@article{8912,
abstract = {For automata, synchronization, the problem of bringing an automaton to a particular state regardless of its initial state, is important. It has several applications in practice and is related to a fifty-year-old conjecture on the length of the shortest synchronizing word. Although using shorter words increases the effectiveness in practice, finding a shortest one (which is not necessarily unique) is NP-hard. For this reason, there exist various heuristics in the literature. However, high-quality heuristics such as SynchroP producing relatively shorter sequences are very expensive and can take hours when the automaton has tens of thousands of states. The SynchroP heuristic has been frequently used as a benchmark to evaluate the performance of the new heuristics. In this work, we first improve the runtime of SynchroP and its variants by using algorithmic techniques. We then focus on adapting SynchroP for many-core architectures,
and overall, we obtain more than 1000× speedup on GPUs compared to naive sequential implementation that has been frequently used as a benchmark to evaluate new heuristics in the literature. We also propose two SynchroP variants and evaluate their performance.},
author = {Sarac, Naci E and Altun, Ömer Faruk and Atam, Kamil Tolga and Karahoda, Sertac and Kaya, Kamer and Yenigün, Hüsnü},
issn = {09574174},
journal = {Expert Systems with Applications},
number = {4},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Boosting expensive synchronizing heuristics}},
doi = {10.1016/j.eswa.2020.114203},
volume = {167},
year = {2021},
}
@article{9224,
abstract = {We re-examine attempts to study the many-body localization transition using measures that are physically natural on the ergodic/quantum chaotic regime of the phase diagram. Using simple scaling arguments and an analysis of various models for which rigorous results are available, we find that these measures can be particularly adversely affected by the strong finite-size effects observed in nearly all numerical studies of many-body localization. This severely impacts their utility in probing the transition and the localized phase. In light of this analysis, we discuss a recent study (Šuntajs et al., 2020) of the behaviour of the Thouless energy and level repulsion in disordered spin chains, and its implications for the question of whether MBL is a true phase of matter.},
author = {Abanin, D. A. and Bardarson, J. H. and De Tomasi, G. and Gopalakrishnan, S. and Khemani, V. and Parameswaran, S. A. and Pollmann, F. and Potter, A. C. and Serbyn, Maksym and Vasseur, R.},
issn = {1096035X},
journal = {Annals of Physics},
number = {4},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Distinguishing localization from chaos: Challenges in finite-size systems}},
doi = {10.1016/j.aop.2021.168415},
volume = {427},
year = {2021},
}
@article{9036,
abstract = {In this short note, we prove that the square root of the quantum Jensen-Shannon divergence is a true metric on the cone of positive matrices, and hence in particular on the quantum state space.},
author = {Virosztek, Daniel},
issn = {0001-8708},
journal = {Advances in Mathematics},
keywords = {General Mathematics},
number = {3},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{The metric property of the quantum Jensen-Shannon divergence}},
doi = {10.1016/j.aim.2021.107595},
volume = {380},
year = {2021},
}
@misc{9323,
abstract = {This .zip File contains the data for figures presented in the main text and supplementary material of "A singlet triplet hole spin qubit in planar Ge" by D. Jirovec, et. al. The measurements were done using Labber Software and the data is stored in the hdf5 file format. The files can be opened using either the Labber Log Browser (https://labber.org/overview/) or Labber Python API (http://labber.org/online-doc/api/LogFile.html). A single file is acquired with QCodes and features the corresponding data type. XRD data are in .dat format and a code to open the data is provided. The code for simulations is as well provided in Python.},
author = {Jirovec, Daniel},
publisher = {IST Austria},
title = {{Research data for "A singlet-triplet hole spin qubit planar Ge"}},
doi = {10.15479/AT:ISTA:9323},
year = {2021},
}
@phdthesis{8934,
abstract = {In this thesis, we consider several of the most classical and fundamental problems in static analysis and formal verification, including invariant generation, reachability analysis, termination analysis of probabilistic programs, data-flow analysis, quantitative analysis of Markov chains and Markov decision processes, and the problem of data packing in cache management.
We use techniques from parameterized complexity theory, polyhedral geometry, and real algebraic geometry to significantly improve the state-of-the-art, in terms of both scalability and completeness guarantees, for the mentioned problems. In some cases, our results are the first theoretical improvements for the respective problems in two or three decades.},
author = {Goharshady, Amir Kafshdar},
issn = {2663-337X},
pages = {278},
publisher = {IST Austria},
title = {{Parameterized and algebro-geometric advances in static program analysis}},
doi = {10.15479/AT:ISTA:8934},
year = {2021},
}
@article{9329,
abstract = {Background: To understand information coding in single neurons, it is necessary to analyze subthreshold synaptic events, action potentials (APs), and their interrelation in different behavioral states. However, detecting excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) or currents (EPSCs) in behaving animals remains challenging, because of unfavorable signal-to-noise ratio, high frequency, fluctuating amplitude, and variable time course of synaptic events.
New method: We developed a method for synaptic event detection, termed MOD (Machine-learning Optimal-filtering Detection-procedure), which combines concepts of supervised machine learning and optimal Wiener filtering. Experts were asked to manually score short epochs of data. The algorithm was trained to obtain the optimal filter coefficients of a Wiener filter and the optimal detection threshold. Scored and unscored data were then processed with the optimal filter, and events were detected as peaks above threshold.
Results: We challenged MOD with EPSP traces in vivo in mice during spatial navigation and EPSC traces in vitro in slices under conditions of enhanced transmitter release. The area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was, on average, 0.894 for in vivo and 0.969 for in vitro data sets, indicating high detection accuracy and efficiency.
Comparison with existing methods: When benchmarked using a (1 − AUC)−1 metric, MOD outperformed previous methods (template-fit, deconvolution, and Bayesian methods) by an average factor of 3.13 for in vivo data sets, but showed comparable (template-fit, deconvolution) or higher (Bayesian) computational efficacy.
Conclusions: MOD may become an important new tool for large-scale, real-time analysis of synaptic activity.},
author = {Zhang, Xiaomin and Schlögl, Alois and Vandael, David H and Jonas, Peter M},
issn = {1872678X},
journal = {Journal of Neuroscience Methods},
number = {6},
title = {{MOD: A novel machine-learning optimal-filtering method for accurate and efficient detection of subthreshold synaptic events in vivo}},
doi = {10.1016/j.jneumeth.2021.109125},
volume = {357},
year = {2021},
}
@article{9330,
abstract = {In nerve cells the genes encoding for α2δ subunits of voltage-gated calcium channels have been linked to synaptic functions and neurological disease. Here we show that α2δ subunits are essential for the formation and organization of glutamatergic synapses. Using a cellular α2δ subunit triple-knockout/knockdown model, we demonstrate a failure in presynaptic differentiation evidenced by defective presynaptic calcium channel clustering and calcium influx, smaller presynaptic active zones, and a strongly reduced accumulation of presynaptic vesicle-associated proteins (synapsin and vGLUT). The presynaptic defect is associated with the downscaling of postsynaptic AMPA receptors and the postsynaptic density. The role of α2δ isoforms as synaptic organizers is highly redundant, as each individual α2δ isoform can rescue presynaptic calcium channel trafficking and expression of synaptic proteins. Moreover, α2δ-2 and α2δ-3 with mutated metal ion-dependent adhesion sites can fully rescue presynaptic synapsin expression but only partially calcium channel trafficking, suggesting that the regulatory role of α2δ subunits is independent from its role as a calcium channel subunit. Our findings influence the current view on excitatory synapse formation. First, our study suggests that postsynaptic differentiation is secondary to presynaptic differentiation. Second, the dependence of presynaptic differentiation on α2δ implicates α2δ subunits as potential nucleation points for the organization of synapses. Finally, our results suggest that α2δ subunits act as transsynaptic organizers of glutamatergic synapses, thereby aligning the synaptic active zone with the postsynaptic density.},
author = {Schöpf, Clemens L. and Ablinger, Cornelia and Geisler, Stefanie M. and Stanika, Ruslan I. and Campiglio, Marta and Kaufmann, Walter and Nimmervoll, Benedikt and Schlick, Bettina and Brockhaus, Johannes and Missler, Markus and Shigemoto, Ryuichi and Obermair, Gerald J.},
issn = {1091-6490},
journal = {PNAS},
number = {14},
publisher = {National Academy of Sciences},
title = {{Presynaptic α2δ subunits are key organizers of glutamatergic synapses}},
doi = {10.1073/pnas.1920827118},
volume = {118},
year = {2021},
}
@article{9332,
abstract = {Lateral root (LR) formation is an example of a plant post-embryonic organogenesis event. LRs are issued from non-dividing cells entering consecutive steps of formative divisions, proliferation and elongation. The chromatin remodeling protein PICKLE (PKL) negatively regulates auxin-mediated LR formation through a mechanism that is not yet known. Here we show that PKL interacts with RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED 1 (RBR1) to repress the LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES-DOMAIN 16 (LBD16) promoter activity. Since LBD16 function is required for the formative division of LR founder cells, repression mediated by the PKL–RBR1 complex negatively regulates formative division and LR formation. Inhibition of LR formation by PKL–RBR1 is counteracted by auxin, indicating that, in addition to auxin-mediated transcriptional responses, the fine-tuned process of LR formation is also controlled at the chromatin level in an auxin-signaling dependent manner.},
author = {Ötvös, Krisztina and Miskolczi, Pál and Marhavý, Peter and Cruz-Ramírez, Alfredo and Benková, Eva and Robert, Stéphanie and Bakó, László},
issn = {14220067},
journal = {International Journal of Molecular Sciences},
number = {8},
publisher = {MDPI},
title = {{Pickle recruits retinoblastoma related 1 to control lateral root formation in arabidopsis}},
doi = {10.3390/ijms22083862},
volume = {22},
year = {2021},
}
@article{9333,
abstract = {We revise a previous result about the Fröhlich dynamics in the strong coupling limit obtained in Griesemer (Rev Math Phys 29(10):1750030, 2017). In the latter it was shown that the Fröhlich time evolution applied to the initial state φ0⊗ξα, where φ0 is the electron ground state of the Pekar energy functional and ξα the associated coherent state of the phonons, can be approximated by a global phase for times small compared to α2. In the present note we prove that a similar approximation holds for t=O(α2) if one includes a nontrivial effective dynamics for the phonons that is generated by an operator proportional to α−2 and quadratic in creation and annihilation operators. Our result implies that the electron ground state remains close to its initial state for times of order α2, while the phonon fluctuations around the coherent state ξα can be described by a time-dependent Bogoliubov transformation.},
author = {Mitrouskas, David Johannes},
issn = {15730530},
journal = {Letters in Mathematical Physics},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{A note on the Fröhlich dynamics in the strong coupling limit}},
doi = {10.1007/s11005-021-01380-7},
volume = {111},
year = {2021},
}
@article{9331,
abstract = {Quantum entanglement has been generated and verified in cold-atom experiments and used to make atom-interferometric measurements below the shot-noise limit. However, current state-of-the-art cold-atom devices exploit separable (i.e., unentangled) atomic states. This perspective piece asks the question: can entanglement usefully improve cold-atom sensors, in the sense that it gives new sensing capabilities unachievable with current state-of-the-art devices? We briefly review the state-of-the-art in precision cold-atom sensing, focusing on clocks and inertial sensors, identifying the potential benefits entanglement could bring to these devices, and the challenges that need to be overcome to realize these benefits. We survey demonstrated methods of generating metrologically useful entanglement in cold-atom systems, note their relative strengths and weaknesses, and assess their prospects for near-to-medium term quantum-enhanced cold-atom sensing.},
author = {Szigeti, Stuart S. and Hosten, Onur and Haine, Simon A.},
issn = {00036951},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = {14},
publisher = {AIP Publishing},
title = {{Improving cold-atom sensors with quantum entanglement: Prospects and challenges}},
doi = {10.1063/5.0050235},
volume = {118},
year = {2021},
}
@article{9335,
abstract = {Various degenerate diffusion equations exhibit a waiting time phenomenon: depending on the “flatness” of the compactly supported initial datum at the boundary of the support, the support of the solution may not expand for a certain amount of time. We show that this phenomenon is captured by particular Lagrangian discretizations of the porous medium and the thin film equations, and we obtain sufficient criteria for the occurrence of waiting times that are consistent with the known ones for the original PDEs. For the spatially discrete solution, the waiting time phenomenon refers to a deviation of the edge of support from its original position by a quantity comparable to the mesh width, over a mesh-independent time interval. Our proof is based on estimates on the fluid velocity in Lagrangian coordinates. Combining weighted entropy estimates with an iteration technique à la Stampacchia leads to upper bounds on free boundary propagation. Numerical simulations show that the phenomenon is already clearly visible for relatively coarse discretizations.},
author = {Fischer, Julian L and Matthes, Daniel},
issn = {0036-1429},
journal = {SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis},
number = {1},
pages = {60--87},
publisher = {Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics},
title = {{The waiting time phenomenon in spatially discretized porous medium and thin film equations}},
doi = {10.1137/19M1300017},
volume = {59},
year = {2021},
}
@article{9334,
abstract = {Polaritons with directional in-plane propagation and ultralow losses in van der Waals (vdW) crystals promise unprecedented manipulation of light at the nanoscale. However, these polaritons present a crucial limitation: their directional propagation is intrinsically determined by the crystal structure of the host material, imposing forbidden directions of propagation. Here, we demonstrate that directional polaritons (in-plane hyperbolic phonon polaritons) in a vdW crystal (α-phase molybdenum trioxide) can be directed along forbidden directions by inducing an optical topological transition, which emerges when the slab is placed on a substrate with a given negative permittivity (4H–silicon carbide). By visualizing the transition in real space, we observe exotic polaritonic states between mutually orthogonal hyperbolic regimes, which unveil the topological origin of the transition: a gap opening in the dispersion. This work provides insights into optical topological transitions in vdW crystals, which introduce a route to direct light at the nanoscale.},
author = {Duan, J. and Álvarez-Pérez, G. and Voronin, K. V. and Prieto Gonzalez, Ivan and Taboada-Gutiérrez, J. and Volkov, V. S. and Martín-Sánchez, J. and Nikitin, A. Y. and Alonso-González, P.},
issn = {23752548},
journal = {Science Advances},
number = {14},
publisher = {AAAS},
title = {{Enabling propagation of anisotropic polaritons along forbidden directions via a topological transition}},
doi = {10.1126/sciadv.abf2690},
volume = {7},
year = {2021},
}
@article{7956,
abstract = {When short-range attractions are combined with long-range repulsions in colloidal particle systems, complex microphases can emerge. Here, we study a system of isotropic particles, which can form lamellar structures or a disordered fluid phase when temperature is varied. We show that, at equilibrium, the lamellar structure crystallizes, while out of equilibrium, the system forms a variety of structures at different shear rates and temperatures above melting. The shear-induced ordering is analyzed by means of principal component analysis and artificial neural networks, which are applied to data of reduced dimensionality. Our results reveal the possibility of inducing ordering by shear, potentially providing a feasible route to the fabrication of ordered lamellar structures from isotropic particles.},
author = {Pȩkalski, J. and Rzadkowski, Wojciech and Panagiotopoulos, A. Z.},
issn = {10897690},
journal = {The Journal of chemical physics},
number = {20},
publisher = {AIP},
title = {{Shear-induced ordering in systems with competing interactions: A machine learning study}},
doi = {10.1063/5.0005194},
volume = {152},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7957,
abstract = {Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are a class of disorders affecting brain development and function and are characterized by wide genetic and clinical variability. In this review, we discuss the multiple factors that influence the clinical presentation of NDDs, with particular attention to gene vulnerability, mutational load, and the two-hit model. Despite the complex architecture of
mutational events associated with NDDs, the various proteins involved appear to converge on common pathways, such as synaptic plasticity/function, chromatin remodelers and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms behind these pathways will hopefully lead to the identification of candidates that could be targeted for treatment approaches.},
author = {Parenti, Ilaria and Garcia Rabaneda, Luis E and Schön, Hanna and Novarino, Gaia},
issn = {1878108X},
journal = {Trends in Neurosciences},
number = {8},
pages = {608--621},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Neurodevelopmental disorders: From genetics to functional pathways}},
doi = {10.1016/j.tins.2020.05.004},
volume = {43},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7960,
abstract = {Let A={A1,…,An} be a family of sets in the plane. For 0≤i2b be integers. We prove that if each k-wise or (k+1)-wise intersection of sets from A has at most b path-connected components, which all are open, then fk+1=0 implies fk≤cfk−1 for some positive constant c depending only on b and k. These results also extend to two-dimensional compact surfaces.},
author = {Kalai, Gil and Patakova, Zuzana},
issn = {14320444},
journal = {Discrete and Computational Geometry},
pages = {304--323},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{Intersection patterns of planar sets}},
doi = {10.1007/s00454-020-00205-z},
volume = {64},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7962,
abstract = {A string graph is the intersection graph of a family of continuous arcs in the plane. The intersection graph of a family of plane convex sets is a string graph, but not all string graphs can be obtained in this way. We prove the following structure theorem conjectured by Janson and Uzzell: The vertex set of almost all string graphs on n vertices can be partitioned into five cliques such that some pair of them is not connected by any edge (n→∞). We also show that every graph with the above property is an intersection graph of plane convex sets. As a corollary, we obtain that almost all string graphs on n vertices are intersection graphs of plane convex sets.},
author = {Pach, János and Reed, Bruce and Yuditsky, Yelena},
issn = {14320444},
journal = {Discrete and Computational Geometry},
number = {4},
pages = {888--917},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{Almost all string graphs are intersection graphs of plane convex sets}},
doi = {10.1007/s00454-020-00213-z},
volume = {63},
year = {2020},
}
@inproceedings{7966,
abstract = {For 1≤m≤n, we consider a natural m-out-of-n multi-instance scenario for a public-key encryption (PKE) scheme. An adversary, given n independent instances of PKE, wins if he breaks at least m out of the n instances. In this work, we are interested in the scaling factor of PKE schemes, SF, which measures how well the difficulty of breaking m out of the n instances scales in m. That is, a scaling factor SF=ℓ indicates that breaking m out of n instances is at least ℓ times more difficult than breaking one single instance. A PKE scheme with small scaling factor hence provides an ideal target for mass surveillance. In fact, the Logjam attack (CCS 2015) implicitly exploited, among other things, an almost constant scaling factor of ElGamal over finite fields (with shared group parameters).
For Hashed ElGamal over elliptic curves, we use the generic group model to argue that the scaling factor depends on the scheme's granularity. In low granularity, meaning each public key contains its independent group parameter, the scheme has optimal scaling factor SF=m; In medium and high granularity, meaning all public keys share the same group parameter, the scheme still has a reasonable scaling factor SF=√m. Our findings underline that instantiating ElGamal over elliptic curves should be preferred to finite fields in a multi-instance scenario.
As our main technical contribution, we derive new generic-group lower bounds of Ω(√(mp)) on the difficulty of solving both the m-out-of-n Gap Discrete Logarithm and the m-out-of-n Gap Computational Diffie-Hellman problem over groups of prime order p, extending a recent result by Yun (EUROCRYPT 2015). We establish the lower bound by studying the hardness of a related computational problem which we call the search-by-hypersurface problem.},
author = {Auerbach, Benedikt and Giacon, Federico and Kiltz, Eike},
booktitle = {Advances in Cryptology – EUROCRYPT 2020},
isbn = {9783030457266},
issn = {0302-9743},
pages = {475--506},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{Everybody’s a target: Scalability in public-key encryption}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-45727-3_16},
volume = {12107},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7968,
abstract = {Organic materials are known to feature long spin-diffusion times, originating in a generally small spin–orbit coupling observed in these systems. From that perspective, chiral molecules acting as efficient spin selectors pose a puzzle that attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Here, we revisit the physical origins of chiral-induced spin selectivity (CISS) and propose a simple analytic minimal model to describe it. The model treats a chiral molecule as an anisotropic wire with molecular dipole moments aligned arbitrarily with respect to the wire’s axes and is therefore quite general. Importantly, it shows that the helical structure of the molecule is not necessary to observe CISS and other chiral nonhelical molecules can also be considered as potential candidates for the CISS effect. We also show that the suggested simple model captures the main characteristics of CISS observed in the experiment, without the need for additional constraints employed in the previous studies. The results pave the way for understanding other related physical phenomena where the CISS effect plays an essential role.},
author = {Ghazaryan, Areg and Paltiel, Yossi and Lemeshko, Mikhail},
issn = {1932-7447},
journal = {The Journal of Physical Chemistry C},
number = {21},
pages = {11716--11721},
publisher = {American Chemical Society},
title = {{Analytic model of chiral-induced spin selectivity}},
doi = {10.1021/acs.jpcc.0c02584},
volume = {124},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7971,
abstract = {Multilayer graphene lattices allow for an additional tunability of the band structure by the strong perpendicular electric field. In particular, the emergence of the new multiple Dirac points in ABA stacked trilayer graphene subject to strong transverse electric fields was proposed theoretically and confirmed experimentally. These new Dirac points dubbed “gullies” emerge from the interplay between strong electric field and trigonal warping. In this work, we first characterize the properties of new emergent Dirac points and show that the electric field can be used to tune the distance between gullies in the momentum space. We demonstrate that the band structure has multiple Lifshitz transitions and higher-order singularity of “monkey saddle” type. Following the characterization of the band structure, we consider the spectrum of Landau levels and structure of their wave functions. In the limit of strong electric fields when gullies are well separated in momentum space, they give rise to triply degenerate Landau levels. In the second part of this work, we investigate how degeneracy between three gully Landau levels is lifted in the presence of interactions. Within the Hartree-Fock approximation we show that the symmetry breaking state interpolates between the fully gully polarized state that breaks C3 symmetry at high displacement field and the gully symmetric state when the electric field is decreased. The discontinuous transition between these two states is driven by enhanced intergully tunneling and exchange. We conclude by outlining specific experimental predictions for the existence of such a symmetry-breaking state.},
author = {Rao, Peng and Serbyn, Maksym},
issn = {2469-9950},
journal = {Physical Review B},
number = {24},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {{Gully quantum Hall ferromagnetism in biased trilayer graphene}},
doi = {10.1103/physrevb.101.245411},
volume = {101},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7985,
abstract = {The goal of limiting global warming to 1.5 °C requires a drastic reduction in CO2 emissions across many sectors of the world economy. Batteries are vital to this endeavor, whether used in electric vehicles, to store renewable electricity, or in aviation. Present lithium-ion technologies are preparing the public for this inevitable change, but their maximum theoretical specific capacity presents a limitation. Their high cost is another concern for commercial viability. Metal–air batteries have the highest theoretical energy density of all possible secondary battery technologies and could yield step changes in energy storage, if their practical difficulties could be overcome. The scope of this review is to provide an objective, comprehensive, and authoritative assessment of the intensive work invested in nonaqueous rechargeable metal–air batteries over the past few years, which identified the key problems and guides directions to solve them. We focus primarily on the challenges and outlook for Li–O2 cells but include Na–O2, K–O2, and Mg–O2 cells for comparison. Our review highlights the interdisciplinary nature of this field that involves a combination of materials chemistry, electrochemistry, computation, microscopy, spectroscopy, and surface science. The mechanisms of O2 reduction and evolution are considered in the light of recent findings, along with developments in positive and negative electrodes, electrolytes, electrocatalysis on surfaces and in solution, and the degradative effect of singlet oxygen, which is typically formed in Li–O2 cells.},
author = {Kwak, WJ and Sharon, D and Xia, C and Kim, H and Johnson, LR and Bruce, PG and Nazar, LF and Sun, YK and Frimer, AA and Noked, M and Freunberger, Stefan Alexander and Aurbach, D},
issn = {0009-2665},
journal = {Chemical Reviews},
number = {14},
pages = {6626--6683},
publisher = {American Chemical Society},
title = {{Lithium-oxygen batteries and related systems: Potential, status, and future}},
doi = {10.1021/acs.chemrev.9b00609},
volume = {120},
year = {2020},
}
@inproceedings{7989,
abstract = {We prove general topological Radon-type theorems for sets in ℝ^d, smooth real manifolds or finite dimensional simplicial complexes. Combined with a recent result of Holmsen and Lee, it gives fractional Helly theorem, and consequently the existence of weak ε-nets as well as a (p,q)-theorem. More precisely: Let X be either ℝ^d, smooth real d-manifold, or a finite d-dimensional simplicial complex. Then if F is a finite, intersection-closed family of sets in X such that the ith reduced Betti number (with ℤ₂ coefficients) of any set in F is at most b for every non-negative integer i less or equal to k, then the Radon number of F is bounded in terms of b and X. Here k is the smallest integer larger or equal to d/2 - 1 if X = ℝ^d; k=d-1 if X is a smooth real d-manifold and not a surface, k=0 if X is a surface and k=d if X is a d-dimensional simplicial complex. Using the recent result of the author and Kalai, we manage to prove the following optimal bound on fractional Helly number for families of open sets in a surface: Let F be a finite family of open sets in a surface S such that the intersection of any subfamily of F is either empty, or path-connected. Then the fractional Helly number of F is at most three. This also settles a conjecture of Holmsen, Kim, and Lee about an existence of a (p,q)-theorem for open subsets of a surface.},
author = {Patakova, Zuzana},
booktitle = {36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry},
isbn = {9783959771436},
issn = {18688969},
location = {Zürich, Switzerland},
publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik},
title = {{Bounding radon number via Betti numbers}},
doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.61},
volume = {164},
year = {2020},
}
@inproceedings{7990,
abstract = {Given a finite point set P in general position in the plane, a full triangulation is a maximal straight-line embedded plane graph on P. A partial triangulation on P is a full triangulation of some subset P' of P containing all extreme points in P. A bistellar flip on a partial triangulation either flips an edge, removes a non-extreme point of degree 3, or adds a point in P ⧵ P' as vertex of degree 3. The bistellar flip graph has all partial triangulations as vertices, and a pair of partial triangulations is adjacent if they can be obtained from one another by a bistellar flip. The goal of this paper is to investigate the structure of this graph, with emphasis on its connectivity. For sets P of n points in general position, we show that the bistellar flip graph is (n-3)-connected, thereby answering, for sets in general position, an open questions raised in a book (by De Loera, Rambau, and Santos) and a survey (by Lee and Santos) on triangulations. This matches the situation for the subfamily of regular triangulations (i.e., partial triangulations obtained by lifting the points and projecting the lower convex hull), where (n-3)-connectivity has been known since the late 1980s through the secondary polytope (Gelfand, Kapranov, Zelevinsky) and Balinski’s Theorem. Our methods also yield the following results (see the full version [Wagner and Welzl, 2020]): (i) The bistellar flip graph can be covered by graphs of polytopes of dimension n-3 (products of secondary polytopes). (ii) A partial triangulation is regular, if it has distance n-3 in the Hasse diagram of the partial order of partial subdivisions from the trivial subdivision. (iii) All partial triangulations are regular iff the trivial subdivision has height n-3 in the partial order of partial subdivisions. (iv) There are arbitrarily large sets P with non-regular partial triangulations, while every proper subset has only regular triangulations, i.e., there are no small certificates for the existence of non-regular partial triangulations (answering a question by F. Santos in the unexpected direction).},
author = {Wagner, Uli and Welzl, Emo},
booktitle = {36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry},
isbn = {9783959771436},
issn = {18688969},
location = {Zürich, Switzerland},
publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik},
title = {{Connectivity of triangulation flip graphs in the plane (Part II: Bistellar flips)}},
doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.67},
volume = {164},
year = {2020},
}
@inproceedings{7991,
abstract = {We define and study a discrete process that generalizes the convex-layer decomposition of a planar point set. Our process, which we call homotopic curve shortening (HCS), starts with a closed curve (which might self-intersect) in the presence of a set P⊂ ℝ² of point obstacles, and evolves in discrete steps, where each step consists of (1) taking shortcuts around the obstacles, and (2) reducing the curve to its shortest homotopic equivalent. We find experimentally that, if the initial curve is held fixed and P is chosen to be either a very fine regular grid or a uniformly random point set, then HCS behaves at the limit like the affine curve-shortening flow (ACSF). This connection between HCS and ACSF generalizes the link between "grid peeling" and the ACSF observed by Eppstein et al. (2017), which applied only to convex curves, and which was studied only for regular grids. We prove that HCS satisfies some properties analogous to those of ACSF: HCS is invariant under affine transformations, preserves convexity, and does not increase the total absolute curvature. Furthermore, the number of self-intersections of a curve, or intersections between two curves (appropriately defined), does not increase. Finally, if the initial curve is simple, then the number of inflection points (appropriately defined) does not increase.},
author = {Avvakumov, Sergey and Nivasch, Gabriel},
booktitle = {36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry},
isbn = {9783959771436},
issn = {18688969},
location = {Zürich, Switzerland},
publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik},
title = {{Homotopic curve shortening and the affine curve-shortening flow}},
doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.12},
volume = {164},
year = {2020},
}
@inproceedings{7992,
abstract = {Let K be a convex body in ℝⁿ (i.e., a compact convex set with nonempty interior). Given a point p in the interior of K, a hyperplane h passing through p is called barycentric if p is the barycenter of K ∩ h. In 1961, Grünbaum raised the question whether, for every K, there exists an interior point p through which there are at least n+1 distinct barycentric hyperplanes. Two years later, this was seemingly resolved affirmatively by showing that this is the case if p=p₀ is the point of maximal depth in K. However, while working on a related question, we noticed that one of the auxiliary claims in the proof is incorrect. Here, we provide a counterexample; this re-opens Grünbaum’s question. It follows from known results that for n ≥ 2, there are always at least three distinct barycentric cuts through the point p₀ ∈ K of maximal depth. Using tools related to Morse theory we are able to improve this bound: four distinct barycentric cuts through p₀ are guaranteed if n ≥ 3.},
author = {Patakova, Zuzana and Tancer, Martin and Wagner, Uli},
booktitle = {36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry},
isbn = {9783959771436},
issn = {18688969},
location = {Zürich, Switzerland},
publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik},
title = {{Barycentric cuts through a convex body}},
doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.62},
volume = {164},
year = {2020},
}
@inproceedings{7994,
abstract = {In the recent study of crossing numbers, drawings of graphs that can be extended to an arrangement of pseudolines (pseudolinear drawings) have played an important role as they are a natural combinatorial extension of rectilinear (or straight-line) drawings. A characterization of the pseudolinear drawings of K_n was found recently. We extend this characterization to all graphs, by describing the set of minimal forbidden subdrawings for pseudolinear drawings. Our characterization also leads to a polynomial-time algorithm to recognize pseudolinear drawings and construct the pseudolines when it is possible.},
author = {Arroyo Guevara, Alan M and Bensmail, Julien and Bruce Richter, R.},
booktitle = {36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry},
isbn = {9783959771436},
issn = {18688969},
location = {Zürich, Switzerland},
publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik},
title = {{Extending drawings of graphs to arrangements of pseudolines}},
doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.9},
volume = {164},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7995,
abstract = {When divergent populations are connected by gene flow, the establishment of complete reproductive isolation usually requires the joint action of multiple barrier effects. One example where multiple barrier effects are coupled consists of a single trait that is under divergent natural selection and also mediates assortative mating. Such multiple‐effect traits can strongly reduce gene flow. However, there are few cases where patterns of assortative mating have been described quantitatively and their impact on gene flow has been determined. Two ecotypes of the coastal marine snail, Littorina saxatilis , occur in North Atlantic rocky‐shore habitats dominated by either crab predation or wave action. There is evidence for divergent natural selection acting on size, and size‐assortative mating has previously been documented. Here, we analyze the mating pattern in L. saxatilis with respect to size in intensively sampled transects across boundaries between the habitats. We show that the mating pattern is mostly conserved between ecotypes and that it generates both assortment and directional sexual selection for small male size. Using simulations, we show that the mating pattern can contribute to reproductive isolation between ecotypes but the barrier to gene flow is likely strengthened more by sexual selection than by assortment.},
author = {Perini, Samuel and Rafajlović, Marina and Westram, Anja M and Johannesson, Kerstin and Butlin, Roger K.},
issn = {15585646},
journal = {Evolution},
number = {7},
pages = {1482--1497},
publisher = {Wiley},
title = {{Assortative mating, sexual selection, and their consequences for gene flow in Littorina}},
doi = {10.1111/evo.14027},
volume = {74},
year = {2020},
}
@phdthesis{7996,
abstract = {Quantum computation enables the execution of algorithms that have exponential complexity. This might open the path towards the synthesis of new materials or medical drugs, optimization of transport or financial strategies etc., intractable on even the fastest classical computers. A quantum computer consists of interconnected two level quantum systems, called qubits, that satisfy DiVincezo’s criteria. Worldwide, there are ongoing efforts to find the qubit architecture which will unite quantum error correction compatible single and two qubit fidelities, long distance qubit to qubit coupling and
calability. Superconducting qubits have gone the furthest in this race, demonstrating an algorithm running on 53 coupled qubits, but still the fidelities are not even close to those required for realizing a single logical qubit. emiconductor qubits offer extremely good characteristics, but they are currently investigated across different platforms. Uniting those good characteristics into a single platform might be a big step towards the quantum computer realization.
Here we describe the implementation of a hole spin qubit hosted in a Ge hut wire double quantum dot. The high and tunable spin-orbit coupling together with a heavy hole state character is expected to allow fast spin manipulation and long coherence times. Furthermore large lever arms, for hut wire devices, should allow good coupling to superconducting resonators enabling efficient long distance spin to spin coupling and a sensitive gate reflectometry spin readout. The developed cryogenic setup (printed circuit board sample holders, filtering, high-frequency wiring) enabled us to perform low temperature spin dynamics experiments. Indeed, we measured the fastest single spin qubit Rabi frequencies reported so far, reaching 140 MHz, while the dephasing times of 130 ns oppose the long decoherence predictions. In order to further investigate this, a double quantum dot gate was connected directly to a lumped element
resonator which enabled gate reflectometry readout. The vanishing inter-dot transition signal, for increasing external magnetic field, revealed the spin nature of the measured quantity.},
author = {Kukucka, Josip},
issn = {2663-337X},
pages = {178},
publisher = {IST Austria},
title = {{Implementation of a hole spin qubit in Ge hut wires and dispersive spin sensing}},
doi = {10.15479/AT:ISTA:7996},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7999,
abstract = {Linking epigenetic marks to clinical outcomes improves insight into molecular processes, disease prediction, and therapeutic target identification. Here, a statistical approach is presented to infer the epigenetic architecture of complex disease, determine the variation captured by epigenetic effects, and estimate phenotype-epigenetic probe associations jointly. Implicitly adjusting for probe correlations, data structure (cell-count or relatedness), and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker effects, improves association estimates and in 9,448 individuals, 75.7% (95% CI 71.70–79.3) of body mass index (BMI) variation and 45.6% (95% CI 37.3–51.9) of cigarette consumption variation was captured by whole blood methylation array data. Pathway-linked probes of blood cholesterol, lipid transport and sterol metabolism for BMI, and xenobiotic stimuli response for smoking, showed >1.5 times larger associations with >95% posterior inclusion probability. Prediction accuracy improved by 28.7% for BMI and 10.2% for smoking over a LASSO model, with age-, and tissue-specificity, implying associations are a phenotypic consequence rather than causal. },
author = {Trejo Banos, D and McCartney, DL and Patxot, M and Anchieri, L and Battram, T and Christiansen, C and Costeira, R and Walker, RM and Morris, SW and Campbell, A and Zhang, Q and Porteous, DJ and McRae, AF and Wray, NR and Visscher, PM and Haley, CS and Evans, KL and Deary, IJ and McIntosh, AM and Hemani, G and Bell, JT and Marioni, RE and Robinson, Matthew Richard},
issn = {2041-1723},
journal = {Nature Communications},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{Bayesian reassessment of the epigenetic architecture of complex traits}},
doi = {10.1038/s41467-020-16520-1},
volume = {11},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8001,
abstract = {Post-tetanic potentiation (PTP) is an attractive candidate mechanism for hippocampus-dependent short-term memory. Although PTP has a uniquely large magnitude at hippocampal mossy fiber-CA3 pyramidal neuron synapses, it is unclear whether it can be induced by natural activity and whether its lifetime is sufficient to support short-term memory. We combined in vivo recordings from granule cells (GCs), in vitro paired recordings from mossy fiber terminals and postsynaptic CA3 neurons, and “flash and freeze” electron microscopy. PTP was induced at single synapses and showed a low induction threshold adapted to sparse GC activity in vivo. PTP was mainly generated by enlargement of the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles, allowing multiplicative interaction with other plasticity forms. PTP was associated with an increase in the docked vesicle pool, suggesting formation of structural “pool engrams.” Absence of presynaptic activity extended the lifetime of the potentiation, enabling prolonged information storage in the hippocampal network.},
author = {Vandael, David H and Borges Merjane, Carolina and Zhang, Xiaomin and Jonas, Peter M},
issn = {10974199},
journal = {Neuron},
number = {3},
pages = {509--521},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Short-term plasticity at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses is induced by natural activity patterns and associated with vesicle pool engram formation}},
doi = {10.1016/j.neuron.2020.05.013},
volume = {107},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8002,
abstract = {Wound healing in plant tissues, consisting of rigid cell wall-encapsulated cells, represents a considerable challenge and occurs through largely unknown mechanisms distinct from those in animals. Owing to their inability to migrate, plant cells rely on targeted cell division and expansion to regenerate wounds. Strict coordination of these wound-induced responses is essential to ensure efficient, spatially restricted wound healing. Single-cell tracking by live imaging allowed us to gain mechanistic insight into the wound perception and coordination of wound responses after laser-based wounding in Arabidopsis root. We revealed a crucial contribution of the collapse of damaged cells in wound perception and detected an auxin increase specific to cells immediately adjacent to the wound. This localized auxin increase balances wound-induced cell expansion and restorative division rates in a dose-dependent manner, leading to tumorous overproliferation when the canonical TIR1 auxin signaling is disrupted. Auxin and wound-induced turgor pressure changes together also spatially define the activation of key components of regeneration, such as the transcription regulator ERF115. Our observations suggest that the wound signaling involves the sensing of collapse of damaged cells and a local auxin signaling activation to coordinate the downstream transcriptional responses in the immediate wound vicinity.},
author = {Hörmayer, Lukas and Montesinos López, Juan C and Marhavá, Petra and Benková, Eva and Yoshida, Saiko and Friml, Jiří},
issn = {0027-8424},
journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences},
number = {26},
publisher = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences},
title = {{Wounding-induced changes in cellular pressure and localized auxin signalling spatially coordinate restorative divisions in roots}},
doi = {10.1073/pnas.2003346117},
volume = {117},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8011,
abstract = {Relaxation to a thermal state is the inevitable fate of nonequilibrium interacting quantum systems without special conservation laws. While thermalization in one-dimensional systems can often be suppressed by integrability mechanisms, in two spatial dimensions thermalization is expected to be far more effective due to the increased phase space. In this work we propose a general framework for escaping or delaying the emergence of the thermal state in two-dimensional arrays of Rydberg atoms via the mechanism of quantum scars, i.e., initial states that fail to thermalize. The suppression of thermalization is achieved in two complementary ways: by adding local perturbations or by adjusting the driving Rabi frequency according to the local connectivity of the lattice. We demonstrate that these mechanisms allow us to realize robust quantum scars in various two-dimensional lattices, including decorated lattices with nonconstant connectivity. In particular, we show that a small decrease of the Rabi frequency at the corners of the lattice is crucial for mitigating the strong boundary effects in two-dimensional systems. Our results identify synchronization as an important tool for future experiments on two-dimensional quantum scars.},
author = {Michailidis, Alexios and Turner, C. J. and Papić, Z. and Abanin, D. A. and Serbyn, Maksym},
issn = {2643-1564},
journal = {Physical Review Research},
number = {2},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {{Stabilizing two-dimensional quantum scars by deformation and synchronization}},
doi = {10.1103/physrevresearch.2.022065},
volume = {2},
year = {2020},
}
@inproceedings{8012,
abstract = {Asynchronous programs are notoriously difficult to reason about because they spawn computation tasks which take effect asynchronously in a nondeterministic way. Devising inductive invariants for such programs requires understanding and stating complex relationships between an unbounded number of computation tasks in arbitrarily long executions. In this paper, we introduce inductive sequentialization, a new proof rule that sidesteps this complexity via a sequential reduction, a sequential program that captures every behavior of the original program up to reordering of coarse-grained commutative actions. A sequential reduction of a concurrent program is easy to reason about since it corresponds to a simple execution of the program in an idealized synchronous environment, where processes act in a fixed order and at the same speed. We have implemented and integrated our proof rule in the CIVL verifier, allowing us to provably derive fine-grained implementations of asynchronous programs. We have successfully applied our proof rule to a diverse set of message-passing protocols, including leader election protocols, two-phase commit, and Paxos.},
author = {Kragl, Bernhard and Enea, Constantin and Henzinger, Thomas A and Mutluergil, Suha Orhun and Qadeer, Shaz},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 41st ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation},
isbn = {9781450376136},
location = {London, United Kingdom},
pages = {227--242},
publisher = {Association for Computing Machinery},
title = {{Inductive sequentialization of asynchronous programs}},
doi = {10.1145/3385412.3385980},
year = {2020},
}
@phdthesis{8032,
abstract = {Algorithms in computational 3-manifold topology typically take a triangulation as an input and return topological information about the underlying 3-manifold. However, extracting the desired information from a triangulation (e.g., evaluating an invariant) is often computationally very expensive. In recent years this complexity barrier has been successfully tackled in some cases by importing ideas from the theory of parameterized algorithms into the realm of 3-manifolds. Various computationally hard problems were shown to be efficiently solvable for input triangulations that are sufficiently “tree-like.”
In this thesis we focus on the key combinatorial parameter in the above context: we consider the treewidth of a compact, orientable 3-manifold, i.e., the smallest treewidth of the dual graph of any triangulation thereof. By building on the work of Scharlemann–Thompson and Scharlemann–Schultens–Saito on generalized Heegaard splittings, and on the work of Jaco–Rubinstein on layered triangulations, we establish quantitative relations between the treewidth and classical topological invariants of a 3-manifold. In particular, among other results, we show that the treewidth of a closed, orientable, irreducible, non-Haken 3-manifold is always within a constant factor of its Heegaard genus.},
author = {Huszár, Kristóf},
isbn = {978-3-99078-006-0},
issn = {2663-337X},
pages = {xviii+120},
publisher = {IST Austria},
title = {{Combinatorial width parameters for 3-dimensional manifolds}},
doi = {10.15479/AT:ISTA:8032},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8036,
abstract = {When tiny soft ferromagnetic particles are placed along a liquid interface and exposed to a vertical magnetic field, the balance between capillary attraction and magnetic repulsion leads to self-organization into well-defined patterns. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that precessing magnetic fields induce metachronal waves on the periphery of these assemblies, similar to the ones observed in ciliates and some arthropods. The outermost layer of particles behaves like an array of cilia or legs whose sequential movement causes a net and controllable locomotion. This bioinspired many-particle swimming strategy is effective even at low Reynolds number, using only spatially uniform fields to generate the waves.},
author = {Collard, Ylona and Grosjean, Galien M and Vandewalle, Nicolas},
issn = {23993650},
journal = {Communications Physics},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{Magnetically powered metachronal waves induce locomotion in self-assemblies}},
doi = {10.1038/s42005-020-0380-9},
volume = {3},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8037,
abstract = {Genetic perturbations that affect bacterial resistance to antibiotics have been characterized genome-wide, but how do such perturbations interact with subsequent evolutionary adaptation to the drug? Here, we show that strong epistasis between resistance mutations and systematically identified genes can be exploited to control spontaneous resistance evolution. We evolved hundreds of Escherichia coli K-12 mutant populations in parallel, using a robotic platform that tightly controls population size and selection pressure. We find a global diminishing-returns epistasis pattern: strains that are initially more sensitive generally undergo larger resistance gains. However, some gene deletion strains deviate from this general trend and curtail the evolvability of resistance, including deletions of genes for membrane transport, LPS biosynthesis, and chaperones. Deletions of efflux pump genes force evolution on inferior mutational paths, not explored in the wild type, and some of these essentially block resistance evolution. This effect is due to strong negative epistasis with resistance mutations. The identified genes and cellular functions provide potential targets for development of adjuvants that may block spontaneous resistance evolution when combined with antibiotics.},
author = {Lukacisinova, Marta and Fernando, Booshini and Bollenbach, Mark Tobias},
issn = {20411723},
journal = {Nature Communications},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{Highly parallel lab evolution reveals that epistasis can curb the evolution of antibiotic resistance}},
doi = {10.1038/s41467-020-16932-z},
volume = {11},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8038,
abstract = {Microelectromechanical systems and integrated photonics provide the basis for many reliable and compact circuit elements in modern communication systems. Electro-opto-mechanical devices are currently one of the leading approaches to realize ultra-sensitive, low-loss transducers for an emerging quantum information technology. Here we present an on-chip microwave frequency converter based on a planar aluminum on silicon nitride platform that is compatible with slot-mode coupled photonic crystal cavities. We show efficient frequency conversion between two propagating microwave modes mediated by the radiation pressure interaction with a metalized dielectric nanobeam oscillator. We achieve bidirectional coherent conversion with a total device efficiency of up to ~60%, a dynamic range of 2 × 10^9 photons/s and an instantaneous bandwidth of up to 1.7 kHz. A high fidelity quantum state transfer would be possible if the drive dependent output noise of currently ~14 photons s^−1 Hz^−1 is further reduced. Such a silicon nitride based transducer is in situ reconfigurable and could be used for on-chip classical and quantum signal routing and filtering, both for microwave and hybrid microwave-optical applications.},
author = {Fink, Johannes M and Kalaee, M. and Norte, R. and Pitanti, A. and Painter, O.},
issn = {20589565},
journal = {Quantum Science and Technology},
number = {3},
publisher = {IOP Publishing},
title = {{Efficient microwave frequency conversion mediated by a photonics compatible silicon nitride nanobeam oscillator}},
doi = {10.1088/2058-9565/ab8dce},
volume = {5},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8042,
abstract = {We consider systems of N bosons in a box of volume one, interacting through a repulsive two-body potential of the form κN3β−1V(Nβx). For all 0<β<1, and for sufficiently small coupling constant κ>0, we establish the validity of Bogolyubov theory, identifying the ground state energy and the low-lying excitation spectrum up to errors that vanish in the limit of large N.},
author = {Boccato, Chiara and Brennecke, Christian and Cenatiempo, Serena and Schlein, Benjamin},
issn = {14359855},
journal = {Journal of the European Mathematical Society},
number = {7},
pages = {2331--2403},
publisher = {European Mathematical Society},
title = {{The excitation spectrum of Bose gases interacting through singular potentials}},
doi = {10.4171/JEMS/966},
volume = {22},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8043,
abstract = {With decreasing Reynolds number, Re, turbulence in channel flow becomes spatio-temporally intermittent and self-organises into solitary stripes oblique to the mean flow direction. We report here the existence of localised nonlinear travelling wave solutions of the Navier–Stokes equations possessing this obliqueness property. Such solutions are identified numerically using edge tracking coupled with arclength continuation. All solutions emerge in saddle-node bifurcations at values of Re lower than the non-localised solutions. Relative periodic orbit solutions bifurcating from branches of travelling waves have also been computed. A complete parametric study is performed, including their stability, the investigation of their large-scale flow, and the robustness to changes of the numerical domain.},
author = {Paranjape, Chaitanya S and Duguet, Yohann and Hof, Björn},
issn = {14697645},
journal = {Journal of Fluid Mechanics},
publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
title = {{Oblique stripe solutions of channel flow}},
doi = {10.1017/jfm.2020.322},
volume = {897},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8057,
abstract = {Water-in-salt electrolytes based on highly concentrated bis(trifluoromethyl)sulfonimide (TFSI) promise aqueous electrolytes with stabilities approaching 3 V. However, especially with an electrode approaching the cathodic (reductive) stability, cycling stability is insufficient. While stability critically relies on a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), the mechanism behind the cathodic stability limit remains unclear. Here, we reveal two distinct reduction potentials for the chemical environments of ‘free’ and ‘bound’ water and that both contribute to SEI formation. Free-water is reduced ~1V above bound water in a hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and responsible for SEI formation via reactive intermediates of the HER; concurrent LiTFSI precipitation/dissolution establishes a dynamic interface. The free-water population emerges, therefore, as the handle to extend the cathodic limit of aqueous electrolytes and the battery cycling stability.},
author = {Bouchal, Roza and Li, Zhujie and Bongu, Chandra and Le Vot, Steven and Berthelot, Romain and Rotenberg, Benjamin and Favier, Frederic and Freunberger, Stefan Alexander and Salanne, Mathieu and Fontaine, Olivier},
issn = {0044-8249},
journal = {Angewandte Chemie},
number = {37},
pages = {16047--16051},
publisher = {Wiley},
title = {{Competitive salt precipitation/dissolution during free‐water reduction in water‐in‐salt electrolyte}},
doi = {10.1002/ange.202005378},
volume = {132},
year = {2020},
}
@unpublished{8063,
abstract = {We present a generative model of images that explicitly reasons over the set
of objects they show. Our model learns a structured latent representation that
separates objects from each other and from the background; unlike prior works,
it explicitly represents the 2D position and depth of each object, as well as
an embedding of its segmentation mask and appearance. The model can be trained
from images alone in a purely unsupervised fashion without the need for object
masks or depth information. Moreover, it always generates complete objects,
even though a significant fraction of training images contain occlusions.
Finally, we show that our model can infer decompositions of novel images into
their constituent objects, including accurate prediction of depth ordering and
segmentation of occluded parts.},
author = {Anciukevicius, Titas and Lampert, Christoph and Henderson, Paul M},
booktitle = {arXiv},
title = {{Object-centric image generation with factored depths, locations, and appearances}},
year = {2020},
}
@misc{8067,
abstract = {With the lithium-ion technology approaching its intrinsic limit with graphite-based anodes, lithium metal is recently receiving renewed interest from the battery community as potential high capacity anode for next-generation rechargeable batteries. In this focus paper, we review the main advances in this field since the first attempts in the
mid-1970s. Strategies for enabling reversible cycling and avoiding dendrite growth are thoroughly discussed, including specific applications in all-solid-state (polymeric and inorganic), Lithium-sulphur and Li-O2 (air) batteries. A particular attention is paid to review recent developments in regard of prototype manufacturing and current state-ofthe-art of these battery technologies with respect to the 2030 targets of the EU Integrated Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan) Action 7.},
author = {Varzi, Alberto and Thanner, Katharina and Scipioni, Roberto and Di Lecce, Daniele and Hassoun, Jusef and Dörfler, Susanne and Altheus, Holger and Kaskel, Stefan and Prehal, Christian and Freunberger, Stefan Alexander},
issn = {2664-1690},
keywords = {Battery, Lithium metal, Lithium-sulphur, Lithium-air, All-solid-state},
pages = {63},
publisher = {IST Austria},
title = {{Current status and future perspectives of Lithium metal batteries}},
doi = {10.15479/AT:ISTA:8067},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8077,
abstract = {The projection methods with vanilla inertial extrapolation step for variational inequalities have been of interest to many authors recently due to the improved convergence speed contributed by the presence of inertial extrapolation step. However, it is discovered that these projection methods with inertial steps lose the Fejér monotonicity of the iterates with respect to the solution, which is being enjoyed by their corresponding non-inertial projection methods for variational inequalities. This lack of Fejér monotonicity makes projection methods with vanilla inertial extrapolation step for variational inequalities not to converge faster than their corresponding non-inertial projection methods at times. Also, it has recently been proved that the projection methods with vanilla inertial extrapolation step may provide convergence rates that are worse than the classical projected gradient methods for strongly convex functions. In this paper, we introduce projection methods with alternated inertial extrapolation step for solving variational inequalities. We show that the sequence of iterates generated by our methods converges weakly to a solution of the variational inequality under some appropriate conditions. The Fejér monotonicity of even subsequence is recovered in these methods and linear rate of convergence is obtained. The numerical implementations of our methods compared with some other inertial projection methods show that our method is more efficient and outperforms some of these inertial projection methods.},
author = {Shehu, Yekini and Iyiola, Olaniyi S.},
issn = {0168-9274},
journal = {Applied Numerical Mathematics},
pages = {315--337},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Projection methods with alternating inertial steps for variational inequalities: Weak and linear convergence}},
doi = {10.1016/j.apnum.2020.06.009},
volume = {157},
year = {2020},
}
@unpublished{8081,
abstract = {Here, we employ micro- and nanosized cellulose particles, namely paper fines and cellulose
nanocrystals, to induce hierarchical organization over a wide length scale. After processing
them into carbonaceous materials, we demonstrate that these hierarchically organized materials
outperform the best materials for supercapacitors operating with organic electrolytes reported
in literature in terms of specific energy/power (Ragone plot) while showing hardly any capacity
fade over 4,000 cycles. The highly porous materials feature a specific surface area as high as
2500 m2ˑg-1 and exhibit pore sizes in the range of 0.5 to 200 nm as proven by scanning electron
microscopy and N2 physisorption. The carbonaceous materials have been further investigated
by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and RAMAN spectroscopy. Since paper fines are an
underutilized side stream in any paper production process, they are a cheap and highly available
feedstock to prepare carbonaceous materials with outstanding performance in electrochemical
applications. },
author = {Hobisch, Mathias A. and Mourad, Eléonore and Fischer, Wolfgang J. and Prehal, Christian and Eyley, Samuel and Childress, Anthony and Zankel, Armin and Mautner, Andreas and Breitenbach, Stefan and Rao, Apparao M. and Thielemans, Wim and Freunberger, Stefan Alexander and Eckhart, Rene and Bauer, Wolfgang and Spirk, Stefan },
title = {{High specific capacitance supercapacitors from hierarchically organized all-cellulose composites}},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8084,
abstract = {Origin and functions of intermittent transitions among sleep stages, including brief awakenings and arousals, constitute a challenge to the current homeostatic framework for sleep regulation, focusing on factors modulating sleep over large time scales. Here we propose that the complex micro-architecture characterizing sleep on scales of seconds and minutes results from intrinsic non-equilibrium critical dynamics. We investigate θ- and δ-wave dynamics in control rats and in rats where the sleep-promoting ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) is lesioned (male Sprague-Dawley rats). We demonstrate that bursts in θ and δ cortical rhythms exhibit complex temporal organization, with long-range correlations and robust duality of power-law (θ-bursts, active phase) and exponential-like (δ-bursts, quiescent phase) duration distributions, features typical of non-equilibrium systems self-organizing at criticality. We show that such non-equilibrium behavior relates to anti-correlated coupling between θ- and δ-bursts, persists across a range of time scales, and is independent of the dominant physiologic state; indications of a basic principle in sleep regulation. Further, we find that VLPO lesions lead to a modulation of cortical dynamics resulting in altered dynamical parameters of θ- and δ-bursts and significant reduction in θ–δ coupling. Our empirical findings and model simulations demonstrate that θ–δ coupling is essential for the emerging non-equilibrium critical dynamics observed across the sleep–wake cycle, and indicate that VLPO neurons may have dual role for both sleep and arousal/brief wake activation. The uncovered critical behavior in sleep- and wake-related cortical rhythms indicates a mechanism essential for the micro-architecture of spontaneous sleep-stage and arousal transitions within a novel, non-homeostatic paradigm of sleep regulation.},
author = {Lombardi, Fabrizio and Gómez-Extremera, Manuel and Bernaola-Galván, Pedro and Vetrivelan, Ramalingam and Saper, Clifford B. and Scammell, Thomas E. and Ivanov, Plamen Ch.},
issn = {0270-6474},
journal = {Journal of Neuroscience},
number = {1},
pages = {171--190},
publisher = {Society for Neuroscience},
title = {{Critical dynamics and coupling in bursts of cortical rhythms indicate non-homeostatic mechanism for sleep-stage transitions and dual role of VLPO neurons in both sleep and wake}},
doi = {10.1523/jneurosci.1278-19.2019},
volume = {40},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8091,
abstract = {In the setting of the fractional quantum Hall effect we study the effects of strong, repulsive two-body interaction potentials of short range. We prove that Haldane’s pseudo-potential operators, including their pre-factors, emerge as mathematically rigorous limits of such interactions when the range of the potential tends to zero while its strength tends to infinity. In a common approach the interaction potential is expanded in angular momentum eigenstates in the lowest Landau level, which amounts to taking the pre-factors to be the moments of the potential. Such a procedure is not appropriate for very strong interactions, however, in particular not in the case of hard spheres. We derive the formulas valid in the short-range case, which involve the scattering lengths of the interaction potential in different angular momentum channels rather than its moments. Our results hold for bosons and fermions alike and generalize previous results in [6], which apply to bosons in the lowest angular momentum channel. Our main theorem asserts the convergence in a norm-resolvent sense of the Hamiltonian on the whole Hilbert space, after appropriate energy scalings, to Hamiltonians with contact interactions in the lowest Landau level.},
author = {Seiringer, Robert and Yngvason, Jakob},
issn = {15729613},
journal = {Journal of Statistical Physics},
pages = {448--464},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Emergence of Haldane pseudo-potentials in systems with short-range interactions}},
doi = {10.1007/s10955-020-02586-0},
volume = {181},
year = {2020},
}
@inbook{8092,
abstract = {Image translation refers to the task of mapping images from a visual domain to another. Given two unpaired collections of images, we aim to learn a mapping between the corpus-level style of each collection, while preserving semantic content shared across the two domains. We introduce xgan, a dual adversarial auto-encoder, which captures a shared representation of the common domain semantic content in an unsupervised way, while jointly learning the domain-to-domain image translations in both directions. We exploit ideas from the domain adaptation literature and define a semantic consistency loss which encourages the learned embedding to preserve semantics shared across domains. We report promising qualitative results for the task of face-to-cartoon translation. The cartoon dataset we collected for this purpose, “CartoonSet”, is also publicly available as a new benchmark for semantic style transfer at https://google.github.io/cartoonset/index.html.},
author = {Royer, Amélie and Bousmalis, Konstantinos and Gouws, Stephan and Bertsch, Fred and Mosseri, Inbar and Cole, Forrester and Murphy, Kevin},
booktitle = {Domain Adaptation for Visual Understanding},
editor = {Singh, Richa and Vatsa, Mayank and Patel, Vishal M. and Ratha, Nalini},
isbn = {9783030306717},
pages = {33--49},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{XGAN: Unsupervised image-to-image translation for many-to-many mappings}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-30671-7_3},
year = {2020},
}
@misc{8097,
abstract = {Antibiotics that interfere with translation, when combined, interact in diverse and difficult-to-predict ways. Here, we explain these interactions by "translation bottlenecks": points in the translation cycle where antibiotics block ribosomal progression. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms of drug interactions between translation inhibitors, we generate translation bottlenecks genetically using inducible control of translation factors that regulate well-defined translation cycle steps. These perturbations accurately mimic antibiotic action and drug interactions, supporting that the interplay of different translation bottlenecks causes these interactions. We further show that growth laws, combined with drug uptake and binding kinetics, enable the direct prediction of a large fraction of observed interactions, yet fail to predict suppression. However, varying two translation bottlenecks simultaneously supports that dense traffic of ribosomes and competition for translation factors account for the previously unexplained suppression. These results highlight the importance of "continuous epistasis" in bacterial physiology.},
author = {Kavcic, Bor},
keywords = {Escherichia coli, antibiotic combinations, translation, growth laws, drug interactions, bacterial physiology, translation inhibitors},
publisher = {IST Austria},
title = {{Analysis scripts and research data for the paper "Mechanisms of drug interactions between translation-inhibiting antibiotics"}},
doi = {10.15479/AT:ISTA:8097},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8099,
abstract = {Sewall Wright developed FST for describing population differentiation and it has since been extended to many novel applications, including the detection of homomorphic sex chromosomes. However, there has been confusion regarding the expected estimate of FST for a fixed difference between the X‐ and Y‐chromosome when comparing males and females. Here, we attempt to resolve this confusion by contrasting two common FST estimators and explain why they yield different estimates when applied to the case of sex chromosomes. We show that this difference is true for many allele frequencies, but the situation characterized by fixed differences between the X‐ and Y‐chromosome is among the most extreme. To avoid additional confusion, we recommend that all authors using FST clearly state which estimator of FST their work uses.},
author = {Gammerdinger, William J and Toups, Melissa A and Vicoso, Beatriz},
issn = {1755-098X},
journal = {Molecular Ecology Resources},
number = {6},
pages = {1517--1525},
publisher = {Wiley},
title = {{Disagreement in FST estimators: A case study from sex chromosomes}},
doi = {10.1111/1755-0998.13210},
volume = {20},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8101,
abstract = {By rigorously accounting for mesoscale spatial correlations in donor/acceptor surface properties, we develop a scale-spanning model for same-material tribocharging. We find that mesoscale correlations affect not only the magnitude of charge transfer but also the fluctuations—suppressing otherwise overwhelming charge-transfer variability that is not observed experimentally. We furthermore propose a generic theoretical mechanism by which the mesoscale features might emerge, which is qualitatively consistent with other proposals in the literature.},
author = {Grosjean, Galien M and Wald, Sebastian and Sobarzo Ponce, Juan Carlos A and Waitukaitis, Scott R},
journal = {Physical Review Materials},
keywords = {electric charge, tribocharging, soft matter, granular materials, polymers},
number = {8},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {{Quantitatively consistent scale-spanning model for same-material tribocharging}},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.4.082602},
volume = {4},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8105,
abstract = {Physical and biological systems often exhibit intermittent dynamics with bursts or avalanches (active states) characterized by power-law size and duration distributions. These emergent features are typical of systems at the critical point of continuous phase transitions, and have led to the hypothesis that such systems may self-organize at criticality, i.e. without any fine tuning of parameters. Since the introduction of the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) model, the paradigm of self-organized criticality (SOC) has been very fruitful for the analysis of emergent collective behaviors in a number of systems, including the brain. Although considerable effort has been devoted in identifying and modeling scaling features of burst and avalanche statistics, dynamical aspects related to the temporal organization of bursts remain often poorly understood or controversial. Of crucial importance to understand the mechanisms responsible for emergent behaviors is the relationship between active and quiet periods, and the nature of the correlations. Here we investigate the dynamics of active (θ-bursts) and quiet states (δ-bursts) in brain activity during the sleep-wake cycle. We show the duality of power-law (θ, active phase) and exponential-like (δ, quiescent phase) duration distributions, typical of SOC, jointly emerge with power-law temporal correlations and anti-correlated coupling between active and quiet states. Importantly, we demonstrate that such temporal organization shares important similarities with earthquake dynamics, and propose that specific power-law correlations and coupling between active and quiet states are distinctive characteristics of a class of systems with self-organization at criticality.},
author = {Lombardi, Fabrizio and Wang, Jilin W.J.L. and Zhang, Xiyun and Ivanov, Plamen Ch},
issn = {2100-014X},
journal = {EPJ Web of Conferences},
publisher = {EDP Sciences},
title = {{Power-law correlations and coupling of active and quiet states underlie a class of complex systems with self-organization at criticality}},
doi = {10.1051/epjconf/202023000005},
volume = {230},
year = {2020},
}