TY - CONF
AB - The computation of the winning set for one-pair Streett objectives and for k-pair Streett objectives in (standard) graphs as well as in game graphs are central problems in computer-aided verification, with application to the verification of closed systems with strong fairness conditions, the verification of open systems, checking interface compatibility, well-formed ness of specifications, and the synthesis of reactive systems. We give faster algorithms for the computation of the winning set for (1) one-pair Streett objectives (aka parity-3 problem) in game graphs and (2) for k-pair Streett objectives in graphs. For both problems this represents the first improvement in asymptotic running time in 15 years.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Henzinger, Monika
AU - Loitzenbauer, Veronika
ID - 1661
T2 - Proceedings - Symposium on Logic in Computer Science
TI - Improved algorithms for one-pair and k-pair Streett objectives
VL - 2015-July
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Over a century of research into the origin of turbulence in wall-bounded shear flows has resulted in a puzzling picture in which turbulence appears in a variety of different states competing with laminar background flow. At moderate flow speeds, turbulence is confined to localized patches; it is only at higher speeds that the entire flow becomes turbulent. The origin of the different states encountered during this transition, the front dynamics of the turbulent regions and the transformation to full turbulence have yet to be explained. By combining experiments, theory and computer simulations, here we uncover a bifurcation scenario that explains the transformation to fully turbulent pipe flow and describe the front dynamics of the different states encountered in the process. Key to resolving this problem is the interpretation of the flow as a bistable system with nonlinear propagation (advection) of turbulent fronts. These findings bridge the gap between our understanding of the onset of turbulence and fully turbulent flows.
AU - Barkley, Dwight
AU - Song, Baofang
AU - Vasudevan, Mukund
AU - Lemoult, Grégoire M
AU - Avila, Marc
AU - Hof, Björn
ID - 1664
IS - 7574
JF - Nature
TI - The rise of fully turbulent flow
VL - 526
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Which genetic alterations drive tumorigenesis and how they evolve over the course of disease and therapy are central questions in cancer biology. Here we identify 44 recurrently mutated genes and 11 recurrent somatic copy number variations through whole-exome sequencing of 538 chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and matched germline DNA samples, 278 of which were collected in a prospective clinical trial. These include previously unrecognized putative cancer drivers (RPS15, IKZF3), and collectively identify RNA processing and export, MYC activity, and MAPK signalling as central pathways involved in CLL. Clonality analysis of this large data set further enabled reconstruction of temporal relationships between driver events. Direct comparison between matched pre-treatment and relapse samples from 59 patients demonstrated highly frequent clonal evolution. Thus, large sequencing data sets of clinically informative samples enable the discovery of novel genes associated with cancer, the network of relationships between the driver events, and their impact on disease relapse and clinical outcome.
AU - Landau, Dan
AU - Tausch, Eugen
AU - Taylor Weiner, Amaro
AU - Stewart, Chip
AU - Reiter, Johannes
AU - Bahlo, Jasmin
AU - Kluth, Sandra
AU - Božić, Ivana
AU - Lawrence, Michael
AU - Böttcher, Sebastian
AU - Carter, Scott
AU - Cibulskis, Kristian
AU - Mertens, Daniel
AU - Sougnez, Carrie
AU - Rosenberg, Mara
AU - Hess, Julian
AU - Edelmann, Jennifer
AU - Kless, Sabrina
AU - Kneba, Michael
AU - Ritgen, Matthias
AU - Fink, Anna
AU - Fischer, Kirsten
AU - Gabriel, Stacey
AU - Lander, Eric
AU - Nowak, Martin
AU - Döhner, Hartmut
AU - Hallek, Michael
AU - Neuberg, Donna
AU - Getz, Gad
AU - Stilgenbauer, Stephan
AU - Wu, Catherine
ID - 1665
IS - 7574
JF - Nature
TI - Mutations driving CLL and their evolution in progression and relapse
VL - 526
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We consider parametric version of fixed-delay continuoustime Markov chains (or equivalently deterministic and stochastic Petri nets, DSPN) where fixed-delay transitions are specified by parameters, rather than concrete values. Our goal is to synthesize values of these parameters that, for a given cost function, minimise expected total cost incurred before reaching a given set of target states. We show that under mild assumptions, optimal values of parameters can be effectively approximated using translation to a Markov decision process (MDP) whose actions correspond to discretized values of these parameters. To this end we identify and overcome several interesting phenomena arising in systems with fixed delays.
AU - Brázdil, Tomáš
AU - Korenčiak, L'Uboš
AU - Krčál, Jan
AU - Novotny, Petr
AU - Řehák, Vojtěch
ID - 1667
TI - Optimizing performance of continuous-time stochastic systems using timeout synthesis
VL - 9259
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We revisit the security (as a pseudorandom permutation) of cascading-based constructions for block-cipher key-length extension. Previous works typically considered the extreme case where the adversary is given the entire codebook of the construction, the only complexity measure being the number qe of queries to the underlying ideal block cipher, representing adversary’s secret-key-independent computation. Here, we initiate a systematic study of the more natural case of an adversary restricted to adaptively learning a number qc of plaintext/ciphertext pairs that is less than the entire codebook. For any such qc, we aim to determine the highest number of block-cipher queries qe the adversary can issue without being able to successfully distinguish the construction (under a secret key) from a random permutation.
More concretely, we show the following results for key-length extension schemes using a block cipher with n-bit blocks and κ-bit keys:
Plain cascades of length ℓ=2r+1 are secure whenever qcqre≪2r(κ+n), qc≪2κ and qe≪22κ. The bound for r=1 also applies to two-key triple encryption (as used within Triple DES).
The r-round XOR-cascade is secure as long as qcqre≪2r(κ+n), matching an attack by Gaži (CRYPTO 2013).
We fully characterize the security of Gaži and Tessaro’s two-call
AU - Gazi, Peter
AU - Lee, Jooyoung
AU - Seurin, Yannick
AU - Steinberger, John
AU - Tessaro, Stefano
ID - 1668
TI - Relaxing full-codebook security: A refined analysis of key-length extension schemes
VL - 9054
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Computational notions of entropy (a.k.a. pseudoentropy) have found many applications, including leakage-resilient cryptography, deterministic encryption or memory delegation. The most important tools to argue about pseudoentropy are chain rules, which quantify by how much (in terms of quantity and quality) the pseudoentropy of a given random variable X decreases when conditioned on some other variable Z (think for example of X as a secret key and Z as information leaked by a side-channel). In this paper we give a very simple and modular proof of the chain rule for HILL pseudoentropy, improving best known parameters. Our version allows for increasing the acceptable length of leakage in applications up to a constant factor compared to the best previous bounds. As a contribution of independent interest, we provide a comprehensive study of all known versions of the chain rule, comparing their worst-case strength and limitations.
AU - Pietrzak, Krzysztof Z
AU - Skórski, Maciej
ID - 1669
TI - The chain rule for HILL pseudoentropy, revisited
VL - 9230
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - This paper studies the concrete security of PRFs and MACs obtained by keying hash functions based on the sponge paradigm. One such hash function is KECCAK, selected as NIST’s new SHA-3 standard. In contrast to other approaches like HMAC, the exact security of keyed sponges is not well understood. Indeed, recent security analyses delivered concrete security bounds which are far from existing attacks. This paper aims to close this gap. We prove (nearly) exact bounds on the concrete PRF security of keyed sponges using a random permutation. These bounds are tight for the most relevant ranges of parameters, i.e., for messages of length (roughly) l ≤ min{2n/4, 2r} blocks, where n is the state size and r is the desired output length; and for l ≤ q queries (to the construction or the underlying permutation). Moreover, we also improve standard-model bounds. As an intermediate step of independent interest, we prove tight bounds on the PRF security of the truncated CBC-MAC construction, which operates as plain CBC-MAC, but only returns a prefix of the output.
AU - Gazi, Peter
AU - Pietrzak, Krzysztof Z
AU - Tessaro, Stefano
ID - 1671
TI - The exact PRF security of truncation: Tight bounds for keyed sponges and truncated CBC
VL - 9215
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Composable notions of incoercibility aim to forbid a coercer from using anything beyond the coerced parties’ inputs and outputs to catch them when they try to deceive him. Existing definitions are restricted to weak coercion types, and/or are not universally composable. Furthermore, they often make too strong assumptions on the knowledge of coerced parties—e.g., they assume they known the identities and/or the strategies of other coerced parties, or those of corrupted parties— which makes them unsuitable for applications of incoercibility such as e-voting, where colluding adversarial parties may attempt to coerce honest voters, e.g., by offering them money for a promised vote, and use their own view to check that the voter keeps his end of the bargain. In this work we put forward the first universally composable notion of incoercible multi-party computation, which satisfies the above intuition and does not assume collusions among coerced parties or knowledge of the corrupted set. We define natural notions of UC incoercibility corresponding to standard coercion-types, i.e., receipt-freeness and resistance to full-active coercion. Importantly, our suggested notion has the unique property that it builds on top of the well studied UC framework by Canetti instead of modifying it. This guarantees backwards compatibility, and allows us to inherit results from the rich UC literature. We then present MPC protocols which realize our notions of UC incoercibility given access to an arguably minimal setup—namely honestly generate tamper-proof hardware performing a very simple cryptographic operation—e.g., a smart card. This is, to our knowledge, the first proposed construction of an MPC protocol (for more than two parties) that is incoercibly secure and universally composable, and therefore the first construction of a universally composable receipt-free e-voting protocol.
AU - Alwen, Joel F
AU - Ostrovsky, Rafail
AU - Zhou, Hongsheng
AU - Zikas, Vassilis
ID - 1672
TI - Incoercible multi-party computation and universally composable receipt-free voting
VL - 9216
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - When a new mutant arises in a population, there is a probability it outcompetes the residents and fixes. The structure of the population can affect this fixation probability. Suppressing population structures reduce the difference between two competing variants, while amplifying population structures enhance the difference. Suppressors are ubiquitous and easy to construct, but amplifiers for the large population limit are more elusive and only a few examples have been discovered. Whether or not a population structure is an amplifier of selection depends on the probability distribution for the placement of the invading mutant. First, we prove that there exist only bounded amplifiers for adversarial placement-that is, for arbitrary initial conditions. Next, we show that the Star population structure, which is known to amplify for mutants placed uniformly at random, does not amplify for mutants that arise through reproduction and are therefore placed proportional to the temperatures of the vertices. Finally, we construct population structures that amplify for all mutational events that arise through reproduction, uniformly at random, or through some combination of the two.
AU - Adlam, Ben
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Nowak, Martin
ID - 1673
IS - 2181
JF - Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
TI - Amplifiers of selection
VL - 471
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider N × N random matrices of the form H = W + V where W is a real symmetric Wigner matrix and V a random or deterministic, real, diagonal matrix whose entries are independent of W. We assume subexponential decay for the matrix entries of W and we choose V so that the eigenvalues of W and V are typically of the same order. For a large class of diagonal matrices V, we show that the rescaled distribution of the extremal eigenvalues is given by the Tracy-Widom distribution F1 in the limit of large N. Our proofs also apply to the complex Hermitian setting, i.e. when W is a complex Hermitian Wigner matrix.
AU - Lee, Jioon
AU - Schnelli, Kevin
ID - 1674
IS - 8
JF - Reviews in Mathematical Physics
TI - Edge universality for deformed Wigner matrices
VL - 27
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider real symmetric and complex Hermitian random matrices with the additional symmetry hxy = hN-y,N-x. The matrix elements are independent (up to the fourfold symmetry) and not necessarily identically distributed. This ensemble naturally arises as the Fourier transform of a Gaussian orthogonal ensemble. Italso occurs as the flip matrix model - an approximation of the two-dimensional Anderson model at small disorder. We show that the density of states converges to the Wigner semicircle law despite the new symmetry type. We also prove the local version of the semicircle law on the optimal scale.
AU - Alt, Johannes
ID - 1677
IS - 10
JF - Journal of Mathematical Physics
TI - The local semicircle law for random matrices with a fourfold symmetry
VL - 56
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - High-throughput live-cell screens are intricate elements of systems biology studies and drug discovery pipelines. Here, we demonstrate an optogenetics-assisted method that avoids the need for chemical activators and reporters, reduces the number of operational steps and increases information content in a cell-based small-molecule screen against human protein kinases, including an orphan receptor tyrosine kinase. This blueprint for all-optical screening can be adapted to many drug targets and cellular processes.
AU - Inglés Prieto, Álvaro
AU - Gschaider-Reichhart, Eva
AU - Muellner, Markus
AU - Nowak, Matthias
AU - Nijman, Sebastian
AU - Grusch, Michael
AU - Janovjak, Harald L
ID - 1678
IS - 12
JF - Nature Chemical Biology
TI - Light-assisted small-molecule screening against protein kinases
VL - 11
ER -
TY - JOUR
AU - Lemoult, Grégoire M
AU - Maier, Philipp
AU - Hof, Björn
ID - 1679
IS - 9
JF - Physics of Fluids
TI - Taylor's Forest
VL - 27
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In many social situations, individuals endeavor to find the single best possible partner, but are constrained to evaluate the candidates in sequence. Examples include the search for mates, economic partnerships, or any other long-term ties where the choice to interact involves two parties. Surprisingly, however, previous theoretical work on mutual choice problems focuses on finding equilibrium solutions, while ignoring the evolutionary dynamics of decisions. Empirically, this may be of high importance, as some equilibrium solutions can never be reached unless the population undergoes radical changes and a sufficient number of individuals change their decisions simultaneously. To address this question, we apply a mutual choice sequential search problem in an evolutionary game-theoretical model that allows one to find solutions that are favored by evolution. As an example, we study the influence of sequential search on the evolutionary dynamics of cooperation. For this, we focus on the classic snowdrift game and the prisoner’s dilemma game.
AU - Priklopil, Tadeas
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
ID - 1681
IS - 4
JF - Games
TI - Evolution of decisions in population games with sequentially searching individuals
VL - 6
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We study the problem of robust satisfiability of systems of nonlinear equations, namely, whether for a given continuous function f:K→ ℝn on a finite simplicial complex K and α > 0, it holds that each function g: K → ℝn such that ||g - f || ∞ < α, has a root in K. Via a reduction to the extension problem of maps into a sphere, we particularly show that this problem is decidable in polynomial time for every fixed n, assuming dimK ≤ 2n - 3. This is a substantial extension of previous computational applications of topological degree and related concepts in numerical and interval analysis. Via a reverse reduction, we prove that the problem is undecidable when dim K > 2n - 2, where the threshold comes from the stable range in homotopy theory. For the lucidity of our exposition, we focus on the setting when f is simplexwise linear. Such functions can approximate general continuous functions, and thus we get approximation schemes and undecidability of the robust satisfiability in other possible settings.
AU - Franek, Peter
AU - Krcál, Marek
ID - 1682
IS - 4
JF - Journal of the ACM
TI - Robust satisfiability of systems of equations
VL - 62
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Many species groups, including mammals and many insects, determine sex using heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Diptera flies, which include the model Drosophila melanogaster, generally have XY sex chromosomes and a conserved karyotype consisting of six chromosomal arms (five large rods and a small dot), but superficially similar karyotypes may conceal the true extent of sex chromosome variation. Here, we use whole-genome analysis in 37 fly species belonging to 22 different families of Diptera and uncover tremendous hidden diversity in sex chromosome karyotypes among flies. We identify over a dozen different sex chromosome configurations, and the small dot chromosome is repeatedly used as the sex chromosome, which presumably reflects the ancestral karyotype of higher Diptera. However, we identify species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes, others in which a different chromosome replaced the dot as a sex chromosome or in which up to three chromosomal elements became incorporated into the sex chromosomes, and others yet with female heterogamety (ZW sex chromosomes). Transcriptome analysis shows that dosage compensation has evolved multiple times in flies, consistently through up-regulation of the single X in males. However, X chromosomes generally show a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, possibly reflecting sex-specific selective pressures. These species thus provide a rich resource to study sex chromosome biology in a comparative manner and show that similar selective forces have shaped the unique evolution of sex chromosomes in diverse fly taxa.
AU - Vicoso, Beatriz
AU - Bachtrog, Doris
ID - 1684
IS - 4
JF - PLoS Biology
TI - Numerous transitions of sex chromosomes in Diptera
VL - 13
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Given a graph G cellularly embedded on a surface Σ of genus g, a cut graph is a subgraph of G such that cutting Σ along G yields a topological disk. We provide a fixed parameter tractable approximation scheme for the problem of computing the shortest cut graph, that is, for any ε > 0, we show how to compute a (1 + ε) approximation of the shortest cut graph in time f(ε, g)n3.
Our techniques first rely on the computation of a spanner for the problem using the technique of brick decompositions, to reduce the problem to the case of bounded tree-width. Then, to solve the bounded tree-width case, we introduce a variant of the surface-cut decomposition of Rué, Sau and Thilikos, which may be of independent interest.
AU - Cohen Addad, Vincent
AU - De Mesmay, Arnaud N
ID - 1685
TI - A fixed parameter tractable approximation scheme for the optimal cut graph of a surface
VL - 9294
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We show that the simplest building blocks of origami-based materials - rigid, degree-four vertices - are generically multistable. The existence of two distinct branches of folding motion emerging from the flat state suggests at least bistability, but we show how nonlinearities in the folding motions allow generic vertex geometries to have as many as five stable states. In special geometries with collinear folds and symmetry, more branches emerge leading to as many as six stable states. Tuning the fold energy parameters, we show how monostability is also possible. Finally, we show how to program the stability features of a single vertex into a periodic fold tessellation. The resulting metasheets provide a previously unanticipated functionality - tunable and switchable shape and size via multistability.
AU - Waitukaitis, Scott R
AU - Menaut, Rémi
AU - Chen, Bryan
AU - Van Hecke, Martin
ID - 121
IS - 5
JF - APS Physics, Physical Review Letters
TI - Origami multistability: From single vertices to metasheets
VL - 114
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Motility is a basic feature of living microorganisms, and how it works is often determined by environmental cues. Recent efforts have focused on developing artificial systems that can mimic microorganisms, in particular their self-propulsion. We report on the design and characterization of synthetic self-propelled particles that migrate upstream, known as positive rheotaxis. This phenomenon results from a purely physical mechanism involving the interplay between the polarity of the particles and their alignment by a viscous torque. We show quantitative agreement between experimental data and a simple model of an overdamped Brownian pendulum. The model notably predicts the existence of a stagnation point in a diverging flow. We take advantage of this property to demonstrate that our active particles can sense and predictably organize in an imposed flow. Our colloidal system represents an important step toward the realization of biomimetic microsystems with the ability to sense and respond to environmental changes.
AU - Palacci, Jérémie A
AU - Sacanna, Stefano
AU - Abramian, Anaïs
AU - Barral, Jérémie
AU - Hanson, Kasey
AU - Grosberg, Alexander Y.
AU - Pine, David J.
AU - Chaikin, Paul M.
ID - 9057
IS - 4
JF - Science Advances
SN - 2375-2548
TI - Artificial rheotaxis
VL - 1
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The breaking of internal tides is believed to provide a large part of the power needed to mix the abyssal ocean and sustain the meridional overturning circulation. Both the fraction of internal tide energy that is dissipated locally and the resulting vertical mixing distribution are crucial for the ocean state, but remain poorly quantified. Here we present a first worldwide estimate of mixing due to internal tides generated at small‐scale abyssal hills. Our estimate is based on linear wave theory, a nonlinear parameterization for wave breaking and uses quasi‐global small‐scale abyssal hill bathymetry, stratification, and tidal data. We show that a large fraction of abyssal‐hill generated internal tide energy is locally dissipated over mid‐ocean ridges in the Southern Hemisphere. Significant dissipation occurs above ridge crests, and, upon rescaling by the local stratification, follows a monotonic exponential decay with height off the bottom, with a nonuniform decay scale. We however show that a substantial part of the dissipation occurs over the smoother flanks of mid‐ocean ridges, and exhibits a middepth maximum due to the interplay of wave amplitude with stratification. We link the three‐dimensional map of dissipation to abyssal hills characteristics, ocean stratification, and tidal forcing, and discuss its potential implementation in time‐evolving parameterizations for global climate models. Current tidal parameterizations only account for waves generated at large‐scale satellite‐resolved bathymetry. Our results suggest that the presence of small‐scale, mostly unresolved abyssal hills could significantly enhance the spatial inhomogeneity of tidal mixing, particularly above mid‐ocean ridges in the Southern Hemisphere.
AU - Lefauve, Adrien
AU - MULLER, Caroline J
AU - Melet, Angélique
ID - 9141
IS - 7
JF - Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans
SN - 2169-9275
TI - A three-dimensional map of tidal dissipation over abyssal hills
VL - 120
ER -