TY - JOUR
AB - Cryo electron tomography with subsequent subtomogram averaging is a powerful technique to structurally analyze macromolecular complexes in their native context. Although close to atomic resolution in principle can be obtained, it is not clear how individual experimental parameters contribute to the attainable resolution. Here, we have used immature HIV-1 lattice as a benchmarking sample to optimize the attainable resolution for subtomogram averaging. We systematically tested various experimental parameters such as the order of projections, different angular increments and the use of the Volta phase plate. We find that although any of the prominently used acquisition schemes is sufficient to obtain subnanometer resolution, dose-symmetric acquisition provides considerably better outcome. We discuss our findings in order to provide guidance for data acquisition. Our data is publicly available and might be used to further develop processing routines.
AU - Turoňová, Beata
AU - Hagen, Wim J.H.
AU - Obr, Martin
AU - Mosalaganti, Shyamal
AU - Beugelink, J. Wouter
AU - Zimmerli, Christian E.
AU - Kräusslich, Hans Georg
AU - Beck, Martin
ID - 7511
JF - Nature communications
TI - Benchmarking tomographic acquisition schemes for high-resolution structural biology
VL - 11
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider general self-adjoint polynomials in several independent random matrices whose entries are centered and have the same variance. We show that under certain conditions the local law holds up to the optimal scale, i.e., the eigenvalue density on scales just above the eigenvalue spacing follows the global density of states which is determined by free probability theory. We prove that these conditions hold for general homogeneous polynomials of degree two and for symmetrized products of independent matrices with i.i.d. entries, thus establishing the optimal bulk local law for these classes of ensembles. In particular, we generalize a similar result of Anderson for anticommutator. For more general polynomials our conditions are effectively checkable numerically.
AU - Erdös, László
AU - Krüger, Torben H
AU - Nemish, Yuriy
ID - 7512
JF - Journal of Functional Analysis
SN - 00221236
TI - Local laws for polynomials of Wigner matrices
ER -
TY - THES
AB - We study the interacting homogeneous Bose gas in two spatial dimensions in the thermodynamic limit at fixed density. We shall be concerned with some mathematical aspects of this complicated problem in many-body quantum mechanics. More specifically, we consider the dilute limit where the scattering length of the interaction potential, which is a measure for the effective range of the potential, is small compared to the average distance between the particles. We are interested in a setting with positive (i.e., non-zero) temperature. After giving a survey of the relevant literature in the field, we provide some facts and examples to set expectations for the two-dimensional system. The crucial difference to the three-dimensional system is that there is no Bose–Einstein condensate at positive temperature due to the Hohenberg–Mermin–Wagner theorem. However, it turns out that an asymptotic formula for the free energy holds similarly to the three-dimensional case.
We motivate this formula by considering a toy model with δ interaction potential. By restricting this model Hamiltonian to certain trial states with a quasi-condensate we obtain an upper bound for the free energy that still has the quasi-condensate fraction as a free parameter. When minimizing over the quasi-condensate fraction, we obtain the Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless critical temperature for superfluidity, which plays an important role in our rigorous contribution. The mathematically rigorous result that we prove concerns the specific free energy in the dilute limit. We give upper and lower bounds on the free energy in terms of the free energy of the non-interacting system and a correction term coming from the interaction. Both bounds match and thus we obtain the leading term of an asymptotic approximation in the dilute limit, provided the thermal wavelength of the particles is of the same order (or larger) than the average distance between the particles. The remarkable feature of this result is its generality: the correction term depends on the interaction potential only through its scattering length and it holds for all nonnegative interaction potentials with finite scattering length that are measurable. In particular, this allows to model an interaction of hard disks.
AU - Mayer, Simon
ID - 7514
SN - 2663-337X
TI - The free energy of a dilute two-dimensional Bose gas
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In developing technologies based on superconducting quantum circuits, the need to control and route heating is a significant challenge in the experimental realisation and operation of these devices. One of the more ubiquitous devices in the current quantum computing toolbox is the transmon-type superconducting quantum bit, embedded in a resonator-based architecture. In the study of heat transport in superconducting circuits, a versatile and sensitive thermometer is based on studying the tunnelling characteristics of superconducting probes weakly coupled to a normal-metal island. Here we show that by integrating superconducting quantum bit coupled to two superconducting resonators at different frequencies, each resonator terminated (and thermally populated) by such a mesoscopic thin film metal island, one can experimentally observe magnetic flux-tunable photonic heat rectification between 0 and 10%.
AU - Senior, Jorden L
AU - Gubaydullin, Azat
AU - Karimi, Bayan
AU - Peltonen, Joonas T.
AU - Ankerhold, Joachim
AU - Pekola, Jukka P.
ID - 7530
IS - 1
JF - Communications Physics
SN - 2399-3650
TI - Heat rectification via a superconducting artificial atom
VL - 3
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In the past two decades, our understanding of the transition to turbulence in shear flows with linearly stable laminar solutions has greatly improved. Regarding the susceptibility of the laminar flow, two concepts have been particularly useful: the edge states and the minimal seeds. In this nonlinear picture of the transition, the basin boundary of turbulence is set by the edge state's stable manifold and this manifold comes closest in energy to the laminar equilibrium at the minimal seed. We begin this paper by presenting numerical experiments in which three-dimensional perturbations are too energetic to trigger turbulence in pipe flow but they do lead to turbulence when their amplitude is reduced. We show that this seemingly counterintuitive observation is in fact consistent with the fully nonlinear description of the transition mediated by the edge state. In order to understand the physical mechanisms behind this process, we measure the turbulent kinetic energy production and dissipation rates as a function of the radial coordinate. Our main observation is that the transition to turbulence relies on the energy amplification away from the wall, as opposed to the turbulence itself, whose energy is predominantly produced near the wall. This observation is further supported by the similar analyses on the minimal seeds and the edge states. Furthermore, we show that the time evolution of production-over-dissipation curves provides a clear distinction between the different initial amplification stages of the transition to turbulence from the minimal seed.
AU - Budanur, Nazmi B
AU - Marensi, Elena
AU - Willis, Ashley P.
AU - Hof, Björn
ID - 7534
IS - 2
JF - Physical Review Fluids
SN - 2469-990X
TI - Upper edge of chaos and the energetics of transition in pipe flow
VL - 5
ER -