TY - CONF
AB - While showing great promise, Bitcoin requires users to wait tens of minutes for transactions to commit, and even then, offering only probabilistic guarantees. This paper introduces ByzCoin, a novel Byzantine consensus protocol that leverages scalable collective signing to commit Bitcoin transactions irreversibly within seconds. ByzCoin achieves Byzantine consensus while preserving Bitcoin’s open membership by dynamically forming hash power-proportionate consensus groups that represent recently-successful block miners. ByzCoin employs communication trees to optimize transaction commitment and verification under normal operation while guaranteeing safety and liveness under Byzantine faults, up to a near-optimal tolerance of f faulty group members among 3f + 2 total. ByzCoin mitigates double spending and selfish mining attacks by producing collectively signed transaction blocks within one minute of transaction submission. Tree-structured communication further reduces this latency to less than 30 seconds. Due to these optimizations, ByzCoin achieves a throughput higher than Paypal currently handles, with a confirmation latency of 15-20 seconds.
AU - Kokoris Kogias, Eleftherios
AU - Jovanovic, Philipp
AU - Gailly, Nicolas
AU - Khoffi, Ismail
AU - Gasser, Linus
AU - Ford, Bryan
ID - 8302
SN - 9781931971324
T2 - Proceedings of the 25th USENIX Conference on Security Symposium
TI - Enhancing bitcoin security and performance with strong consistency via collective signing
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Hybrid systems represent an important and powerful formalism for modeling real-world applications such as embedded systems. A verification tool like SpaceEx is based on the exploration of a symbolic search space (the region space). As a verification tool, it is typically optimized towards proving the absence of errors. In some settings, e.g., when the verification tool is employed in a feedback-directed design cycle, one would like to have the option to call a version that is optimized towards finding an error trajectory in the region space. A recent approach in this direction is based on guided search. Guided search relies on a cost function that indicates which states are promising to be explored, and preferably explores more promising states first. In this paper, we propose an abstraction-based cost function based on coarse-grained space abstractions for guiding the reachability analysis. For this purpose, a suitable abstraction technique that exploits the flexible granularity of modern reachability analysis algorithms is introduced. The new cost function is an effective extension of pattern database approaches that have been successfully applied in other areas. The approach has been implemented in the SpaceEx model checker. The evaluation shows its practical potential.
AU - Bogomolov, Sergiy
AU - Donzé, Alexandre
AU - Frehse, Goran
AU - Grosu, Radu
AU - Johnson, Taylor
AU - Ladan, Hamed
AU - Podelski, Andreas
AU - Wehrle, Martin
ID - 1705
IS - 4
JF - International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer
TI - Guided search for hybrid systems based on coarse-grained space abstractions
VL - 18
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We calculate admissible values of r such that a square-free polynomial with integer coefficients, no fixed prime divisor and irreducible factors of degree at most 3 takes infinitely many values that are a product of at most r distinct primes.
AU - Browning, Timothy D
AU - Booker, Andrew
ID - 173
JF - Discrete Analysis
TI - Square-free values of reducible polynomials
VL - 8
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider Conditional random fields (CRFs) with pattern-based potentials defined on a chain. In this model the energy of a string (labeling) (Formula presented.) is the sum of terms over intervals [i, j] where each term is non-zero only if the substring (Formula presented.) equals a prespecified pattern w. Such CRFs can be naturally applied to many sequence tagging problems. We present efficient algorithms for the three standard inference tasks in a CRF, namely computing (i) the partition function, (ii) marginals, and (iii) computing the MAP. Their complexities are respectively (Formula presented.), (Formula presented.) and (Formula presented.) where L is the combined length of input patterns, (Formula presented.) is the maximum length of a pattern, and D is the input alphabet. This improves on the previous algorithms of Ye et al. (NIPS, 2009) whose complexities are respectively (Formula presented.), (Formula presented.) and (Formula presented.), where (Formula presented.) is the number of input patterns. In addition, we give an efficient algorithm for sampling, and revisit the case of MAP with non-positive weights.
AU - Kolmogorov, Vladimir
AU - Takhanov, Rustem
ID - 1794
IS - 1
JF - Algorithmica
TI - Inference algorithms for pattern-based CRFs on sequence data
VL - 76
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Relational models for contingency tables are generalizations of log-linear models, allowing effects associated with arbitrary subsets of cells in the table, and not necessarily containing the overall effect, that is, a common parameter in every cell. Similarly to log-linear models, relational models can be extended to non-negative distributions, but the extension requires more complex methods. An extended relational model is defined as an algebraic variety, and it turns out to be the closure of the original model with respect to the Bregman divergence. In the extended relational model, the MLE of the cell parameters always exists and is unique, but some of its properties may be different from those of the MLE under log-linear models. The MLE can be computed using a generalized iterative scaling procedure based on Bregman projections.
AU - Klimova, Anna
AU - Rudas, Tamás
ID - 1833
JF - Journal of Multivariate Analysis
TI - On the closure of relational models
VL - 143
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider random matrices of the form H=W+λV, λ∈ℝ+, where W is a real symmetric or complex Hermitian Wigner matrix of size N and V is a real bounded diagonal random matrix of size N with i.i.d.\ entries that are independent of W. We assume subexponential decay for the matrix entries of W and we choose λ∼1, so that the eigenvalues of W and λV are typically of the same order. Further, we assume that the density of the entries of V is supported on a single interval and is convex near the edges of its support. In this paper we prove that there is λ+∈ℝ+ such that the largest eigenvalues of H are in the limit of large N determined by the order statistics of V for λ>λ+. In particular, the largest eigenvalue of H has a Weibull distribution in the limit N→∞ if λ>λ+. Moreover, for N sufficiently large, we show that the eigenvectors associated to the largest eigenvalues are partially localized for λ>λ+, while they are completely delocalized for λ<λ+. Similar results hold for the lowest eigenvalues.
AU - Lee, Jioon
AU - Schnelli, Kevin
ID - 1881
IS - 1-2
JF - Probability Theory and Related Fields
TI - Extremal eigenvalues and eigenvectors of deformed Wigner matrices
VL - 164
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Kinetics of electrochemical reactions are several orders of magnitude slower in solids than in liquids as a result of the much lower ion diffusivity. Yet, the solid state maximizes the density of redox species, which is at least two orders of magnitude lower in liquids because of solubility limitations. With regard to electrochemical energy storage devices, this leads to high-energy batteries with limited power and high-power supercapacitors with a well-known energy deficiency. For such devices the ideal system should endow the liquid state with a density of redox species close to the solid state. Here we report an approach based on biredox ionic liquids to achieve bulk-like redox density at liquid-like fast kinetics. The cation and anion of these biredox ionic liquids bear moieties that undergo very fast reversible redox reactions. As a first demonstration of their potential for high-capacity/high-rate charge storage, we used them in redox supercapacitors. These ionic liquids are able to decouple charge storage from an ion-accessible electrode surface, by storing significant charge in the pores of the electrodes, to minimize self-discharge and leakage current as a result of retaining the redox species in the pores, and to raise working voltage due to their wide electrochemical window.
AU - Mourad, Eléonore
AU - Coustan, Laura
AU - Lannelongue, Pierre
AU - Zigah, Dodzi
AU - Mehdi, Ahmad
AU - Vioux, André
AU - Freunberger, Stefan Alexander
AU - Favier, Frédéric
AU - Fontaine, Olivier
ID - 7279
IS - 4
JF - Nature Materials
SN - 1476-1122
TI - Biredox ionic liquids with solid-like redox density in the liquid state for high-energy supercapacitors
VL - 16
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Redox mediators facilitate the oxidation of the highly insulating discharge product in metal–oxygen batteries during recharge and offer opportunities to achieve high reversible capacities. Now a design principle for selecting redox mediators that can recharge the batteries more efficiently is suggested.
AU - Freunberger, Stefan Alexander
ID - 7297
IS - 6
JF - Nature Energy
SN - 2058-7546
TI - Batteries: Charging ahead rationally
VL - 1
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Normal leaf margin development is important for leaf morphogenesis and contributes to diverse leaf shapes in higher plants. We here show the crucial roles of an atypical type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase, PI4Kγ5, in Arabidopsis leaf margin development. PI4Kγ5 presents a dynamics expression pattern along with leaf development and a T-DNA mutant lacking PI4Kγ5, pi4kγ5–1, presents serrated leaves, which is resulted from the accelerated cell division and increased auxin concentration at serration tips. Studies revealed that PI4Kγ5 interacts with and phosphorylates a membrane-bound NAC transcription factor, ANAC078. Previous studies demonstrated that membrane-bound transcription factors regulate gene transcription by undergoing proteolytic process to translocate into nucleus, and ANAC078 undergoes proteolysis by cleaving off the transmembrane region and carboxyl terminal. Western blot analysis indeed showed that ANAC078 deleting of carboxyl terminal is significantly reduced in pi4kγ5–1, indicating that PI4Kγ5 is important for the cleavage of ANAC078. This is consistent with the subcellular localization observation showing that fluorescence by GFP-ANAC078 is detected at plasma membrane but not nucleus in pi4kγ5–1 mutant and that expression of ANAC078 deleting of carboxyl terminal, driven by PI4Kγ5 promoter, could rescue the leaf serration defects of pi4kγ5–1. Further analysis showed that ANAC078 suppresses the auxin synthesis by directly binding and regulating the expression of auxin synthesis-related genes. These results indicate that PI4Kγ5 interacts with ANAC078 to negatively regulate auxin synthesis and hence influences cell proliferation and leaf development, providing informative clues for the regulation of in situ auxin synthesis and cell division, as well as the cleavage and functional mechanism of membrane-bound transcription factors.
AU - Tang, Yong
AU - Zhao, Chun-Yan
AU - Tan, Shutang
AU - Xue, Hong-Wei
ID - 7599
IS - 8
JF - PLOS Genetics
SN - 1553-7404
TI - Arabidopsis type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase PI4Kγ5 regulates auxin biosynthesis and leaf margin development through interacting with membrane-bound transcription factor ANAC078
VL - 12
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified thousands of genetic variants associated with human complex traits. However, the genes or functional DNA elements through which these variants exert their effects on the traits are often unknown. We propose a method (called SMR) that integrates summary-level data from GWAS with data from expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) studies to identify genes whose expression levels are associated with a complex trait because of pleiotropy. We apply the method to five human complex traits using GWAS data on up to 339,224 individuals and eQTL data on 5,311 individuals, and we prioritize 126 genes (for example, TRAF1 and ANKRD55 for rheumatoid arthritis and SNX19 and NMRAL1 for schizophrenia), of which 25 genes are new candidates; 77 genes are not the nearest annotated gene to the top associated GWAS SNP. These genes provide important leads to design future functional studies to understand the mechanism whereby DNA variation leads to complex trait variation.
AU - Zhu, Zhihong
AU - Zhang, Futao
AU - Hu, Han
AU - Bakshi, Andrew
AU - Robinson, Matthew Richard
AU - Powell, Joseph E
AU - Montgomery, Grant W
AU - Goddard, Michael E
AU - Wray, Naomi R
AU - Visscher, Peter M
AU - Yang, Jian
ID - 7737
IS - 5
JF - Nature Genetics
SN - 1061-4036
TI - Integration of summary data from GWAS and eQTL studies predicts complex trait gene targets
VL - 48
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Lock-free concurrent algorithms guarantee that some concurrent operation will always make progress in a finite number of steps. Yet programmers prefer to treat concurrent code as if it were wait-free, guaranteeing that all operations always make progress. Unfortunately, designing wait-free algorithms is generally a very complex task, and the resulting algorithms are not always efficient. Although obtaining efficient wait-free algorithms has been a long-time goal for the theory community, most nonblocking commercial code is only lock-free. This article suggests a simple solution to this problem.We show that for a large class of lock-free algorithms, under scheduling conditions that approximate those found in commercial hardware architectures, lock-free algorithms behave as if they are wait-free. In other words, programmers can continue to design simple lock-free algorithms instead of complex wait-free ones, and in practice, they will get wait-free progress. Our main contribution is a new way of analyzing a general class of lock-free algorithms under a stochastic scheduler. Our analysis relates the individual performance of processes to the global performance of the system using Markov chain lifting between a complex per-process chain and a simpler system progress chain. We show that lock-free algorithms are not only wait-free with probability 1 but that in fact a general subset of lock-free algorithms can be closely bounded in terms of the average number of steps required until an operation completes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to analyze progress conditions, typically stated in relation to a worst-case adversary, in a stochastic model capturing their expected asymptotic behavior.
AU - Alistarh, Dan-Adrian
AU - Censor Hillel, Keren
AU - Shavit, Nir
ID - 786
IS - 4
JF - Journal of the ACM
TI - Are lock free concurrent algorithms practically wait free
VL - 63
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - NF-κB signaling is a central pathway of immunity and integrates signal transduction upon a wide array of inflammatory stimuli. Noncanonical NF-κB signaling is activated by a small subset of TNF family receptors and characterized by NF-κB2/p52 transcriptional activity. The medical relevance of this pathway has recently re-emerged from the discovery of primary immunodeficiency patients that have loss-of-function mutations in the MAP3K14 gene encoding NIK. Nevertheless, knowledge of protein interactions that regulate noncanonical NF-κB signaling is sparse. Here we report a detailed state-of-the-art mass spectrometry-based protein–protein interaction network including the noncanonical NF-κB signaling nodes TRAF2, TRAF3, IKKα, NIK, and NF-κB2/p100. The value of the data set was confirmed by the identification of interactions already known to regulate this pathway. In addition, a remarkable number of novel interactors were identified. We provide validation of the novel NIK and IKKα interactor FKBP8, which may regulate processes downstream of noncanonical NF-κB signaling. To understand perturbed noncanonical NF-κB signaling in the context of misregulated NIK in disease, we also provide a differential interactome of NIK mutants that cause immunodeficiency. Altogether, this data set not only provides critical insight into how protein–protein interactions can regulate immune signaling but also offers a novel resource on noncanonical NF-κB signaling.
AU - Willmann, Katharina L
AU - Roberto Sacco
AU - Martins, Rui
AU - Garncarz, Wojciech
AU - Krolo, Ana
AU - Knapp, Sylvia
AU - Bennett, Keiryn L
AU - Boztug, Kaan
ID - 460
IS - 9
JF - Journal of Proteome Research
TI - Expanding the interactome of the noncanonical NF-κB signaling pathway
VL - 15
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Magic: the Gathering is a game about magical combat for any number of players. Formally it is a zero-sum, imperfect information stochastic game that consists of a potentially unbounded number of steps. We consider the problem of deciding if a move is legal in a given single step of Magic. We show that the problem is (a) coNP-complete in general; and (b) in P if either of two small sets of cards are not used. Our lower bound holds even for single-player Magic games. The significant aspects of our results are as follows: First, in most real-life game problems, the task of deciding whether a given move is legal in a single step is trivial, and the computationally hard task is to find the best sequence of legal moves in the presence of multiple players. In contrast, quite uniquely our hardness result holds for single step and with only one-player. Second, we establish efficient algorithms for important special cases of Magic.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus
ID - 478
TI - The complexity of deciding legality of a single step of magic: The gathering
VL - 285
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Graph games provide the foundation for modeling and synthesizing reactive processes. In the synthesis of stochastic reactive processes, the traditional model is perfect-information stochastic games, where some transitions of the game graph are controlled by two adversarial players, and the other transitions are executed probabilistically. We consider such games where the objective is the conjunction of several quantitative objectives (specified as mean-payoff conditions), which we refer to as generalized mean-payoff objectives. The basic decision problem asks for the existence of a finite-memory strategy for a player that ensures the generalized mean-payoff objective be satisfied with a desired probability against all strategies of the opponent. A special case of the decision problem is the almost-sure problem where the desired probability is 1. Previous results presented a semi-decision procedure for -approximations of the almost-sure problem. In this work, we show that both the almost-sure problem as well as the general basic decision problem are coNP-complete, significantly improving the previous results. Moreover, we show that in the case of 1-player stochastic games, randomized memoryless strategies are sufficient and the problem can be solved in polynomial time. In contrast, in two-player stochastic games, we show that even with randomized strategies exponential memory is required in general, and present a matching exponential upper bound. We also study the basic decision problem with infinite-memory strategies and present computational complexity results for the problem. Our results are relevant in the synthesis of stochastic reactive systems with multiple quantitative requirements.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Doyen, Laurent
ID - 480
TI - Perfect-information stochastic games with generalized mean-payoff objectives
VL - 05-08-July-2016
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The CLE (CLAVATA3/Embryo Surrounding Region-related) peptides are small secreted signaling peptides that are primarily involved in the regulation of stem cell homeostasis in different plant meristems. Particularly, the characterization of the CLE41-PXY/TDR signaling pathway has greatly advanced our understanding on the potential roles of CLE peptides in vascular development and wood formation. Nevertheless, our knowledge on this gene family in a tree species is limited. In a recent study, we reported on a systematically investigation of the CLE gene family in Populus trichocarpa . The potential roles of PtCLE genes were studied by comparative analysis and transcriptional pro fi ling. Among fi fty PtCLE members, many PtCLE proteins share identical CLE motifs or contain the same CLE motif as that of AtCLEs, while PtCLE genes exhibited either comparable or distinct expression patterns comparing to their Arabidopsis counterparts. These fi ndings indicate the existence of both functional conservation and functional divergence between PtCLEs and their AtCLE orthologues. Our results provide valuable resources for future functional investigations of these critical signaling molecules in woody plants.
AU - Liu, Zhijun
AU - Yang, Nan
AU - Lv, Yanting
AU - Pan, Lixia
AU - Lv, Shuo
AU - Han, Huibin
AU - Wang, Guodong
ID - 510
IS - 6
JF - Plant Signaling & Behavior
TI - The CLE gene family in Populus trichocarpa
VL - 11
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - We consider the quantitative analysis problem for interprocedural control-flow graphs (ICFGs). The input consists of an ICFG, a positive weight function that assigns every transition a positive integer-valued number, and a labelling of the transitions (events) as good, bad, and neutral events. The weight function assigns to each transition a numerical value that represents ameasure of how good or bad an event is. The quantitative analysis problem asks whether there is a run of the ICFG where the ratio of the sum of the numerical weights of good events versus the sum of weights of bad events in the long-run is at least a given threshold (or equivalently, to compute the maximal ratio among all valid paths in the ICFG). The quantitative analysis problem for ICFGs can be solved in polynomial time, and we present an efficient and practical algorithm for the problem. We show that several problems relevant for static program analysis, such as estimating the worst-case execution time of a program or the average energy consumption of a mobile application, can be modeled in our framework. We have implemented our algorithm as a tool in the Java Soot framework. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach with two case studies. First, we show that our framework provides a sound approach (no false positives) for the analysis of inefficiently-used containers. Second, we show that our approach can also be used for static profiling of programs which reasons about methods that are frequently invoked. Our experimental results show that our tool scales to relatively large benchmarks, and discovers relevant and useful information that can be used to optimize performance of the programs.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Pavlogiannis, Andreas
AU - Velner, Yaron
ID - 5445
SN - 2664-1690
TI - Quantitative interprocedural analysis
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - We study the problem of developing efficient approaches for proving termination of recursive programs with one-dimensional arrays. Ranking functions serve as a sound and complete approach for proving termination of non-recursive programs without array operations. First, we generalize ranking functions to the notion of measure functions, and prove that measure functions (i) provide a sound method to prove termination of recursive programs (with one-dimensional arrays), and (ii) is both sound and complete over recursive programs without array operations. Our second contribution is the synthesis of measure functions of specific forms in polynomial time. More precisely, we prove that (i) polynomial measure functions over recursive programs can be synthesized in polynomial time through Farkas’ Lemma and Handelman’s Theorem, and (ii) measure functions involving logarithm and exponentiation can be synthesized in polynomial time through abstraction of logarithmic or exponential terms and Handelman’s Theorem. A key application of our method is the worst-case analysis of recursive programs. While previous methods obtain worst-case polynomial bounds of the form O(n^k), where k is an integer, our polynomial time methods can synthesize bounds of the form O(n log n), as well as O(n^x), where x is not an integer. We show the applicability of our automated technique to obtain worst-case complexity of classical recursive algorithms such as (i) Merge-Sort, the divideand-
conquer algorithm for the Closest-Pair problem, where we obtain O(n log n) worst-case bound, and (ii) Karatsuba’s algorithm for polynomial multiplication and Strassen’s algorithm for matrix multiplication, where we obtain O(n^x) bound, where x is not an integer and close to the best-known bounds for the respective algorithms. Finally, we present experimental results to demonstrate the
effectiveness of our approach.
AU - Anonymous, 1
AU - Anonymous, 2
AU - Anonymous, 3
ID - 5446
SN - 2664-1690
TI - Termination and worst-case analysis of recursive programs
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - We consider the problem of developing automated techniques to aid the average-case complexity analysis of programs. Several classical textbook algorithms have quite efficient average-case complexity, whereas the corresponding worst-case bounds are either inefficient (e.g., QUICK-SORT), or completely ineffective (e.g., COUPONCOLLECTOR). Since the main focus of average-case analysis is to obtain efficient bounds, we consider bounds that are either logarithmic,
linear, or almost-linear (O(log n), O(n), O(n · log n),
respectively, where n represents the size of the input). Our main contribution is a sound approach for deriving such average-case bounds for randomized recursive programs. Our approach is efficient (a simple linear-time algorithm), and it is based on (a) the analysis of recurrence relations induced by randomized algorithms, and (b) a guess-and-check technique. Our approach can infer the asymptotically optimal average-case bounds for classical randomized algorithms, including RANDOMIZED-SEARCH, QUICKSORT, QUICK-SELECT, COUPON-COLLECTOR, where the worstcase
bounds are either inefficient (such as linear as compared to logarithmic of average-case, or quadratic as compared to linear or almost-linear of average-case), or ineffective. We have implemented our approach, and the experimental results show that we obtain the bounds efficiently for various classical algorithms.
AU - Anonymous, 1
AU - Anonymous, 2
AU - Anonymous, 3
ID - 5447
SN - 2664-1690
TI - Average-case analysis of programs: Automated recurrence analysis for almost-linear bounds
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - We present a new dynamic partial-order reduction method for stateless model checking of concurrent programs. A common approach for exploring program behaviors relies on enumerating the traces of the program, without storing the visited states (aka stateless exploration). As the number of distinct traces grows exponentially, dynamic partial-order reduction (DPOR) techniques have been successfully used to partition the space of traces into equivalence classes (Mazurkiewicz partitioning), with the goal of exploring only few representative traces from each class.
We introduce a new equivalence on traces under sequential consistency semantics, which we call the observation equivalence. Two traces are observationally equivalent if every read event observes the same write event in both traces. While the traditional Mazurkiewicz equivalence is control-centric, our new definition is data-centric. We show that our observation equivalence is coarser than the Mazurkiewicz equivalence, and in many cases even exponentially coarser. We devise a DPOR exploration of the trace space, called data-centric DPOR, based on the observation equivalence.
1. For acyclic architectures, our algorithm is guaranteed to explore exactly one representative trace from each observation class, while spending polynomial time per class. Hence, our algorithm is optimal wrt the observation equivalence, and in several cases explores exponentially fewer traces than any enumerative method based on the Mazurkiewicz equivalence.
2. For cyclic architectures, we consider an equivalence between traces which is finer than the observation equivalence; but coarser than the Mazurkiewicz equivalence, and in some cases is exponentially coarser. Our data-centric DPOR algorithm remains optimal under this trace equivalence.
Finally, we perform a basic experimental comparison between the existing Mazurkiewicz-based DPOR and our data-centric DPOR on a set of academic benchmarks. Our results show a significant reduction in both running time and the number of explored equivalence classes.
AU - Anonymous, 1
AU - Anonymous, 2
AU - Anonymous, 3
AU - Anonymous, 4
ID - 5448
SN - 2664-1690
TI - Data-centric dynamic partial order reduction
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - The fixation probability is the probability that a new mutant introduced in a homogeneous population eventually takes over the entire population.
The fixation probability is a fundamental quantity of natural selection, and known to depend on the population structure.
Amplifiers of natural selection are population structures which increase the fixation probability of advantageous mutants, as compared to the baseline case of well-mixed populations. In this work we focus on symmetric population structures represented as undirected graphs. In the regime of undirected graphs, the strongest amplifier known has been the Star graph, and the existence of undirected graphs with stronger amplification properties has remained open for over a decade.
In this work we present the Comet and Comet-swarm families of undirected graphs. We show that for a range of fitness values of the mutants, the Comet and Comet-swarm graphs have fixation probability strictly larger than the fixation probability of the Star graph, for fixed population size and at the limit of large populations, respectively.
AU - Pavlogiannis, Andreas
AU - Tkadlec, Josef
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Nowak, Martin
ID - 5449
SN - 2664-1690
TI - Amplification on undirected population structures: Comets beat stars
ER -