@inproceedings{302,
abstract = {At ITCS 2013, Mahmoody, Moran and Vadhan [MMV13] introduce and construct publicly verifiable proofs of sequential work, which is a protocol for proving that one spent sequential computational work related to some statement. The original motivation for such proofs included non-interactive time-stamping and universally verifiable CPU benchmarks. A more recent application, and our main motivation, are blockchain designs, where proofs of sequential work can be used – in combination with proofs of space – as a more ecological and economical substitute for proofs of work which are currently used to secure Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. The construction proposed by [MMV13] is based on a hash function and can be proven secure in the random oracle model, or assuming inherently sequential hash-functions, which is a new standard model assumption introduced in their work. In a proof of sequential work, a prover gets a “statement” χ, a time parameter N and access to a hash-function H, which for the security proof is modelled as a random oracle. Correctness requires that an honest prover can make a verifier accept making only N queries to H, while soundness requires that any prover who makes the verifier accept must have made (almost) N sequential queries to H. Thus a solution constitutes a proof that N time passed since χ was received. Solutions must be publicly verifiable in time at most polylogarithmic in N. The construction of [MMV13] is based on “depth-robust” graphs, and as a consequence has rather poor concrete parameters. But the major drawback is that the prover needs not just N time, but also N space to compute a proof. In this work we propose a proof of sequential work which is much simpler, more efficient and achieves much better concrete bounds. Most importantly, the space required can be as small as log (N) (but we get better soundness using slightly more memory than that). An open problem stated by [MMV13] that our construction does not solve either is achieving a “unique” proof, where even a cheating prover can only generate a single accepting proof. This property would be extremely useful for applications to blockchains.},
author = {Cohen, Bram and Pietrzak, Krzysztof Z},
location = {Tel Aviv, Israel},
pages = {451 -- 467},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Simple proofs of sequential work}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-78375-8_15},
volume = {10821},
year = {2018},
}
@article{303,
abstract = {The theory of tropical series, that we develop here, firstly appeared in the study of the growth of pluriharmonic functions. Motivated by waves in sandpile models we introduce a dynamic on the set of tropical series, and it is experimentally observed that this dynamic obeys a power law. So, this paper serves as a compilation of results we need for other articles and also introduces several objects interesting by themselves.},
author = {Kalinin, Nikita and Shkolnikov, Mikhail},
journal = {Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems- Series A},
number = {6},
pages = {2827 -- 2849},
publisher = {AIMS},
title = {{Introduction to tropical series and wave dynamic on them}},
doi = {10.3934/dcds.2018120},
volume = {38},
year = {2018},
}
@article{304,
abstract = {Additive manufacturing has recently seen drastic improvements in resolution, making it now possible to fabricate features at scales of hundreds or even dozens of nanometers, which previously required very expensive lithographic methods.
As a result, additive manufacturing now seems poised for optical applications, including those relevant to computer graphics, such as material design, as well as display and imaging applications.
In this work, we explore the use of additive manufacturing for generating structural colors, where the structures are designed using a fabrication-aware optimization process.
This requires a combination of full-wave simulation, a feasible parameterization of the design space, and a tailored optimization procedure.
Many of these components should be re-usable for the design of other optical structures at this scale.
We show initial results of material samples fabricated based on our designs.
While these suffer from the prototype character of state-of-the-art fabrication hardware, we believe they clearly demonstrate the potential of additive nanofabrication for structural colors and other graphics applications.},
author = {Auzinger, Thomas and Heidrich, Wolfgang and Bickel, Bernd},
journal = {ACM Transactions on Graphics},
number = {4},
publisher = {ACM},
title = {{Computational design of nanostructural color for additive manufacturing}},
doi = {10.1145/3197517.3201376},
volume = {37},
year = {2018},
}
@article{306,
abstract = {A cornerstone of statistical inference, the maximum entropy framework is being increasingly applied to construct descriptive and predictive models of biological systems, especially complex biological networks, from large experimental data sets. Both its broad applicability and the success it obtained in different contexts hinge upon its conceptual simplicity and mathematical soundness. Here we try to concisely review the basic elements of the maximum entropy principle, starting from the notion of ‘entropy’, and describe its usefulness for the analysis of biological systems. As examples, we focus specifically on the problem of reconstructing gene interaction networks from expression data and on recent work attempting to expand our system-level understanding of bacterial metabolism. Finally, we highlight some extensions and potential limitations of the maximum entropy approach, and point to more recent developments that are likely to play a key role in the upcoming challenges of extracting structures and information from increasingly rich, high-throughput biological data.},
author = {De Martino, Andrea and De Martino, Daniele},
journal = {Heliyon},
number = {4},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{An introduction to the maximum entropy approach and its application to inference problems in biology}},
doi = {10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00596},
volume = {4},
year = {2018},
}
@article{307,
abstract = {Spontaneous emission spectra of two initially excited closely spaced identical atoms are very sensitive to the strength and the direction of the applied magnetic field. We consider the relevant schemes that ensure the determination of the mutual spatial orientation of the atoms and the distance between them by entirely optical means. A corresponding theoretical description is given accounting for the dipole-dipole interaction between the two atoms in the presence of a magnetic field and for polarizations of the quantum field interacting with magnetic sublevels of the two-atom system. },
author = {Redchenko, Elena and Makarov, Alexander and Yudson, Vladimir},
journal = { Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics},
number = {4},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {{Nanoscopy of pairs of atoms by fluorescence in a magnetic field}},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.97.043812},
volume = {97},
year = {2018},
}