TY - JOUR
AB - The fundamental tasks of the root system are, besides anchoring, mediating interactions between plant and soil and providing the plant with water and nutrients. The architecture of the root system is controlled by endogenous mechanisms that constantly integrate environmental signals, such as availability of nutrients and water. Extremely important for efficient soil exploitation and survival under less favorable conditions is the developmental flexibility of the root system that is largely determined by its postembryonic branching capacity. Modulation of initiation and outgrowth of lateral roots provides roots with an exceptional plasticity, allows optimal adjustment to underground heterogeneity, and enables effective soil exploitation and use of resources. Here we discuss recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms that shape the plant root system and integrate external cues to adapt to the changing environment.
AU - Ötvös, Krisztina
AU - Benková, Eva
ID - 1004
JF - Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
SN - 0959437X
TI - Spatiotemporal mechanisms of root branching
VL - 45
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Background: The phenomenon of immune priming, i.e. enhanced protection following a secondary exposure to a pathogen, has now been demonstrated in a wide range of invertebrate species. Despite accumulating phenotypic evidence, knowledge of its mechanistic underpinnings is currently very limited. Here we used the system of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum and the insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to further our molecular understanding of the oral immune priming phenomenon. We addressed how ingestion of bacterial cues (derived from spore supernatants) of an orally pathogenic and non-pathogenic Bt strain affects gene expression upon later challenge exposure, using a whole-transcriptome sequencing approach. Results: Whereas gene expression of individuals primed with the orally non-pathogenic strain showed minor changes to controls, we found that priming with the pathogenic strain induced regulation of a large set of distinct genes, many of which are known immune candidates. Intriguingly, the immune repertoire activated upon priming and subsequent challenge qualitatively differed from the one mounted upon infection with Bt without previous priming. Moreover, a large subset of priming-specific genes showed an inverse regulation compared to their regulation upon challenge only. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that gene expression upon infection is strongly affected by previous immune priming. We hypothesise that this shift in gene expression indicates activation of a more targeted and efficient response towards a previously encountered pathogen, in anticipation of potential secondary encounter.
AU - Greenwood, Jenny
AU - Milutinovic, Barbara
AU - Peuß, Robert
AU - Behrens, Sarah
AU - Essar, Daniela
AU - Rosenstiel, Philip
AU - Schulenburg, Hinrich
AU - Kurtz, Joachim
ID - 1006
IS - 1
JF - BMC Genomics
SN - 14712164
TI - Oral immune priming with Bacillus thuringiensis induces a shift in the gene expression of Tribolium castaneum larvae
VL - 18
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - A nonlinear system possesses an invariance with respect to a set of transformations if its output dynamics remain invariant when transforming the input, and adjusting the initial condition accordingly. Most research has focused on invariances with respect to time-independent pointwise transformations like translational-invariance (u(t) -> u(t) + p, p in R) or scale-invariance (u(t) -> pu(t), p in R>0). In this article, we introduce the concept of s0-invariances with respect to continuous input transformations exponentially growing/decaying over time. We show that s0-invariant systems not only encompass linear time-invariant (LTI) systems with transfer functions having an irreducible zero at s0 in R, but also that the input/output relationship of nonlinear s0-invariant systems possesses properties well known from their linear counterparts. Furthermore, we extend the concept of s0-invariances to second- and higher-order s0-invariances, corresponding to invariances with respect to transformations of the time-derivatives of the input, and encompassing LTI systems with zeros of multiplicity two or higher. Finally, we show that nth-order 0-invariant systems realize – under mild conditions – nth-order nonlinear differential operators: when excited by an input of a characteristic functional form, the system’s output converges to a constant value only depending on the nth (nonlinear) derivative of the input.
AU - Lang, Moritz
AU - Sontag, Eduardo
ID - 1007
JF - Automatica
SN - 00051098
TI - Zeros of nonlinear systems with input invariances
VL - 81C
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - A standard objective in partially-observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) is to find a policy that maximizes the expected discounted-sum payoff. However, such policies may still permit unlikely but highly undesirable outcomes, which is problematic especially in safety-critical applications. Recently, there has been a surge of interest in POMDPs where the goal is to maximize the probability to ensure that the payoff is at least a given threshold, but these approaches do not consider any optimization beyond satisfying this threshold constraint. In this work we go beyond both the “expectation” and “threshold” approaches and consider a “guaranteed payoff optimization (GPO)” problem for POMDPs, where we are given a threshold t and the objective is to find a policy σ such that a) each possible outcome of σ yields a discounted-sum payoff of at least t, and b) the expected discounted-sum payoff of σ is optimal (or near-optimal) among all policies satisfying a). We present a practical approach to tackle the GPO problem and evaluate it on standard POMDP benchmarks.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Novotny, Petr
AU - Pérez, Guillermo
AU - Raskin, Jean
AU - Zikelic, Djordje
ID - 1009
T2 - Proceedings of the 31st AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence
TI - Optimizing expectation with guarantees in POMDPs
VL - 5
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We prove a local law in the bulk of the spectrum for random Gram matrices XX∗, a generalization of sample covariance matrices, where X is a large matrix with independent, centered entries with arbitrary variances. The limiting eigenvalue density that generalizes the Marchenko-Pastur law is determined by solving a system of nonlinear equations. Our entrywise and averaged local laws are on the optimal scale with the optimal error bounds. They hold both in the square case (hard edge) and in the properly rectangular case (soft edge). In the latter case we also establish a macroscopic gap away from zero in the spectrum of XX∗.
AU - Alt, Johannes
AU - Erdös, László
AU - Krüger, Torben H
ID - 1010
JF - Electronic Journal of Probability
SN - 10836489
TI - Local law for random Gram matrices
VL - 22
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Pushdown systems (PDSs) and recursive state machines (RSMs), which are linearly equivalent, are standard models for interprocedural analysis. Yet RSMs are more convenient as they (a) explicitly model function calls and returns, and (b) specify many natural parameters for algorithmic analysis, e.g., the number of entries and exits. We consider a general framework where RSM transitions are labeled from a semiring and path properties are algebraic with semiring operations, which can model, e.g., interprocedural reachability and dataflow analysis problems. Our main contributions are new algorithms for several fundamental problems. As compared to a direct translation of RSMs to PDSs and the best-known existing bounds of PDSs, our analysis algorithm improves the complexity for finite-height semirings (that subsumes reachability and standard dataflow properties). We further consider the problem of extracting distance values from the representation structures computed by our algorithm, and give efficient algorithms that distinguish the complexity of a one-time preprocessing from the complexity of each individual query. Another advantage of our algorithm is that our improvements carry over to the concurrent setting, where we improve the bestknown complexity for the context-bounded analysis of concurrent RSMs. Finally, we provide a prototype implementation that gives a significant speed-up on several benchmarks from the SLAM/SDV project.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Kragl, Bernhard
AU - Mishra, Samarth
AU - Pavlogiannis, Andreas
ED - Yang, Hongseok
ID - 1011
SN - 03029743
TI - Faster algorithms for weighted recursive state machines
VL - 10201
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - From microwave ovens to satellite television to the GPS and data services on our mobile phones, microwave technology is everywhere today. But one technology that has so far failed to prove its worth in this wavelength regime is quantum communication that uses the states of single photons as information carriers. This is because single microwave photons, as opposed to classical microwave signals, are extremely vulnerable to noise from thermal excitations in the channels through which they travel. Two new independent studies, one by Ze-Liang Xiang at Technische Universität Wien (Vienna), Austria, and colleagues [1] and another by Benoît Vermersch at the University of Innsbruck, also in Austria, and colleagues [2] now describe a theoretical protocol for microwave quantum communication that is resilient to thermal and other types of noise. Their approach could become a powerful technique to establish fast links between superconducting data processors in a future all-microwave quantum network.
AU - Fink, Johannes M
ID - 1013
IS - 32
JF - Physics
TI - Viewpoint: Microwave quantum states beat the heat
VL - 10
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider the large-scale regularity of solutions to second-order linear elliptic equations with random coefficient fields. In contrast to previous works on regularity theory for random elliptic operators, our interest is in the regularity at the boundary: We consider problems posed on the half-space with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions and derive an associated C1,α-type large-scale regularity theory in the form of a corresponding decay estimate for the homogenization-adapted tilt-excess. This regularity theory entails an associated Liouville-type theorem. The results are based on the existence of homogenization correctors adapted to the half-space setting, which we construct-by an entirely deterministic argument-as a modification of the homogenization corrector on the whole space. This adaption procedure is carried out inductively on larger scales, crucially relying on the regularity theory already established on smaller scales.
AU - Fischer, Julian L
AU - Raithel, Claudia
ID - 1014
IS - 1
JF - SIAM Journal on Mathematical Analysis
SN - 00361410
TI - Liouville principles and a large-scale regularity theory for random elliptic operators on the half-space
VL - 49
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Vortices are commonly observed in the context of classical hydrodynamics: from whirlpools after stirring the coffee in a cup to a violent atmospheric phenomenon such as a tornado, all classical vortices are characterized by an arbitrary circulation value of the local velocity field. On the other hand the appearance of vortices with quantized circulation represents one of the fundamental signatures of macroscopic quantum phenomena. In two-dimensional superfluids quantized vortices play a key role in determining finite-temperature properties, as the superfluid phase and the normal state are separated by a vortex unbinding transition, the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition. Very recent experiments with two-dimensional superfluid fermions motivate the present work: we present theoretical results based on the renormalization group showing that the universal jump of the superfluid density and the critical temperature crucially depend on the interaction strength, providing a strong benchmark for forthcoming investigations.
AU - Bighin, Giacomo
AU - Salasnich, Luca
ID - 1015
JF - Scientific Reports
SN - 20452322
TI - Vortices and antivortices in two-dimensional ultracold Fermi gases
VL - 7
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The development of the vertebrate central nervous system is reliant on a complex cascade of biological processes that include mitotic division, relocation of migrating neurons, and the extension of dendritic and axonal processes. Each of these cellular events requires the diverse functional repertoire of the microtubule cytoskeleton for the generation of forces, assembly of macromolecular complexes and transport of molecules and organelles. The tubulins are a multi-gene family that encode for the constituents of microtubules, and have been implicated in a spectrum of neurological disorders. Evidence is building that different tubulins tune the functional properties of the microtubule cytoskeleton dependent on the cell type, developmental profile and subcellular localisation. Here we review of the origins of the functional specification of the tubulin gene family in the developing brain at a transcriptional, translational, and post-transcriptional level. We remind the reader that tubulins are not just loading controls for your average Western blot.
AU - Breuss, Martin
AU - Leca, Ines
AU - Gstrein, Thomas
AU - Hansen, Andi H
AU - Keays, David
ID - 1017
JF - Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience
SN - 10447431
TI - Tubulins and brain development: The origins of functional specification
VL - 84
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on Earth. Cellulose fibers, such as the one extracted form cotton or woodpulp, have been used by humankind for hundreds of years to make textiles and paper. Here we show how, by engineering light-matter interaction, we can optimize light scattering using exclusively cellulose nanocrystals. The produced material is sustainable, biocompatible, and when compared to ordinary microfiber-based paper, it shows enhanced scattering strength (×4), yielding a transport mean free path as low as 3.5 μm in the visible light range. The experimental results are in a good agreement with the theoretical predictions obtained with a diffusive model for light propagation.
AU - Caixeiro, Soraya
AU - Peruzzo, Matilda
AU - Onelli, Olimpia
AU - Vignolini, Silvia
AU - Sapienza, Riccardo
ID - 1020
IS - 9
JF - ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
SN - 19448244
TI - Disordered cellulose based nanostructures for enhanced light scattering
VL - 9
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Most flows in nature and engineering are turbulent because of their large velocities and spatial scales. Laboratory experiments on rotating quasi-Keplerian flows, for which the angular velocity decreases radially but the angular momentum increases, are however laminar at Reynolds numbers exceeding one million. This is in apparent contradiction to direct numerical simulations showing that in these experiments turbulence transition is triggered by the axial boundaries. We here show numerically that as the Reynolds number increases, turbulence becomes progressively confined to the boundary layers and the flow in the bulk fully relaminarizes. Our findings support that turbulence is unlikely to occur in isothermal constant-density quasi-Keplerian flows.
AU - Lopez Alonso, Jose M
AU - Avila, Marc
ID - 1021
JF - Journal of Fluid Mechanics
SN - 00221120
TI - Boundary layer turbulence in experiments on quasi Keplerian flows
VL - 817
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We introduce a multiscale topological description of the Megaparsec web-like cosmic matter distribution. Betti numbers and topological persistence offer a powerful means of describing the rich connectivity structure of the cosmic web and of its multiscale arrangement of matter and galaxies. Emanating from algebraic topology and Morse theory, Betti numbers and persistence diagrams represent an extension and deepening of the cosmologically familiar topological genus measure and the related geometric Minkowski functionals. In addition to a description of the mathematical background, this study presents the computational procedure for computing Betti numbers and persistence diagrams for density field filtrations. The field may be computed starting from a discrete spatial distribution of galaxies or simulation particles. The main emphasis of this study concerns an extensive and systematic exploration of the imprint of different web-like morphologies and different levels of multiscale clustering in the corresponding computed Betti numbers and persistence diagrams. To this end, we use Voronoi clustering models as templates for a rich variety of web-like configurations and the fractal-like Soneira-Peebles models exemplify a range of multiscale configurations. We have identified the clear imprint of cluster nodes, filaments, walls, and voids in persistence diagrams, along with that of the nested hierarchy of structures in multiscale point distributions. We conclude by outlining the potential of persistent topology for understanding the connectivity structure of the cosmic web, in large simulations of cosmic structure formation and in the challenging context of the observed galaxy distribution in large galaxy surveys.
AU - Pranav, Pratyush
AU - Edelsbrunner, Herbert
AU - Van De Weygaert, Rien
AU - Vegter, Gert
AU - Kerber, Michael
AU - Jones, Bernard
AU - Wintraecken, Mathijs
ID - 1022
IS - 4
JF - Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
SN - 00358711
TI - The topology of the cosmic web in terms of persistent Betti numbers
VL - 465
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider products of independent square non-Hermitian random matrices. More precisely, let X1,…, Xn be independent N × N random matrices with independent entries (real or complex with independent real and imaginary parts) with zero mean and variance 1/N. Soshnikov-O’Rourke [19] and Götze-Tikhomirov [15] showed that the empirical spectral distribution of the product of n random matrices with iid entries converges to (equation found). We prove that if the entries of the matrices X1,…, Xn are independent (but not necessarily identically distributed) and satisfy uniform subexponential decay condition, then in the bulk the convergence of the ESD of X1,…, Xn to (0.1) holds up to the scale N–1/2+ε.
AU - Nemish, Yuriy
ID - 1023
JF - Electronic Journal of Probability
SN - 10836489
TI - Local law for the product of independent non-Hermitian random matrices with independent entries
VL - 22
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Optogenetics and photopharmacology provide spatiotemporally precise control over protein interactions and protein function in cells and animals. Optogenetic methods that are sensitive to green light and can be used to break protein complexes are not broadly available but would enable multichromatic experiments with previously inaccessible biological targets. Herein, we repurposed cobalamin (vitamin B12) binding domains of bacterial CarH transcription factors for green-light-induced receptor dissociation. In cultured cells, we observed oligomerization-induced cell signaling for the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 fused to cobalamin-binding domains in the dark that was rapidly eliminated upon illumination. In zebrafish embryos expressing fusion receptors, green light endowed control over aberrant fibroblast growth factor signaling during development. Green-light-induced domain dissociation and light-inactivated receptors will critically expand the optogenetic toolbox for control of biological processes.
AU - Kainrath, Stephanie
AU - Stadler, Manuela
AU - Gschaider-Reichhart, Eva
AU - Distel, Martin
AU - Janovjak, Harald L
ID - 1028
IS - 16
JF - Angewandte Chemie - International Edition
SN - 14337851
TI - Green-light-induced inactivation of receptor signaling using cobalamin-binding domains
VL - 56
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We investigate effects of quasiparticle poisoning in a Majorana island with strong tunnel coupling to normal-metal leads. In addition to the main Coulomb blockade diamonds, "shadow" diamonds appear, shifted by 1e in gate voltage, consistent with transport through an excited (poisoned) state of the island. Comparison to a simple model yields an estimate of parity lifetime for the strongly coupled island (∼1 μs) and sets a bound for a weakly coupled island (>10 μs). Fluctuations in the gate-voltage spacing of Coulomb peaks at high field, reflecting Majorana hybridization, are enhanced by the reduced lever arm at strong coupling. When converted from gate voltage to energy units, fluctuations are consistent with previous measurements.
AU - Albrecht, S M
AU - Hansen, Esben
AU - Higginbotham, Andrew P
AU - Kuemmeth, Ferdinand
AU - Jespersen, Thomas
AU - Nygård, Jesper
AU - Krogstrup, Peter
AU - Danon, Jeroen
AU - Flensberg, Karsten
AU - Marcus, Charles
ID - 103
IS - 13
JF - APS Physics, Physical Review Letters
TI - Transport signatures of quasiparticle poisoning in a majorana island
VL - 118
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Auf der Suche nach einem Bibliothekssystem entschied sich die Forschungseinrichtung IST Austria im Jahr 2014 für das Open-Source-Produkt Koha. In einem ersten Schritt wurden zunächst Grundfunktionen aktiviert um im Anschluss diverse zusätzliche Tools zum Einsatz zu bringen. Die große Flexibilität des Systems erlaubt maßgeschneiderte Lösungen für unterschiedlichste Institutionen. Trotz Herausforderungen kann die Bibliothek auf eine erfolgreiche Implementierung zurückblicken.
AU - Villányi, Márton
ID - 1030
IS - 1
JF - Informationspraxis
SN - 2297-3249
TI - Ein freies Bibliothekssystem für wissenschaftliche Bibliotheken – Werkstattbericht der IST Austria Library
VL - 3
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Background: Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology of cyanobacteria offer a promising sustainable alternative approach for fossil-based ethylene production, by using sunlight via oxygenic photosynthesis, to convert carbon dioxide directly into ethylene. Towards this, both well-studied cyanobacteria, i.e., Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, have been engineered to produce ethylene by introducing the ethylene-forming enzyme (Efe) from Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola PK2 (the Kudzu strain), which catalyzes the conversion of the ubiquitous tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate 2-oxoglutarate into ethylene. Results: This study focuses on Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 and shows stable ethylene production through the integration of a codon-optimized version of the efe gene under control of the Ptrc promoter and the core Shine-Dalgarno sequence (5\'-AGGAGG-3\') as the ribosome-binding site (RBS), at the slr0168 neutral site. We have increased ethylene production twofold by RBS screening and further investigated improving ethylene production from a single gene copy of efe, using multiple tandem promoters and by putting our best construct on an RSF1010-based broad-host-self-replicating plasmid, which has a higher copy number than the genome. Moreover, to raise the intracellular amounts of the key Efe substrate, 2-oxoglutarate, from which ethylene is formed, we constructed a glycogen-synthesis knockout mutant (glgC) and introduced the ethylene biosynthetic pathway in it. Under nitrogen limiting conditions, the glycogen knockout strain has increased intracellular 2-oxoglutarate levels; however, surprisingly, ethylene production was lower in this strain than in the wild-type background. Conclusion: Making use of different RBS sequences, production of ethylene ranging over a 20-fold difference has been achieved. However, a further increase of production through multiple tandem promoters and a broad-host plasmid was not achieved speculating that the transcription strength and the gene copy number are not the limiting factors in our system.
AU - Veetil, Vinod
AU - Angermayr, Andreas
AU - Hellingwerf, Klaas
ID - 1061
IS - 1
JF - Microbial Cell Factories
SN - 14752859
TI - Ethylene production with engineered Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 strains
VL - 16
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Severe environmental change can drive a population extinct unless the population adapts in time to the new conditions (“evolutionary rescue”). How does biparental sexual reproduction influence the chances of population persistence compared to clonal reproduction or selfing? In this article, we set up a one‐locus two‐allele model for adaptation in diploid species, where rescue is contingent on the establishment of the mutant homozygote. Reproduction can occur by random mating, selfing, or clonally. Random mating generates and destroys the rescue mutant; selfing is efficient at generating it but at the same time depletes the heterozygote, which can lead to a low mutant frequency in the standing genetic variation. Due to these (and other) antagonistic effects, we find a nontrivial dependence of population survival on the rate of sex/selfing, which is strongly influenced by the dominance coefficient of the mutation before and after the environmental change. Importantly, since mating with the wild‐type breaks the mutant homozygote up, a slow decay of the wild‐type population size can impede rescue in randomly mating populations.
AU - Uecker, Hildegard
ID - 1063
IS - 4
JF - Evolution
SN - 00143820
TI - Evolutionary rescue in randomly mating, selfing, and clonal populations
VL - 71
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider the problem of reachability in pushdown graphs. We study the problem for pushdown graphs with constant treewidth. Even for pushdown graphs with treewidth 1, for the reachability problem we establish the following: (i) the problem is PTIME-complete, and (ii) any subcubic algorithm for the problem would contradict the k-clique conjecture and imply faster combinatorial algorithms for cliques in graphs.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Osang, Georg F
ID - 1065
JF - Information Processing Letters
SN - 00200190
TI - Pushdown reachability with constant treewidth
VL - 122
ER -