shamir heuristic transforms a public-coin interactive proof into a non-interactive argument, by replacing the verifier with a cryptographic hash function that is applied to the protocol’s transcript. Constructing hash functions for which this transformation is sound is a central and long-standing open question in cryptography.
We show that solving the END−OF−METERED−LINE problem is no easier than breaking the soundness of the Fiat-Shamir transformation when applied to the sumcheck protocol. In particular, if the transformed protocol is sound, then any hard problem in #P gives rise to a hard distribution in the class CLS, which is contained in PPAD. Our result opens up the possibility of sampling moderately-sized games for which it is hard to find a Nash equilibrium, by reducing the inversion of appropriately chosen one-way functions to #SAT.
Our main technical contribution is a stateful incrementally verifiable procedure that, given a SAT instance over n variables, counts the number of satisfying assignments. This is accomplished via an exponential sequence of small steps, each computable in time poly(n). Incremental verifiability means that each intermediate state includes a sumcheck-based proof of its correctness, and the proof can be updated and verified in time poly(n).},
author = {Choudhuri, Arka Rai and Hubáček, Pavel and Kamath Hosdurg, Chethan and Pietrzak, Krzysztof Z and Rosen, Alon and Rothblum, Guy N.},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 51st Annual ACM SIGACT Symposium on Theory of Computing - STOC 2019},
isbn = {9781450367059},
location = {Phoenix, AZ, United States},
pages = {1103--1114},
publisher = {ACM Press},
title = {{Finding a Nash equilibrium is no easier than breaking Fiat-Shamir}},
doi = {10.1145/3313276.3316400},
year = {2019},
}
@inproceedings{7411,
abstract = {Proofs of sequential work (PoSW) are proof systems where a prover, upon receiving a statement χ and a time parameter T computes a proof ϕ(χ,T) which is efficiently and publicly verifiable. The proof can be computed in T sequential steps, but not much less, even by a malicious party having large parallelism. A PoSW thus serves as a proof that T units of time have passed since χ
was received.
PoSW were introduced by Mahmoody, Moran and Vadhan [MMV11], a simple and practical construction was only recently proposed by Cohen and Pietrzak [CP18].
In this work we construct a new simple PoSW in the random permutation model which is almost as simple and efficient as [CP18] but conceptually very different. Whereas the structure underlying [CP18] is a hash tree, our construction is based on skip lists and has the interesting property that computing the PoSW is a reversible computation.
The fact that the construction is reversible can potentially be used for new applications like constructing proofs of replication. We also show how to “embed” the sloth function of Lenstra and Weselowski [LW17] into our PoSW to get a PoSW where one additionally can verify correctness of the output much more efficiently than recomputing it (though recent constructions of “verifiable delay functions” subsume most of the applications this construction was aiming at).},
author = {Abusalah, Hamza M and Kamath Hosdurg, Chethan and Klein, Karen and Pietrzak, Krzysztof Z and Walter, Michael},
booktitle = {Advances in Cryptology – EUROCRYPT 2019},
isbn = {9783030176556},
issn = {0302-9743},
location = {Darmstadt, Germany},
pages = {277--291},
publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
title = {{Reversible proofs of sequential work}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-17656-3_10},
volume = {11477},
year = {2019},
}
@inproceedings{193,
abstract = {We show attacks on five data-independent memory-hard functions (iMHF) that were submitted to the password hashing competition (PHC). Informally, an MHF is a function which cannot be evaluated on dedicated hardware, like ASICs, at significantly lower hardware and/or energy cost than evaluating a single instance on a standard single-core architecture. Data-independent means the memory access pattern of the function is independent of the input; this makes iMHFs harder to construct than data-dependent ones, but the latter can be attacked by various side-channel attacks. Following [Alwen-Blocki'16], we capture the evaluation of an iMHF as a directed acyclic graph (DAG). The cumulative parallel pebbling complexity of this DAG is a measure for the hardware cost of evaluating the iMHF on an ASIC. Ideally, one would like the complexity of a DAG underlying an iMHF to be as close to quadratic in the number of nodes of the graph as possible. Instead, we show that (the DAGs underlying) the following iMHFs are far from this bound: Rig.v2, TwoCats and Gambit each having an exponent no more than 1.75. Moreover, we show that the complexity of the iMHF modes of the PHC finalists Pomelo and Lyra2 have exponents at most 1.83 and 1.67 respectively. To show this we investigate a combinatorial property of each underlying DAG (called its depth-robustness. By establishing upper bounds on this property we are then able to apply the general technique of [Alwen-Block'16] for analyzing the hardware costs of an iMHF.},
author = {Alwen, Joel F and Gazi, Peter and Kamath Hosdurg, Chethan and Klein, Karen and Osang, Georg F and Pietrzak, Krzysztof Z and Reyzin, Lenoid and Rolinek, Michal and Rybar, Michal},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2018 on Asia Conference on Computer and Communication Security},
location = {Incheon, Republic of Korea},
pages = {51 -- 65},
publisher = {ACM},
title = {{On the memory hardness of data independent password hashing functions}},
doi = {10.1145/3196494.3196534},
year = {2018},
}
@article{5980,
abstract = {The problem of private set-intersection (PSI) has been traditionally treated as an instance of the more general problem of multi-party computation (MPC). Consequently, in order to argue security, or compose these protocols one has to rely on the general theory that was developed for the purpose of MPC. The pursuit of efficient protocols, however, has resulted in designs that exploit properties pertaining to PSI. In almost all practical applications where a PSI protocol is deployed, it is expected to be executed multiple times, possibly on related inputs. In this work we initiate a dedicated study of PSI in the multi-interaction (MI) setting. In this model a server sets up the common system parameters and executes set-intersection multiple times with potentially different clients. We discuss a few attacks that arise when protocols are naïvely composed in this manner and, accordingly, craft security definitions for the MI setting and study their inter-relation. Finally, we suggest a set of protocols that are MI-secure, at the same time almost as efficient as their parent, stand-alone, protocols.},
author = {Chatterjee, Sanjit and Kamath Hosdurg, Chethan and Kumar, Vikas},
journal = {American Institute of Mathematical Sciences},
number = {1},
pages = {17--47},
publisher = {AIMS},
title = {{Private set-intersection with common set-up}},
doi = {10.3934/amc.2018002},
volume = {12},
year = {2018},
}
@inproceedings{637,
abstract = {For many cryptographic primitives, it is relatively easy to achieve selective security (where the adversary commits a-priori to some of the choices to be made later in the attack) but appears difficult to achieve the more natural notion of adaptive security (where the adversary can make all choices on the go as the attack progresses). A series of several recent works shows how to cleverly achieve adaptive security in several such scenarios including generalized selective decryption (Panjwani, TCC ’07 and Fuchsbauer et al., CRYPTO ’15), constrained PRFs (Fuchsbauer et al., ASIACRYPT ’14), and Yao garbled circuits (Jafargholi and Wichs, TCC ’16b). Although the above works expressed vague intuition that they share a common technique, the connection was never made precise. In this work we present a new framework that connects all of these works and allows us to present them in a unified and simplified fashion. Moreover, we use the framework to derive a new result for adaptively secure secret sharing over access structures defined via monotone circuits. We envision that further applications will follow in the future. Underlying our framework is the following simple idea. It is well known that selective security, where the adversary commits to n-bits of information about his future choices, automatically implies adaptive security at the cost of amplifying the adversary’s advantage by a factor of up to 2n. However, in some cases the proof of selective security proceeds via a sequence of hybrids, where each pair of adjacent hybrids locally only requires some smaller partial information consisting of m ≪ n bits. The partial information needed might be completely different between different pairs of hybrids, and if we look across all the hybrids we might rely on the entire n-bit commitment. Nevertheless, the above is sufficient to prove adaptive security, at the cost of amplifying the adversary’s advantage by a factor of only 2m ≪ 2n. In all of our examples using the above framework, the different hybrids are captured by some sort of a graph pebbling game and the amount of information that the adversary needs to commit to in each pair of hybrids is bounded by the maximum number of pebbles in play at any point in time. Therefore, coming up with better strategies for proving adaptive security translates to various pebbling strategies for different types of graphs.},
author = {Jafargholi, Zahra and Kamath Hosdurg, Chethan and Klein, Karen and Komargodski, Ilan and Pietrzak, Krzysztof Z and Wichs, Daniel},
editor = {Katz, Jonathan and Shacham, Hovav},
isbn = {978-331963687-0},
location = {Santa Barbara, CA, United States},
pages = {133 -- 163},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Be adaptive avoid overcommitting}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-63688-7_5},
volume = {10401},
year = {2017},
}
@inproceedings{1231,
abstract = {We study the time-and memory-complexities of the problem of computing labels of (multiple) randomly selected challenge-nodes in a directed acyclic graph. The w-bit label of a node is the hash of the labels of its parents, and the hash function is modeled as a random oracle. Specific instances of this problem underlie both proofs of space [Dziembowski et al. CRYPTO’15] as well as popular memory-hard functions like scrypt. As our main tool, we introduce the new notion of a probabilistic parallel entangled pebbling game, a new type of combinatorial pebbling game on a graph, which is closely related to the labeling game on the same graph. As a first application of our framework, we prove that for scrypt, when the underlying hash function is invoked n times, the cumulative memory complexity (CMC) (a notion recently introduced by Alwen and Serbinenko (STOC’15) to capture amortized memory-hardness for parallel adversaries) is at least Ω(w · (n/ log(n))2). This bound holds for adversaries that can store many natural functions of the labels (e.g., linear combinations), but still not arbitrary functions thereof. We then introduce and study a combinatorial quantity, and show how a sufficiently small upper bound on it (which we conjecture) extends our CMC bound for scrypt to hold against arbitrary adversaries. We also show that such an upper bound solves the main open problem for proofs-of-space protocols: namely, establishing that the time complexity of computing the label of a random node in a graph on n nodes (given an initial kw-bit state) reduces tightly to the time complexity for black pebbling on the same graph (given an initial k-node pebbling).},
author = {Alwen, Joel F and Chen, Binyi and Kamath Hosdurg, Chethan and Kolmogorov, Vladimir and Pietrzak, Krzysztof Z and Tessaro, Stefano},
location = {Vienna, Austria},
pages = {358 -- 387},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{On the complexity of scrypt and proofs of space in the parallel random oracle model}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-662-49896-5_13},
volume = {9666},
year = {2016},
}
@inproceedings{1225,
abstract = {At Crypto 2015 Fuchsbauer, Hanser and Slamanig (FHS) presented the first standard-model construction of efficient roundoptimal blind signatures that does not require complexity leveraging. It is conceptually simple and builds on the primitive of structure-preserving signatures on equivalence classes (SPS-EQ). FHS prove the unforgeability of their scheme assuming EUF-CMA security of the SPS-EQ scheme and hardness of a version of the DH inversion problem. Blindness under adversarially chosen keys is proven under an interactive variant of the DDH assumption. We propose a variant of their scheme whose blindness can be proven under a non-interactive assumption, namely a variant of the bilinear DDH assumption. We moreover prove its unforgeability assuming only unforgeability of the underlying SPS-EQ but no additional assumptions as needed for the FHS scheme.},
author = {Fuchsbauer, Georg and Hanser, Christian and Kamath Hosdurg, Chethan and Slamanig, Daniel},
location = {Amalfi, Italy},
pages = {391 -- 408},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Practical round-optimal blind signatures in the standard model from weaker assumptions}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-44618-9_21},
volume = {9841},
year = {2016},
}
@article{1177,
abstract = {Boldyreva, Palacio and Warinschi introduced a multiple forking game as an extension of general forking. The notion of (multiple) forking is a useful abstraction from the actual simulation of cryptographic scheme to the adversary in a security reduction, and is achieved through the intermediary of a so-called wrapper algorithm. Multiple forking has turned out to be a useful tool in the security argument of several cryptographic protocols. However, a reduction employing multiple forking incurs a significant degradation of (Formula presented.) , where (Formula presented.) denotes the upper bound on the underlying random oracle calls and (Formula presented.) , the number of forkings. In this work we take a closer look at the reasons for the degradation with a tighter security bound in mind. We nail down the exact set of conditions for success in the multiple forking game. A careful analysis of the cryptographic schemes and corresponding security reduction employing multiple forking leads to the formulation of ‘dependence’ and ‘independence’ conditions pertaining to the output of the wrapper in different rounds. Based on the (in)dependence conditions we propose a general framework of multiple forking and a General Multiple Forking Lemma. Leveraging (in)dependence to the full allows us to improve the degradation factor in the multiple forking game by a factor of (Formula presented.). By implication, the cost of a single forking involving two random oracles (augmented forking) matches that involving a single random oracle (elementary forking). Finally, we study the effect of these observations on the concrete security of existing schemes employing multiple forking. We conclude that by careful design of the protocol (and the wrapper in the security reduction) it is possible to harness our observations to the full extent.},
author = {Kamath Hosdurg, Chethan and Chatterjee, Sanjit},
journal = {Algorithmica},
number = {4},
pages = {1321 -- 1362},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{A closer look at multiple-forking: Leveraging (in)dependence for a tighter bound}},
doi = {10.1007/s00453-015-9997-6},
volume = {74},
year = {2016},
}