@article{3370,
abstract = {Supertree methods are widely applied and give rise to new conclusions about phylogenies (e.g., Bininda-Emonds et al. 2007). Although several desiderata for supertree methods exist (Wilkinson, Thorley, et al. 2004), only few of them have been studied in greater detail, examples include shape bias (Wilkinson et al. 2005) or pareto properties (Wilkinson et al. 2007). Here I look more closely at two matrix representation methods, matrix representation with compatibility (MRC) and matrix representation with parsimony (MRP). Different null models of random data are studied and the resulting tree shapes are investigated. Thereby I consider unrooted trees and a bias in tree shape is determined by a tree balance measure. The measure for unrooted trees is a modification of a tree balance measure for rooted trees. I observe that depending on the underlying null model of random data, the methods may resolve conflict in favor of more balanced tree shapes. The analyses refer only to trees with the same taxon set, also known as the consensus setting (e.g., Wilkinson et al. 2007), but I will be able to draw conclusions on how to deal with missing data.},
author = {Kupczok, Anne},
journal = {Systematic Biology},
number = {2},
pages = {218 -- 225},
publisher = {Oxford University Press},
title = {{Consequences of different null models on the tree shape bias of supertree methods}},
doi = {10.1093/sysbio/syq086},
volume = {60},
year = {2011},
}
@article{3371,
abstract = {The Minisymposium “Cell Migration and Motility” was attended by approximately 500 visitors and covered a broad range of questions in the field using diverse model systems. Topics comprised actin dynamics, cell polarity, force transduction, signal transduction, bar- rier transmigration, and chemotactic guidance.},
author = {Sixt, Michael K and Parent, Carole},
journal = {Molecular Biology and Evolution},
number = {6},
pages = {724},
publisher = {Oxford University Press},
title = {{Cells on the move in Philadelphia}},
doi = {10.1091/mbc.E10-12-0958},
volume = {22},
year = {2011},
}
@article{3372,
abstract = {Nowak et al.1 argue that inclusive fitness theory has been of little value in explaining the natural world, and that it has led to negligible progress in explaining the evolution of eusociality. However, we believe that their arguments are based upon a misunderstanding of evolutionary theory and a misrepresentation of the empirical literature. We will focus our comments on three general issues.},
author = {Abbot, Patrick and Abe, Jun and Alcock, John and Alizon, Samuel and Alpedrinha, Joao and Andersson, Malte and Andre, Jean and Van Baalen, Minus and Balloux, Francois and Balshine, Sigal and Barton, Nicholas H and Beukeboom, Leo and Biernaskie, Jay and Bilde, Trine and Borgia, Gerald and Breed, Michael and Brown, Sam and Bshary, Redouan and Buckling, Angus and Burley, Nancy and Burton Chellew, Max and Cant, Michael and Chapuisat, Michel and Charnov, Eric and Clutton Brock, Tim and Cockburn, Andrew and Cole, Blaine and Colegrave, Nick and Cosmides, Leda and Couzin, Iain and Coyne, Jerry and Creel, Scott and Crespi, Bernard and Curry, Robert and Dall, Sasha and Day, Troy and Dickinson, Janis and Dugatkin, Lee and El Mouden, Claire and Emlen, Stephen and Evans, Jay and Ferriere, Regis and Field, Jeremy and Foitzik, Susanne and Foster, Kevin and Foster, William and Fox, Charles and Gadau, Juergen and Gandon, Sylvain and Gardner, Andy and Gardner, Michael and Getty, Thomas and Goodisman, Michael and Grafen, Alan and Grosberg, Rick and Grozinger, Christina and Gouyon, Pierre and Gwynne, Darryl and Harvey, Paul and Hatchwell, Ben and Heinze, Jürgen and Helantera, Heikki and Helms, Ken and Hill, Kim and Jiricny, Natalie and Johnstone, Rufus and Kacelnik, Alex and Kiers, E Toby and Kokko, Hanna and Komdeur, Jan and Korb, Judith and Kronauer, Daniel and Kümmerli, Rolf and Lehmann, Laurent and Linksvayer, Timothy and Lion, Sébastien and Lyon, Bruce and Marshall, James and Mcelreath, Richard and Michalakis, Yannis and Michod, Richard and Mock, Douglas and Monnin, Thibaud and Montgomerie, Robert and Moore, Allen and Mueller, Ulrich and Noë, Ronald and Okasha, Samir and Pamilo, Pekka and Parker, Geoff and Pedersen, Jes and Pen, Ido and Pfennig, David and Queller, David and Rankin, Daniel and Reece, Sarah and Reeve, Hudson and Reuter, Max and Roberts, Gilbert and Robson, Simon and Roze, Denis and Rousset, Francois and Rueppell, Olav and Sachs, Joel and Santorelli, Lorenzo and Schmid Hempel, Paul and Schwarz, Michael and Scott Phillips, Tom and Shellmann Sherman, Janet and Sherman, Paul and Shuker, David and Smith, Jeff and Spagna, Joseph and Strassmann, Beverly and Suarez, Andrew and Sundström, Liselotte and Taborsky, Michael and Taylor, Peter and Thompson, Graham and Tooby, John and Tsutsui, Neil and Tsuji, Kazuki and Turillazzi, Stefano and Úbeda, Francisco and Vargo, Edward and Voelkl, Bernard and Wenseleers, Tom and West, Stuart and West Eberhard, Mary and Westneat, David and Wiernasz, Diane and Wild, Geoff and Wrangham, Richard and Young, Andrew and Zeh, David and Zeh, Jeanne and Zink, Andrew},
journal = {Nature},
number = {7339},
pages = {E1 -- E4},
publisher = {Nature Publishing Group},
title = {{Inclusive fitness theory and eusociality}},
doi = {10.1038/nature09831},
volume = {471},
year = {2011},
}
@article{3373,
abstract = {The use of optical traps to measure or apply forces on the molecular level requires a precise knowledge of the trapping force field. Close to the trap center, this field is typically approximated as linear in the displacement of the trapped microsphere. However, applications demanding high forces at low laser intensities can probe the light-microsphere interaction beyond the linear regime. Here, we measured the full nonlinear force and displacement response of an optical trap in two dimensions using a dual-beam optical trap setup with back-focal-plane photodetection. We observed a substantial stiffening of the trap beyond the linear regime that depends on microsphere size, in agreement with Mie theory calculations. Surprisingly, we found that the linear detection range for forces exceeds the one for displacement by far. Our approach allows for a complete calibration of an optical trap.},
author = {Jahnel, Marcus and Behrndt, Martin and Jannasch, Anita and Schaeffer, Erik and Grill, Stephan},
journal = {Optics Letters},
number = {7},
pages = {1260 -- 1262},
publisher = {OSA},
title = {{Measuring the complete force field of an optical trap}},
doi = {10.1364/OL.36.001260},
volume = {36},
year = {2011},
}
@article{3374,
abstract = {Genetic regulatory networks enable cells to respond to changes in internal and external conditions by dynamically coordinating their gene expression profiles. Our ability to make quantitative measurements in these biochemical circuits has deepened our understanding of what kinds of computations genetic regulatory networks can perform, and with what reliability. These advances have motivated researchers to look for connections between the architecture and function of genetic regulatory networks. Transmitting information between a network's inputs and outputs has been proposed as one such possible measure of function, relevant in certain biological contexts. Here we summarize recent developments in the application of information theory to gene regulatory networks. We first review basic concepts in information theory necessary for understanding recent work. We then discuss the functional complexity of gene regulation, which arises from the molecular nature of the regulatory interactions. We end by reviewing some experiments that support the view that genetic networks responsible for early development of multicellular organisms might be maximizing transmitted 'positional information'.},
author = {Tkacik, Gasper and Walczak, Aleksandra},
journal = {Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter},
number = {15},
publisher = {IOP Publishing Ltd.},
title = {{Information transmission in genetic regulatory networks a review}},
doi = {10.1088/0953-8984/23/15/153102},
volume = {23},
year = {2011},
}
@article{3375,
abstract = {By exploiting an analogy between population genetics and statistical mechanics, we study the evolution of a polygenic trait under stabilizing selection, mutation and genetic drift. This requires us to track only four macroscopic variables, instead of the distribution of all the allele frequencies that influence the trait. These macroscopic variables are the expectations of: the trait mean and its square, the genetic variance, and of a measure of heterozygosity, and are derived from a generating function that is in turn derived by maximizing an entropy measure. These four macroscopics are enough to accurately describe the dynamics of the trait mean and of its genetic variance (and in principle of any other quantity). Unlike previous approaches that were based on an infinite series of moments or cumulants, which had to be truncated arbitrarily, our calculations provide a well-defined approximation procedure. We apply the framework to abrupt and gradual changes in the optimum, as well as to changes in the strength of stabilizing selection. Our approximations are surprisingly accurate, even for systems with as few as five loci. We find that when the effects of drift are included, the expected genetic variance is hardly altered by directional selection, even though it fluctuates in any particular instance. We also find hysteresis, showing that even after averaging over the microscopic variables, the macroscopic trajectories retain a memory of the underlying genetic states.},
author = {de Vladar, Harold and Barton, Nicholas H},
journal = {Journal of the Royal Society Interface},
number = {58},
pages = {720 -- 739},
publisher = {Royal Society of London},
title = {{The statistical mechanics of a polygenic character under stabilizing selection mutation and drift}},
doi = {10.1098/rsif.2010.0438},
volume = {8},
year = {2011},
}
@article{3376,
abstract = {Regulatory conflicts occur when two signals that individually trigger opposite cellular responses are present simultaneously. Here, we investigate regulatory conflicts in the bacterial response to antibiotic combinations. We use an Escherichia coli promoter-GFP library to study the transcriptional response of many promoters to either additive or antagonistic drug pairs at fine two-dimensional (2D) resolution of drug concentration. Surprisingly, we find that this data set can be characterized as a linear sum of only two principal components. Component one, accounting for over 70% of the response, represents the response to growth inhibition by the drugs. Component two describes how regulatory conflicts are resolved. For the additive drug pair, conflicts are resolved by linearly interpolating the single drug responses, while for the antagonistic drug pair, the growth-limiting drug dominates the response. Importantly, for a given drug pair, the same conflict resolution strategy applies to almost all genes. These results provide a recipe for predicting gene expression responses to antibiotic combinations.},
author = {Bollenbach, Mark Tobias and Kishony, Roy},
journal = {Molecular Cell},
number = {4},
pages = {413 -- 425},
publisher = {Cell Press},
title = {{Resolution of gene regulatory conflicts caused by combinations of antibiotics}},
doi = {10.1016/j.molcel.2011.04.016},
volume = {42},
year = {2011},
}
@article{3377,
abstract = {By definition, transverse intersections are stable under in- finitesimal perturbations. Using persistent homology, we ex- tend this notion to sizeable perturbations. Specifically, we assign to each homology class of the intersection its robust- ness, the magnitude of a perturbation necessary to kill it, and prove that robustness is stable. Among the applications of this result is a stable notion of robustness for fixed points of continuous mappings and a statement of stability for con- tours of smooth mappings.},
author = {Edelsbrunner, Herbert and Morozov, Dmitriy and Patel, Amit},
journal = {Foundations of Computational Mathematics},
number = {3},
pages = {345 -- 361},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Quantifying transversality by measuring the robustness of intersections}},
doi = {10.1007/s10208-011-9090-8},
volume = {11},
year = {2011},
}
@article{3379,
abstract = {The process of gastrulation is highly conserved across vertebrates on both the genetic and morphological levels, despite great variety in embryonic shape and speed of development. This mechanism spatially separates the germ layers and establishes the organizational foundation for future development. Mesodermal identity is specified in a superficial layer of cells, the epiblast, where cells maintain an epithelioid morphology. These cells involute to join the deeper hypoblast layer where they adopt a migratory, mesenchymal morphology. Expression of a cascade of related transcription factors orchestrates the parallel genetic transition from primitive to mature mesoderm. Although the early and late stages of this process are increasingly well understood, the transition between them has remained largely mysterious. We present here the first high resolution in vivo observations of the blebby transitional morphology of involuting mesodermal cells in a vertebrate embryo. We further demonstrate that the zebrafish spadetail mutation creates a reversible block in the maturation program, stalling cells in the transition state. This mutation creates an ideal system for dissecting the specific properties of cells undergoing the morphological transition of maturing mesoderm, as we demonstrate with a direct measurement of cell–cell adhesion.},
author = {Row, Richard and Maître, Jean-Léon and Martin, Benjamin and Stockinger, Petra and Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp J and Kimelman, David},
journal = {Developmental Biology},
number = {1},
pages = {102 -- 110},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Completion of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition in zebrafish mesoderm requires Spadetail}},
doi = {10.1016/j.ydbio.2011.03.025},
volume = {354},
year = {2011},
}
@article{3380,
abstract = {Linkage between markers and genes that affect a phenotype of interest may be determined by examining differences in marker allele frequency in the extreme progeny of a cross between two inbred lines. This strategy is usually employed when pooling is used to reduce genotyping costs. When the cross progeny are asexual, the extreme progeny may be selected by multiple generations of asexual reproduction and selection. We analyse this method of measuring phenotype in asexual progeny and examine the changes in marker allele frequency due to selection over many generations. Stochasticity in marker frequency in the selected population arises due to the finite initial population size. We derive the distribution of marker frequency as a result of selection at a single major locus, and show that in order to avoid spurious changes in marker allele frequency in the selected population, the initial population size should be in the low to mid hundreds.},
author = {Logeswaran, Sayanthan and Barton, Nicholas H},
journal = {Genetical Research},
number = {3},
pages = {221 -- 232},
publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
title = {{Mapping Mendelian traits in asexual progeny using changes in marker allele frequency}},
doi = {10.1017/S0016672311000115},
volume = {93},
year = {2011},
}
@article{3381,
abstract = {In this survey, we compare several languages for specifying Markovian population models such as queuing networks and chemical reaction networks. All these languages — matrix descriptions, stochastic Petri nets, stoichiometric equations, stochastic process algebras, and guarded command models — describe continuous-time Markov chains, but they differ according to important properties, such as compositionality, expressiveness and succinctness, executability, and ease of use. Moreover, they provide different support for checking the well-formedness of a model and for analyzing a model.},
author = {Henzinger, Thomas A and Jobstmann, Barbara and Wolf, Verena},
journal = {IJFCS: International Journal of Foundations of Computer Science},
number = {4},
pages = {823 -- 841},
publisher = {World Scientific Publishing},
title = {{Formalisms for specifying Markovian population models}},
doi = {10.1142/S0129054111008441},
volume = {22},
year = {2011},
}
@article{3384,
abstract = {Here we introduce a database of calibrated natural images publicly available through an easy-to-use web interface. Using a Nikon D70 digital SLR camera, we acquired about six-megapixel images of Okavango Delta of Botswana, a tropical savanna habitat similar to where the human eye is thought to have evolved. Some sequences of images were captured unsystematically while following a baboon troop, while others were designed to vary a single parameter such as aperture, object distance, time of day or position on the horizon. Images are available in the raw RGB format and in grayscale. Images are also available in units relevant to the physiology of human cone photoreceptors, where pixel values represent the expected number of photoisomerizations per second for cones sensitive to long (L), medium (M) and short (S) wavelengths. This database is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial Unported license to facilitate research in computer vision, psychophysics of perception, and visual neuroscience.},
author = {Tkacik, Gasper and Garrigan, Patrick and Ratliff, Charles and Milcinski, Grega and Klein, Jennifer and Seyfarth, Lucia and Sterling, Peter and Brainard, David and Balasubramanian, Vijay},
journal = {PLoS One},
number = {6},
publisher = {Public Library of Science},
title = {{Natural images from the birthplace of the human eye}},
doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0020409},
volume = {6},
year = {2011},
}
@article{3387,
abstract = {Background: Supertree methods combine overlapping input trees into a larger supertree. Here, I consider split-based supertree methods that first extract the split information of the input trees and subsequently combine this split information into a phylogeny. Well known split-based supertree methods are matrix representation with parsimony and matrix representation with compatibility. Combining input trees on the same taxon set, as in the consensus setting, is a well-studied task and it is thus desirable to generalize consensus methods to supertree methods. Results: Here, three variants of majority-rule (MR) supertrees that generalize majority-rule consensus trees are investigated. I provide simple formulas for computing the respective score for bifurcating input- and supertrees. These score computations, together with a heuristic tree search minmizing the scores, were implemented in the python program PluMiST (Plus- and Minus SuperTrees) available from http://www.cibiv.at/software/ plumist. The different MR methods were tested by simulation and on real data sets. The search heuristic was successful in combining compatible input trees. When combining incompatible input trees, especially one variant, MR(-) supertrees, performed well. Conclusions: The presented framework allows for an efficient score computation of three majority-rule supertree variants and input trees. I combined the score computation with a heuristic search over the supertree space. The implementation was tested by simulation and on real data sets and showed promising results. Especially the MR(-) variant seems to be a reasonable score for supertree reconstruction. Generalizing these computations to multifurcating trees is an open problem, which may be tackled using this framework.},
author = {Kupczok, Anne},
journal = {BMC Evolutionary Biology},
number = {205},
publisher = {BioMed Central},
title = {{Split based computation of majority rule supertrees}},
doi = {10.1186/1471-2148-11-205},
volume = {11},
year = {2011},
}
@article{3388,
abstract = {Background: Fragmentation of terrestrial ecosystems has had detrimental effects on metapopulations of habitat specialists. Maculinea butterflies have been particularly affected because of their specialized lifecycles, requiring both specific food-plants and host-ants. However, the interaction between dispersal, effective population size, and long-term genetic erosion of these endangered butterflies remains unknown. Using non-destructive sampling, we investigated the genetic diversity of the last extant population of M. arion in Denmark, which experienced critically low numbers in the 1980s. Results: Using nine microsatellite markers, we show that the population is genetically impoverished compared to nearby populations in Sweden, but less so than monitoring programs suggested. Ten additional short repeat microsatellites were used to reconstruct changes in genetic diversity and population structure over the last 77 years from museum specimens. We also tested amplification efficiency in such historical samples as a function of repeat length and sample age. Low population numbers in the 1980s did not affect genetic diversity, but considerable turnover of alleles has characterized this population throughout the time-span of our analysis. Conclusions: Our results suggest that M. arion is less sensitive to genetic erosion via population bottlenecks than previously thought, and that managing clusters of high quality habitat may be key for long-term conservation.},
author = {Ugelvig, Line V and Nielsen, Per and Boomsma, Jacobus and Nash, David},
journal = {BMC Evolutionary Biology},
number = {201},
publisher = {BioMed Central},
title = {{Reconstructing eight decades of genetic variation in an isolated Danish population of the large blue butterfly Maculinea arion}},
doi = {10.1186/1471-2148-11-201},
volume = {11},
year = {2011},
}
@article{3390,
abstract = {What determines the genetic contribution that an individual makes to future generations? With biparental reproduction, each individual leaves a 'pedigree' of descendants, determined by the biparental relationships in the population. The pedigree of an individual constrains the lines of descent of each of its genes. An individual's reproductive value is the expected number of copies of each of its genes that is passed on to distant generations conditional on its pedigree. For the simplest model of biparental reproduction analogous to the Wright-Fisher model, an individual's reproductive value is determined within ~10 generations, independent of population size. Partial selfing and subdivision do not greatly slow this convergence. Our central result is that the probability that a gene will survive is proportional to the reproductive value of the individual that carries it, and that conditional on survival, after a few tens of generations, the distribution of the number of surviving copies is the same for all individuals, whatever their reproductive value. These results can be generalized to the joint distribution of surviving blocks of ancestral genome. Selection on unlinked loci in the genetic background may greatly increase the variance in reproductive value, but the above results nevertheless still hold. The almost linear relationship between survival probability and reproductive value also holds for weakly favored alleles. Thus, the influence of the complex pedigree of descendants on an individual's genetic contribution to the population can be summarized through a single number: its reproductive value.},
author = {Barton, Nicholas H and Etheridge, Alison},
journal = {Genetics},
number = {4},
pages = {953 -- 973},
publisher = {Genetics Society of America},
title = {{The relation between reproductive value and genetic contribution}},
doi = {10.1534/genetics.111.127555},
volume = {188},
year = {2011},
}
@article{3391,
abstract = {Evolutionary biology shares many concepts with statistical physics: both deal with populations, whether of molecules or organisms, and both seek to simplify evolution in very many dimensions. Often, methodologies have undergone parallel and independent development, as with stochastic methods in population genetics. Here, we discuss aspects of population genetics that have embraced methods from physics: non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, travelling waves and Monte-Carlo methods, among others, have been used to study polygenic evolution, rates of adaptation and range expansions. These applications indicate that evolutionary biology can further benefit from interactions with other areas of statistical physics; for example, by following the distribution of paths taken by a population through time},
author = {de Vladar, Harold and Barton, Nicholas H},
journal = {Trends in Ecology and Evolution},
number = {8},
pages = {424 -- 432},
publisher = {Cell Press},
title = {{The contribution of statistical physics to evolutionary biology}},
doi = {10.1016/j.tree.2011.04.002},
volume = {26},
year = {2011},
}
@article{3393,
abstract = {Unlike unconditionally advantageous “Fisherian” variants that tend to spread throughout a species range once introduced anywhere, “bistable” variants, such as chromosome translocations, have two alternative stable frequencies, absence and (near) fixation. Analogous to populations with Allee effects, bistable variants tend to increase locally only once they become sufficiently common, and their spread depends on their rate of increase averaged over all frequencies. Several proposed manipulations of insect populations, such as using Wolbachia or “engineered underdominance” to suppress vector-borne diseases, produce bistable rather than Fisherian dynamics. We synthesize and extend theoretical analyses concerning three features of their spatial behavior: rate of spread, conditions to initiate spread from a localized introduction, and wave stopping caused by variation in population densities or dispersal rates. Unlike Fisherian variants, bistable variants tend to spread spatially only for particular parameter combinations and initial conditions. Wave initiation requires introduction over an extended region, while subsequent spatial spread is slower than for Fisherian waves and can easily be halted by local spatial inhomogeneities. We present several new results, including robust sufficient conditions to initiate (and stop) spread, using a one-parameter cubic approximation applicable to several models. The results have both basic and applied implications.},
author = {Barton, Nicholas H and Turelli, Michael},
journal = {American Naturalist},
number = {3},
pages = {E48 -- E75},
publisher = {University of Chicago Press},
title = {{Spatial waves of advance with bistable dynamics: Cytoplasmic and genetic analogues of Allee effects}},
doi = {10.1086/661246},
volume = {178},
year = {2011},
}
@article{3394,
abstract = {Random genetic drift shifts clines in space, alters their width, and distorts their shape. Such random fluctuations complicate inferences from cline width and position. Notably, the effect of genetic drift on the expected shape of the cline is opposite to the naive (but quite common) misinterpretation of classic results on the expected cline. While random drift on average broadens the overall cline in expected allele frequency, it narrows the width of any particular cline. The opposing effects arise because locally, drift drives alleles to fixation—but fluctuations in position widen the expected cline. The effect of genetic drift can be predicted from standardized variance in allele frequencies, averaged across the habitat: 〈F〉. A cline maintained by spatially varying selection (step change) is expected to be narrower by a factor of relative to the cline in the absence of drift. The expected cline is broader by the inverse of this factor. In a tension zone maintained by underdominance, the expected cline width is narrower by about 1 – 〈F〉relative to the width in the absence of drift. Individual clines can differ substantially from the expectation, and we give quantitative predictions for the variance in cline position and width. The predictions apply to clines in almost one-dimensional circumstances such as hybrid zones in rivers, deep valleys, or along a coast line and give a guide to what patterns to expect in two dimensions.},
author = {Polechova, Jitka and Barton, Nicholas H},
journal = {Genetics},
number = {1},
pages = {227 -- 235},
publisher = {Genetics Society of America},
title = {{Genetic drift widens the expected cline but narrows the expected cline width}},
doi = {10.1534/genetics.111.129817},
volume = {189},
year = {2011},
}
@article{3396,
abstract = {Facial branchiomotor neurons (FBMNs) in zebrafish and mouse embryonic hindbrain undergo a characteristic tangential migration from rhombomere (r) 4, where they are born, to r6/7. Cohesion among neuroepithelial cells (NCs) has been suggested to function in FBMN migration by inhibiting FBMNs positioned in the basal neuroepithelium such that they move apically between NCs towards the midline of the neuroepithelium instead of tangentially along the basal side of the neuroepithelium towards r6/7. However, direct experimental evaluation of this hypothesis is still lacking. Here, we have used a combination of biophysical cell adhesion measurements and high-resolution time-lapse microscopy to determine the role of NC cohesion in FBMN migration. We show that reducing NC cohesion by interfering with Cadherin 2 (Cdh2) activity results in FBMNs positioned at the basal side of the neuroepithelium moving apically towards the neural tube midline instead of tangentially towards r6/7. In embryos with strongly reduced NC cohesion, ectopic apical FBMN movement frequently results in fusion of the bilateral FBMN clusters over the apical midline of the neural tube. By contrast, reducing cohesion among FBMNs by interfering with Contactin 2 (Cntn2) expression in these cells has little effect on apical FBMN movement, but reduces the fusion of the bilateral FBMN clusters in embryos with strongly diminished NC cohesion. These data provide direct experimental evidence that NC cohesion functions in tangential FBMN migration by restricting their apical movement.},
author = {Stockinger, Petra and Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp J and Maître, Jean-Léon},
journal = {Development},
number = {21},
pages = {4673 -- 4683},
publisher = {Company of Biologists},
title = {{Defective neuroepithelial cell cohesion affects tangential branchiomotor neuron migration in the zebrafish neural tube}},
doi = {10.1242/dev.071233},
volume = {138},
year = {2011},
}
@article{3397,
abstract = {Recent advances in microscopy techniques and biophysical measurements have provided novel insight into the molecular, cellular and biophysical basis of cell adhesion. However, comparably little is known about a core element of cell–cell adhesion—the energy of adhesion at the cell–cell contact. In this review, we discuss approaches to understand the nature and regulation of adhesion energy, and propose strategies to determine adhesion energy between cells in vitro and in vivo.},
author = {Maître, Jean-Léon and Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp J},
journal = {Current Opinion in Cell Biology},
number = {5},
pages = {508 -- 514},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{The role of adhesion energy in controlling cell-cell contacts}},
doi = {10.1016/j.ceb.2011.07.004},
volume = {23},
year = {2011},
}
@article{3399,
abstract = {Context-dependent adjustment of mating tactics can drastically increase the mating success of behaviourally flexible animals. We used the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior as a model system to study adaptive adjustment of male mating tactics. This species shows a male diphenism of wingless fighter males and peaceful winged males. Whereas the wingless males stay and exclusively mate in the maternal colony, the mating behaviour of winged males is plastic. They copulate with female sexuals in their natal nests early in life but later disperse in search for sexuals outside. In this study, we observed the nest-leaving behaviour of winged males under different conditions and found that they adaptively adjust the timing of their dispersal to the availability of mating partners, as well as the presence, and even the type of competitors in their natal nests. In colonies with virgin female queens winged males stayed longest when they were the only male in the nest. They left earlier when mating partners were not available or when other males were present. In the presence of wingless, locally mating fighter males, winged males dispersed earlier than in the presence of docile, winged competitors. This suggests that C. obscurior males are capable of estimating their local breeding chances and adaptively adjust their dispersal behaviour in both an opportunistic and a risk-sensitive way, thus showing hitherto unknown behavioural plasticity in social insect males.},
author = {Cremer, Sylvia and Schrempf, Alexandra and Heinze, Jürgen},
journal = {PLoS One},
number = {3},
publisher = {Public Library of Science},
title = {{Competition and opportunity shape the reproductive tactics of males in the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior}},
doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0017323},
volume = {6},
year = {2011},
}
@article{3405,
abstract = {Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system and gates non-selective cation channels. The origins of glutamate receptors are not well understood as they differ structurally and functionally from simple bacterial ligand-gated ion channels. Here we report the discovery of an ionotropic glutamate receptor that combines the typical eukaryotic domain architecture with the 'TXVGYG' signature sequence of the selectivity filter found in K+ channels. This receptor exhibits functional properties intermediate between bacterial and eukaryotic glutamate-gated ion channels, suggesting a link in the evolution of ionotropic glutamate receptors.},
author = {Janovjak, Harald L and Sandoz, Guillaume and Isacoff, Ehud},
journal = {Nature Communications},
number = {232},
pages = {1 -- 6},
publisher = {Nature Publishing Group},
title = {{Modern ionotropic glutamate receptor with a K+ selectivity signature sequence}},
doi = {10.1038/ncomms1231},
volume = {2},
year = {2011},
}
@article{3505,
abstract = {Cell migration on two-dimensional (2D) substrates follows entirely different rules than cell migration in three-dimensional (3D) environments. This is especially relevant for leukocytes that are able to migrate in the absence of adhesion receptors within the confined geometry of artificial 3D extracellular matrix scaffolds and within the interstitial space in vivo. Here, we describe in detail a simple and economical protocol to visualize dendritic cell migration in 3D collagen scaffolds along chemotactic gradients. This method can be adapted to other cell types and may serve as a physiologically relevant paradigm for the directed locomotion of most amoeboid cells.},
author = {Sixt, Michael K and Lämmermann, Tim},
journal = {Cell Migration},
pages = {149 -- 165},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{In vitro analysis of chemotactic leukocyte migration in 3D environments}},
doi = {10.1007/978-1-61779-207-6_11},
volume = {769},
year = {2011},
}
@phdthesis{3275,
abstract = {Chemokines organize immune cell trafficking by inducing either directed (tactic) or random (kinetic) migration and by activating integrins in order to support surface adhesion (haptic). Beyond that the same chemokines can establish clearly defined functional areas in secondary lymphoid organs. Until now it is unclear how chemokines can fulfill such diverse functions. One decisive prerequisite to explain these capacities is to know how chemokines are presented in tissue. In theory chemokines could occur either soluble or immobilized, and could be distributed either homogenously or as a concentration gradient. To dissect if and how the presenting mode of chemokines influences immune cells, I tested the response of dendritic cells (DCs) to differentially displayed chemokines. DCs are antigen presenting cells that reside in the periphery and migrate into draining lymph nodes (LNs) once exposed to inflammatory stimuli to activate naïve T cells. DCs are guided to and within the LN by the chemokine receptor CCR7, which has two ligands, the chemokines CCL19 and CCL21. Both CCR7 ligands are expressed by fibroblastic reticular cells in the LN, but differ in their ability to bind to heparan sulfate residues. CCL21 has a highly charged C-terminal extension, which mediates binding to anionic surfaces, whereas CCL19 is lacking such residues and likely distributes as a soluble molecule. This study shows that surface-bound CCL21 causes random, haptokinetic DC motility, which is confined to the chemokine coated area by insideout activation of β2 integrins that mediate cell binding to the surface. CCL19 on the other hand forms concentration gradients which trigger directional, chemotactic movement, but no surface adhesion. In addition DCs can actively manipulate this system by recruiting and activating serine proteases on their surfaces, which create - by proteolytically removing the adhesive C-terminus - a solubilized variant of CCL21 that functionally resembles CCL19. By generating a CCL21 concentration gradient DCs establish a positive feedback loop to recruit further DCs from the periphery to the CCL21 coated region. In addition DCs can sense chemotactic gradients as well as immobilized haptokinetic fields at the same time and integrate these signals. The result is chemotactically biased haptokinesis - directional migration confined to a chemokine coated track or area - which could explain the dynamic but spatially tightly controlled swarming leukocyte locomotion patterns that have been observed in lymphatic organs by intravital microscopists. The finding that DCs can approach soluble cues in a non-adhesive manner while they attach to surfaces coated with immobilized cues raises the question how these cells transmit intracellular forces to the environment, especially in the non-adherent migration mode. In order to migrate, cells have to generate and transmit force to the extracellular substrate. Force transmission is the prerequisite to procure an expansion of the leading edge and a forward motion of the whole cell body. In the current conceptions actin polymerization at the leading edge is coupled to extracellular ligands via the integrin family of transmembrane receptors, which allows the transmission of intracellular force. Against the paradigm of force transmission during migration, leukocytes, like DCs, are able to migrate in threedimensional environments without using integrin transmembrane receptors (Lämmermann et al., 2008). This reflects the biological function of leukocytes, as they can invade almost all tissues, whereby their migration has to be independent from the extracellular environment. How the cells can achieve this is unclear. For this study I examined DC migration in a defined threedimensional environment and highlighted actin-dynamics with the probe Lifeact-GFP. The result was that chemotactic DCs can switch between integrin-dependent and integrin- independent locomotion and can thereby adapt to the adhesive properties of their environment. If the cells are able to couple their actin cytoskeleton to the substrate, actin polymerization is entirely converted into protrusion. Without coupling the actin cortex undergoes slippage and retrograde actin flow can be observed. But retrograde actin flow can be completely compensated by higher actin polymerization rate keeping the migration velocity and the shape of the cells unaltered. Mesenchymal cells like fibroblast cannot balance the loss of adhesive interaction, cannot protrude into open space and, therefore, strictly depend on integrinmediated force coupling. This leukocyte specific phenomenon of “adaptive force transmission” endows these cells with the unique ability to transit and invade almost every type of tissue. },
author = {Schumann, Kathrin},
pages = {141},
publisher = {IST Austria},
title = {{The role of chemotactic gradients in dendritic cell migration}},
year = {2011},
}
@article{6496,
abstract = {We report the switching behavior of the full bacterial flagellum system that includes the filament and the motor in wild-type Escherichia coli cells. In sorting the motor behavior by the clockwise bias, we find that the distributions of the clockwise (CW) and counterclockwise (CCW) intervals are either exponential or nonexponential with long tails. At low bias, CW intervals are exponentially distributed and CCW intervals exhibit long tails. At intermediate CW bias (0.5) both CW and CCW intervals are mainly exponentially distributed. A simple model suggests that these two distinct switching behaviors are governed by the presence of signaling noise within the chemotaxis network. Low noise yields exponentially distributed intervals, whereas large noise yields nonexponential behavior with long tails. These drastically different motor statistics may play a role in optimizing bacterial behavior for a wide range of environmental conditions.},
author = {Park, Heungwon and Oikonomou, Panos and Guet, Calin C and Cluzel, Philippe},
issn = {0006-3495},
journal = {Biophysical Journal},
number = {10},
pages = {2336--2340},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Noise underlies switching behavior of the bacterial flagellum}},
doi = {10.1016/j.bpj.2011.09.040},
volume = {101},
year = {2011},
}
@article{232,
abstract = {We study the average order of the divisor function, as it ranges over the values of binary quartic forms that are reducible over ℚ.},
author = {De La Bretèche, Régis and Browning, Timothy D},
journal = {Journal fur die Reine und Angewandte Mathematik},
number = {646},
pages = {1 -- 44},
publisher = {Walter de Gruyter},
title = {{Le problème des diviseurs pour des formes binaires de degré 4}},
doi = {10.1515/CRELLE.2010.064},
year = {2010},
}
@inproceedings{2322,
author = {Frank, Rupert L and Lieb, Élliott H and Robert Seiringer},
pages = {523 -- 535},
publisher = {World Scientific Publishing},
title = {{ Equivalence of Sobolev inequalities and Lieb-Thirring inequalities}},
doi = {10.1142/9789814304634_0045 },
year = {2010},
}
@inproceedings{2323,
abstract = {Since the first experimental realization of Bose-Einstein condensation in cold atomic gases in 1995 there has been a surge of activity in this field. Ingenious experiments have allowed us to probe matter close to zero temperature and reveal some of the fascinating effects quantum mechanics has bestowed on nature. It is a challenge for mathematical physicists to understand these various phenomena from first principles, that is, starting from the underlying many-body Schrödinger equation. Recent progress in this direction concerns mainly equilibrium properties of dilute, cold quantum gases. We shall explain some of the results in this article, and describe the mathematics involved in understanding these phenomena. Topics include the ground state energy and the free energy at positive temperature, the effect of interparticle interaction on the critical temperature for Bose-Einstein condensation, as well as the occurrence of superfluidity and quantized vortices in rapidly rotating gases.},
author = {Robert Seiringer},
pages = {231 -- 245},
publisher = {World Scientific Publishing},
title = {{Hot topics on cold gases}},
doi = {10.1142/9789814304634_0013},
year = {2010},
}
@inbook{2324,
abstract = {We determine the sharp constant in the Hardy inequality for fractional Sobolev spaces on half-spaces. Our proof relies on a nonlinear and nonlocal version of the ground state representation.},
author = {Frank, Rupert L and Robert Seiringer},
booktitle = {Around the Research of Vladimir Maz'ya I},
pages = {161 -- 167},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Sharp fractional Hardy inequalities in half-spaces}},
doi = {10.1007/978-1-4419-1341-8_6},
volume = {11},
year = {2010},
}
@article{2389,
abstract = {We study the eigenvalues of Schrödinger type operators T + λV and their asymptotic behavior in the small coupling limit λ → 0, in the case where the symbol of the kinetic energy, T (p), strongly degenerates on a non-trivial manifold of codimension one.},
author = {Hainzl, Christian and Robert Seiringer},
journal = {Mathematische Nachrichten},
number = {3},
pages = {489 -- 499},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{Asymptotic behavior of eigenvalues of Schrödinger type operators with degenerate kinetic energy}},
doi = {10.1002/mana.200810195},
volume = {283},
year = {2010},
}
@article{2392,
abstract = {The binding of polarons, or its absence, is an old and subtle topic. Here we prove two things rigorously. First, the transition from many-body collapse to the existence of a thermodynamic limit for N polarons occurs precisely at U=2α, where U is the electronic Coulomb repulsion and α is the polaron coupling constant. Second, if U is large enough, there is no multipolaron binding of any kind. Considering the known fact that there is binding for some U>2α, these conclusions are not obvious and their proof has been an open problem for some time.},
author = {Frank, Rupert L and Lieb, Élliott H and Robert Seiringer and Thomas, Lawrence E},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
number = {21},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {{Bipolaron and N-polaron binding energies}},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.210402},
volume = {104},
year = {2010},
}
@article{2409,
abstract = {Background: The availability of many gene alignments with overlapping taxon sets raises the question of which strategy is the best to infer species phylogenies from multiple gene information. Methods and programs abound that use the gene alignment in different ways to reconstruct the species tree. In particular, different methods combine the original data at different points along the way from the underlying sequences to the final tree. Accordingly, they are classified into superalignment, supertree and medium-level approaches. Here, we present a simulation study to compare different methods from each of these three approaches.
Results: We observe that superalignment methods usually outperform the other approaches over a wide range of parameters including sparse data and gene-specific evolutionary parameters. In the presence of high incongruency among gene trees, however, other combination methods show better performance than the superalignment approach. Surprisingly, some supertree and medium-level methods exhibit, on average, worse results than a single gene phylogeny with complete taxon information.
Conclusions: For some methods, using the reconstructed gene tree as an estimation of the species tree is superior to the combination of incomplete information. Superalignment usually performs best since it is less susceptible to stochastic error. Supertree methods can outperform superalignment in the presence of gene-tree conflict.},
author = {Kupczok, Anne and Schmidt, Heiko and Von Haeseler, Arndt},
journal = {Algorithms for Molecular Biology},
number = {1},
publisher = {BioMed Central},
title = {{Accuracy of phylogeny reconstruction methods combining overlapping gene data sets }},
doi = {10.1186/1748-7188-5-37},
volume = {5},
year = {2010},
}
@article{2442,
abstract = {In a new study published in this issue of Developmental Cell, Krouk et al. reveal a surprising mechanism by which plant root systems adapt their architecture for soil exploitation. The dual transporter NRT1.1 uses both nitrate and the plant hormone auxin as substrates, enabling soil nitrate availability to regulate auxin-driven lateral root development.},
author = {Beeckman, Tom and Friml, Jirí},
journal = {Developmental Cell},
number = {6},
pages = {877 -- 878},
publisher = {Cell Press},
title = {{Nitrate Contra Auxin: Nutrient Sensing by roots}},
doi = {10.1016/j.devcel.2010.05.020},
volume = {18},
year = {2010},
}
@article{2701,
abstract = {We consider N × N Hermitian random matrices with independent identically distributed entries (Wigner matrices). The matrices are normalized so that the average spacing between consecutive eigenvalues is of order 1/ N. Under suitable assumptions on the distribution of the single matrix element, we first prove that, away from the spectral edges, the empirical density of eigenvalues concentrates around the Wigner semicircle law on energy scales η ≫ N -1. This result establishes the semicircle law on the optimal scale and it removes a logarithmic factor from our previous result [6]. We then show a Wegner estimate, i.e., that the averaged density of states is bounded. Finally, we prove that the eigenvalues of a Wigner matrix repel each other, in agreement with the universality conjecture.},
author = {László Erdös and Schlein, Benjamin and Yau, Horng-Tzer},
journal = {International Mathematics Research Notices},
number = {3},
pages = {436 -- 479},
publisher = {Oxford University Press},
title = {{Wegner estimate and level repulsion for Wigner random matrices}},
doi = {10.1093/imrn/rnp136},
year = {2010},
}
@inproceedings{2978,
abstract = {Efficient zero-knowledge proofs of knowledge for group homomorphisms are essential for numerous systems in applied cryptography. Especially, Σ-protocols for proving knowledge of discrete logarithms in known and hidden order groups are of prime importance. Yet, while these proofs can be performed very efficiently within groups of known order, for hidden order groups the respective proofs are far less efficient.
This paper shows strong evidence that this efficiency gap cannot be bridged. Namely, while there are efficient protocols allowing a prover to cheat only with negligibly small probability in the case of known order groups, we provide strong evidence that for hidden order groups this probability is bounded below by 1/2 for all efficient Σ-protocols not using common reference strings or the like.
We prove our results for a comprehensive class of Σ-protocols in the generic group model, and further strengthen them by investigating certain instantiations in the plain model.},
author = {Bangerter, Endre and Camenisch, Jan and Stephan Krenn},
editor = {Micciancio, Daniele},
pages = {553 -- 571},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Efficiency Limitations for Σ-Protocols for Group Homomorphisms}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-11799-2},
volume = {5978},
year = {2010},
}
@inproceedings{2979,
abstract = {Zero-knowledge proofs of knowledge (ZK-PoK) are important building blocks for numerous cryptographic applications. Although ZK-PoK have a high potential impact, their real world deployment is typically hindered by their significant complexity compared to other (non-interactive) crypto primitives. Moreover, their design and implementation are time-consuming and error-prone.
We contribute to overcoming these challenges as follows: We present a comprehensive specification language and a compiler for ZK-PoK protocols based on Σ-protocols. The compiler allows the fully automatic translation of an abstract description of a proof goal into an executable implementation. Moreover, the compiler overcomes various restrictions of previous approaches, e.g., it supports the important class of exponentiation homomorphisms with hidden-order co-domain, needed for privacy-preserving applications such as DAA. Finally, our compiler is certifying, in the sense that it automatically produces a formal proof of the soundness of the compiled protocol for a large class of protocols using the Isabelle/HOL theorem prover.
},
author = {Almeida, José Bacelar and Bangerter, Endre and Barbosa, Manuel and Stephan Krenn and Sadeghi, Ahmad-Reza and Schneider, Thomas},
editor = {Gritzalis, Dimitris and Preneel, Bart and Theoharidou, Marianthi},
pages = {151 -- 167},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{A Certifying Compiler for Zero-Knowledge Proofs of Knowledge Based on Sigma-Protocols}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-15497-3},
volume = {6345},
year = {2010},
}
@article{1752,
abstract = {The epitaxial growth of germanium on silicon leads to the self-assembly of SiGe nanocrystals by a process that allows the size, composition and position of the nanocrystals to be controlled. This level of control, combined with an inherent compatibility with silicon technology, could prove useful in nanoelectronic applications. Here, we report the confinement of holes in quantum-dot devices made by directly contacting individual SiGe nanocrystals with aluminium electrodes, and the production of hybrid superconductor- semiconductor devices, such as resonant supercurrent transistors, when the quantum dot is strongly coupled to the electrodes. Charge transport measurements on weakly coupled quantum dots reveal discrete energy spectra, with the confined hole states displaying anisotropic gyromagnetic factors and strong spin-orbit coupling with pronounced dependences on gate voltage and magnetic field.},
author = {Georgios Katsaros and Spathis, Panayotis N and Stoffel, Mathieu and Fournel, Frank and Mongillo, Massimo and Bouchiat, Vincent and Lefloch, François and Rastelli, Armando and Schmidt, Oliver G and De Franceschi, Silvano},
journal = {Nature Nanotechnology},
number = {6},
pages = {458 -- 464},
publisher = {Nature Publishing Group},
title = {{Hybrid superconductor-semiconductor devices made from self-assembled SiGe nanocrystals on silicon}},
doi = {10.1038/nnano.2010.84},
volume = {5},
year = {2010},
}
@article{1753,
abstract = {We investigate electronic transport in n-i-n GaN nanowires with and without AlN double barriers. The nanowires are grown by catalyst-free, plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy enabling abrupt GaN/AlN interfaces as well as longitudinal n-type doping modulation. At low temperature, transport in n-i-n GaN nanowires is dominated by the Coulomb blockade effect. Carriers are confined in the undoped middle region, forming single or multiple islands with a characteristic length of ∼100 nm. The incorporation of two AlN tunnel barriers causes confinement to occur within the GaN dot in between. In the case of a 6 nm thick dot and 2 nm thick barriers, we observe characteristic signatures of Coulomb-blockaded transport in single quantum dots with discrete energy states. For thinner dots and barriers, Coulomb-blockade effects do not play a significant role while the onset of resonant tunneling via the confined quantum levels is accompanied by a negative differential resistance surviving up to ∼150 K.},
author = {Songmuang, Rudeeson and Georgios Katsaros and Monroy, Eva and Spathis, Panayotis N and Bougerol, Catherine and Mongillo, Massimo and De Franceschi, Silvano},
journal = {Nano Letters},
number = {9},
pages = {3545 -- 3550},
publisher = {American Chemical Society},
title = {{Quantum transport in GaN/AlN double-barrier heterostructure nanowires}},
doi = {10.1021/nl1017578},
volume = {10},
year = {2010},
}
@article{1773,
abstract = {The quantum properties of electromagnetic, mechanical or other harmonic oscillators can be revealed by investigating their strong coherent coupling to a single quantum two level system in an approach known as cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). At temperatures much lower than the characteristic energy level spacing the observation of vacuum Rabi oscillations or mode splittings with one or a few quanta asserts the quantum nature of the oscillator. Here, we study how the classical response of a cavity QED system emerges from the quantum one when its thermal occupation-or effective temperature-is raised gradually over 5 orders of magnitude. In this way we explore in detail the continuous quantum-to-classical crossover and demonstrate how to extract effective cavity field temperatures from both spectroscopic and time-resolved vacuum Rabi measurements.},
author = {Johannes Fink and Steffen, L. Kraig and Studer, Peter and Bishop, Lev S and Baur, Matthias P and Bianchetti, R and Bozyigit, Deniz and Lang, C and Filipp, Stefan and Leek, Peter J and Wallraff, Andreas},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
number = {16},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {{Quantum-to-classical transition in cavity quantum electrodynamics}},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.163601},
volume = {105},
year = {2010},
}
@article{1774,
abstract = {A number of superconducting qubits, such as the transmon or the phase qubit, have an energy level structure with small anharmonicity. This allows for convenient access of higher excited states with similar frequencies. However, special care has to be taken to avoid unwanted higher-level populations when using short control pulses. Here we demonstrate the preparation of arbitrary three level superposition states using optimal control techniques in a transmon. Performing dispersive readout, we extract the populations of all three levels of the qutrit and study the coherence of its excited states. Finally we demonstrate full quantum state tomography of the prepared qutrit states and evaluate the fidelities of a set of states, finding on average 95%.},
author = {Bianchetti, R and Filipp, Stefan and Baur, Matthias P and Johannes Fink and Lang, C and Steffen, L. Kraig and Boissonneault, Maxime and Blais, Alexandre and Wallraff, Andreas},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
number = {22},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {{Control and tomography of a three level superconducting artificial atom}},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.223601},
volume = {105},
year = {2010},
}
@article{2095,
abstract = {This paper describes a passive stereo system for capturing the 3D geometry of a face in a single-shot under standard light sources. The system is low-cost and easy to deploy. Results are submillimeter accurate and commensurate with those from state-ofthe-art systems based on active lighting, and the models meet the quality requirements of a demanding domain like the movie industry. Recovered models are shown for captures from both high-end cameras in a studio setting and from a consumer binocular-stereo camera, demonstrating scalability across a spectrum of camera deployments, and showing the potential for 3D face modeling to move beyond the professional arena and into the emerging consumer market in stereoscopic photography. Our primary technical contribution is a modification of standard stereo refinement methods to capture pore-scale geometry, using a qualitative approach that produces visually realistic results. The second technical contribution is a calibration method suited to face capture systems. The systemic contribution includes multiple demonstrations of system robustness and quality. These include capture in a studio setup, capture off a consumer binocular-stereo camera, scanning of faces of varying gender and ethnicity and age, capture of highly-transient facial expression, and scanning a physical mask to provide ground-truth validation.},
author = {Beeler, Thabo and Bernd Bickel and Beardsley, Paul A and Sumner, Bob and Groß, Markus S},
journal = {ACM Transactions on Graphics},
number = {4},
publisher = {ACM},
title = {{High-quality single-shot capture of facial geometry}},
doi = {10.1145/1778765.1778777},
volume = {29},
year = {2010},
}
@article{2124,
abstract = {We develop a theory of Malliavin calculus for Banach space-valued random variables. Using radonifying operators instead of symmetric tensor products we extend the Wiener-Itô isometry to Banach spaces. In the white noise case we obtain two sided Lp-estimates for multiple stochastic integrals in arbitrary Banach spaces. It is shown that the Malliavin derivative is bounded on vector-valued Wiener-Itô chaoses. Our main tools are decoupling inequalities for vector-valued random variables. In the opposite direction we use Meyer's inequalities to give a new proof of a decoupling result for Gaussian chaoses in UMD Banach spaces.},
author = {Jan Maas},
journal = {Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications},
number = {2},
pages = {383 -- 398},
publisher = {Academic Press},
title = {{Malliavin calculus and decoupling inequalities in Banach spaces}},
doi = {10.1016/j.jmaa.2009.08.041},
volume = {363},
year = {2010},
}
@article{2194,
abstract = {We develop an analytic model of vector correlations in rotationally inelastic atom-diatom collisions and test it against the much examined Ar-NO (X2Π) system. Based on the Fraunhofer scattering of matter waves, the model furnishes complex scattering amplitudes needed to evaluate the polarization moments characterizing the quantum stereodynamics. The analytic polarization moments are found to be in an excellent agreement with experimental results and with close-coupling calculations available at thermal energies. The model reveals that the stereodynamics is governed by diffraction from the repulsive core of the Ar-NO potential, which can be characterized by a single Legendre moment.},
author = {Mikhail Lemeshko and Friedrich, Břetislav},
journal = {Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics},
number = {5},
pages = {1038 -- 1041},
publisher = {Royal Society of Chemistry},
title = {{An analytic model of the stereodynamics of rotationally inelastic molecular collisions}},
doi = {10.1039/B920899B },
volume = {12},
year = {2010},
}
@article{2195,
abstract = {Following upon our recent work on vector correlations in the Ar-NO collisions [Lemeshko and Friedrich, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 1038 (2010)], we compare model results with close-coupling calculations for a range of channels and collision energies for the He-NO system. The striking agreement between the model and exact polarization moments indicates that the stereodynamics of rotationally inelastic atom-molecule collisions at thermal energies is governed by diffraction of matter waves from a two-dimensional repulsive core of the atom-molecule potential. Furthermore, the model polarization moments characterizing the He-NO, He- O2, He-OH, and He-CaH stereodynamics are found to coalesce into a single, distinctive pattern, which can serve as a "fingerprint" to identify diffraction-driven stereodynamics in future work. },
author = {Mikhail Lemeshko and Jambrina, Pablo G and De Miranda, Marcelo P and Friedrich, Břetislav},
journal = {Journal of Chemical Physics},
number = {16},
publisher = {American Institute of Physics},
title = {{Communications: When diffraction rules the stereodynamics of rotationally inelastic collisions}},
doi = {10.1063/1.3386530},
volume = {132},
year = {2010},
}
@article{2196,
abstract = {We evaluate the shifts imparted to vibrational and rotational levels of a linear molecule by a nonresonant laser field at intensities of up to 10 12 W/cm2. Both types of shift are found to be either positive or negative, depending on the initial rotational state acted upon by the field. An adiabatic field-molecule interaction imparts a rotational energy shift which is negative and exceeds the concomitant positive vibrational shift by a few orders of magnitude. The rovibrational states are thus pushed downward in such a field. A nonresonant pulsed laser field that interacts nonadiabatically with the molecule is found to impart rotational and vibrational shifts of the same order of magnitude. The nonadiabatic energy transfer occurs most readily at a pulse duration which amounts to about a tenth of the molecule's rotational period and vanishes when the sudden regime is attained for shorter pulses. We applied our treatment to the much-studied 87Rb2 molecule in the last bound vibrational levels of its lowest singlet and triplet electronic states. Our calculations indicate that 15 and 1.5 ns laser pulses of an intensity in excess of 5 × 109 W/cm2 are capable of dissociating the molecule due to the vibrational shift. Lesser shifts can be used to fine-tune the rovibrational levels and thereby affect collisional resonances by the nonresonant light. The energy shifts due to laser intensities of 109 W/cm2 may be discernible spectroscopically, with a 10 MHz resolution.},
author = {Mikhail Lemeshko and Friedrich, Břetislav},
journal = {Journal of Physical Chemistry A},
number = {36},
pages = {9848 -- 9854},
publisher = {American Chemical Society},
title = {{Fine-tuning molecular energy levels by nonresonant laser pulses}},
doi = {10.1021/jp1032299},
volume = {114},
year = {2010},
}
@article{2197,
abstract = {We present an analytic model of the refractive index for matter waves propagating through atomic or molecular gases. The model, which combines the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) treatment of the long-range attraction with the Fraunhofer model treatment of the short-range repulsion, furnishes a refractive index in compelling agreement with recent experiments of Jacquey [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.98.240405 98, 240405 (2007)] on Li atom matter waves passing through dilute noble gases. We show that the diffractive contribution, which arises from scattering by a two-dimensional "hard core" of the potential, is essential for obtaining a correct imaginary part of the refractive index.},
author = {Mikhail Lemeshko and Friedrich, Břetislav},
journal = {Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics},
number = {2},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {{Multiple scattering of matter waves: An analytic model of the refractive index for atomic and molecular gases}},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.82.022711},
volume = {82},
year = {2010},
}
@inproceedings{488,
abstract = {Streaming string transducers [1] define (partial) functions from input strings to output strings. A streaming string transducer makes a single pass through the input string and uses a finite set of variables that range over strings from the output alphabet. At every step, the transducer processes an input symbol, and updates all the variables in parallel using assignments whose right-hand-sides are concatenations of output symbols and variables with the restriction that a variable can be used at most once in a right-hand-side expression. It has been shown that streaming string transducers operating on strings over infinite data domains are of interest in algorithmic verification of list-processing programs, as they lead to PSPACE decision procedures for checking pre/post conditions and for checking semantic equivalence, for a well-defined class of heap-manipulating programs. In order to understand the theoretical expressiveness of streaming transducers, we focus on streaming transducers processing strings over finite alphabets, given the existence of a robust and well-studied class of "regular" transductions for this case. Such regular transductions can be defined either by two-way deterministic finite-state transducers, or using a logical MSO-based characterization. Our main result is that the expressiveness of streaming string transducers coincides exactly with this class of regular transductions. },
author = {Alur, Rajeev and Cerny, Pavol},
location = {Chennai, India},
pages = {1 -- 12},
publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik},
title = {{Expressiveness of streaming string transducers}},
doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2010.1},
volume = {8},
year = {2010},
}
@inproceedings{489,
abstract = {Graph games of infinite length are a natural model for open reactive processes: one player represents the controller, trying to ensure a given specification, and the other represents a hostile environment. The evolution of the system depends on the decisions of both players, supplemented by chance. In this work, we focus on the notion of randomised strategy. More specifically, we show that three natural definitions may lead to very different results: in the most general cases, an almost-surely winning situation may become almost-surely losing if the player is only allowed to use a weaker notion of strategy. In more reasonable settings, translations exist, but they require infinite memory, even in simple cases. Finally, some traditional problems becomes undecidable for the strongest type of strategies.},
author = {Cristau, Julien and David, Claire and Horn, Florian},
booktitle = {Proceedings of GandALF 2010},
location = {Minori, Amalfi Coast, Italy},
pages = {30 -- 39},
publisher = {Open Publishing Association},
title = {{How do we remember the past in randomised strategies? }},
doi = {10.4204/EPTCS.25.7},
volume = {25},
year = {2010},
}
@misc{5388,
abstract = {We present an algorithmic method for the synthesis of concurrent programs that are optimal with respect to quantitative performance measures. The input consists of a sequential sketch, that is, a program that does not contain synchronization constructs, and of a parametric performance model that assigns costs to actions such as locking, context switching, and idling. The quantitative synthesis problem is to automatically introduce synchronization constructs into the sequential sketch so that both correctness is guaranteed and worst-case (or average-case) performance is optimized. Correctness is formalized as race freedom or linearizability.
We show that for worst-case performance, the problem can be modeled
as a 2-player graph game with quantitative (limit-average) objectives, and
for average-case performance, as a 2 1/2 -player graph game (with probabilistic transitions). In both cases, the optimal correct program is derived from an optimal strategy in the corresponding quantitative game. We prove that the respective game problems are computationally expensive (NP-complete), and present several techniques that overcome the theoretical difficulty in cases of concurrent programs of practical interest.
We have implemented a prototype tool and used it for the automatic syn- thesis of programs that access a concurrent list. For certain parameter val- ues, our method automatically synthesizes various classical synchronization schemes for implementing a concurrent list, such as fine-grained locking or a lazy algorithm. For other parameter values, a new, hybrid synchronization style is synthesized, which uses both the lazy approach and coarse-grained locks (instead of standard fine-grained locks). The trade-off occurs because while fine-grained locking tends to decrease the cost that is due to waiting for locks, it increases cache size requirements.},
author = {Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Cerny, Pavol and Henzinger, Thomas A and Radhakrishna, Arjun and Singh, Rohit},
issn = {2664-1690},
pages = {17},
publisher = {IST Austria},
title = {{Quantitative synthesis for concurrent programs}},
doi = {10.15479/AT:IST-2010-0004},
year = {2010},
}
@misc{5389,
abstract = {Boolean notions of correctness are formalized by preorders on systems. Quantitative measures of correctness can be formalized by real-valued distance functions between systems, where the distance between implementation and specification provides a measure of “fit” or “desirability.” We extend the simulation preorder to the quantitative setting, by making each player of a simulation game pay a certain price for her choices. We use the resulting games with quantitative objectives to define three different simulation distances. The correctness distance measures how much the specification must be changed in order to be satisfied by the implementation. The coverage distance measures how much the im- plementation restricts the degrees of freedom offered by the specification. The robustness distance measures how much a system can deviate from the implementation description without violating the specification. We consider these distances for safety as well as liveness specifications. The distances can be computed in polynomial time for safety specifications, and for liveness specifications given by weak fairness constraints. We show that the distance functions satisfy the triangle inequality, that the distance between two systems does not increase under parallel composition with a third system, and that the distance between two systems can be bounded from above and below by distances between abstractions of the two systems. These properties suggest that our simulation distances provide an appropriate basis for a quantitative theory of discrete systems. We also demonstrate how the robustness distance can be used to measure how many transmission errors are tolerated by error correcting codes.},
author = {Cerny, Pavol and Henzinger, Thomas A and Radhakrishna, Arjun},
issn = {2664-1690},
pages = {24},
publisher = {IST Austria},
title = {{Simulation distances}},
doi = {10.15479/AT:IST-2010-0003},
year = {2010},
}
@misc{5390,
abstract = {The class of ω regular languages provide a robust specification language in verification. Every ω-regular condition can be decomposed into a safety part and a liveness part. The liveness part ensures that something good happens “eventually.” Two main strengths of the classical, infinite-limit formulation of liveness are robustness (independence from the granularity of transitions) and simplicity (abstraction of complicated time bounds). However, the classical liveness formulation suffers from the drawback that the time until something good happens may be unbounded. A stronger formulation of liveness, so-called finitary liveness, overcomes this drawback, while still retaining robustness and simplicity. Finitary liveness requires that there exists an unknown, fixed bound b such that something good happens within b transitions. In this work we consider the finitary parity and Streett (fairness) conditions. We present the topological, automata-theoretic and logical characterization of finitary languages defined by finitary parity and Streett conditions. We (a) show that the finitary parity and Streett languages are Σ2-complete; (b) present a complete characterization of the expressive power of various classes of automata with finitary and infinitary conditions (in particular we show that non-deterministic finitary parity and Streett automata cannot be determinized to deterministic finitary parity or Streett automata); and (c) show that the languages defined by non-deterministic finitary parity automata exactly characterize the star-free fragment of ωB-regular languages.},
author = {Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Fijalkow, Nathanaël},
issn = {2664-1690},
pages = {21},
publisher = {IST Austria},
title = {{Topological, automata-theoretic and logical characterization of finitary languages}},
doi = {10.15479/AT:IST-2010-0002},
year = {2010},
}
@misc{5391,
abstract = {Concurrent data structures with fine-grained synchronization are notoriously difficult to implement correctly. The difficulty of reasoning about these implementations does not stem from the number of variables or the program size, but rather from the large number of possible interleavings. These implementations are therefore prime candidates for model checking. We introduce an algorithm for verifying linearizability of singly-linked heap-based concurrent data structures. We consider a model consisting of an unbounded heap where each node consists an element from an unbounded data domain, with a restricted set of operations for testing and updating pointers and data elements. Our main result is that linearizability is decidable for programs that invoke a fixed number of methods, possibly in parallel. This decidable fragment covers many of the common implementation techniques — fine-grained locking, lazy synchronization, and lock-free synchronization. We also show how the technique can be used to verify optimistic implementations with the help of programmer annotations. We developed a verification tool CoLT and evaluated it on a representative sample of Java implementations of the concurrent set data structure. The tool verified linearizability of a number of implementations, found a known error in a lock-free imple- mentation and proved that the corrected version is linearizable.},
author = {Cerny, Pavol and Radhakrishna, Arjun and Zufferey, Damien and Chaudhuri, Swarat and Alur, Rajeev},
issn = {2664-1690},
pages = {27},
publisher = {IST Austria},
title = {{Model checking of linearizability of concurrent list implementations}},
doi = {10.15479/AT:IST-2010-0001},
year = {2010},
}
@article{598,
abstract = {It is not well understood how the human Mediator complex, transcription factor IIH and RNA polymerase II (Pol II) work together with activators to initiate transcription. Activator binding alters Mediator structure, yet the functional consequences of such structural shifts remain unknown. The p53 C terminus and its activation domain interact with different Mediator subunits, and we find that each interaction differentially affects Mediator structure; strikingly, distinct p53-Mediator structures differentially affect Pol II activity. Only the p53 activation domain induces the formation of a large pocket domain at the Mediator-Pol II interaction site, and this correlates with activation of stalled Pol II to a productively elongating state. Moreover, we define a Mediator requirement for TFIIH-dependent Pol II C-terminal domain phosphorylation and identify substantial differences in Pol II C-terminal domain processing that correspond to distinct p53-Mediator structural states. Our results define a fundamental mechanism by which p53 activates transcription and suggest that Mediator structural shifts trigger activation of stalled Pol II complexes.},
author = {Meyer, Krista and Lin, Shih and Bernecky, Carrie A and Gao, Yuefeng and Taatjes, Dylan},
journal = {Nature Structural and Molecular Biology},
number = {6},
pages = {753 -- 760},
publisher = {Nature Publishing Group},
title = {{P53 activates transcription by directing structural shifts in Mediator}},
doi = {10.1038/nsmb.1816},
volume = {17},
year = {2010},
}
@article{6142,
abstract = {Defining the mutational landscape when individuals of a species grow separately and diverge over many generations can provide insights into trait evolution. A specific example of this involves studying changes associated with domestication where different lines of the same wild stock have been cultivated independently in different standard environments. Whole genome sequence comparison of such lines permits estimation of mutation rates, inference of genes' ancestral states and ancestry of existing strains, and correction of sequencing errors in genome databases. Here we study domestication of the C. elegans Bristol strain as a model, and report the genome sequence of LSJ1 (Bristol), a sibling of the standard C. elegans reference wild type N2 (Bristol). The LSJ1 and N2 lines were cultivated separately from shortly after the Bristol strain was isolated until methods to freeze C. elegans were developed. We find that during this time the two strains have accumulated 1208 genetic differences. We describe phenotypic variation between N2 and LSJ1 in the rate at which embryos develop, the rate of production of eggs, the maturity of eggs at laying, and feeding behavior, all the result of post-isolation changes. We infer the ancestral alleles in the original Bristol isolate and highlight 2038 likely sequencing errors in the original N2 reference genome sequence. Many of these changes modify genome annotation. Our study provides a starting point to further investigate genotype-phenotype association and offers insights into the process of selection as a result of laboratory domestication.},
author = {Weber, Katherine P. and De, Subhajyoti and Kozarewa, Iwanka and Turner, Daniel J. and Babu, M. Madan and de Bono, Mario},
issn = {1932-6203},
journal = {PLoS ONE},
number = {11},
publisher = {Public Library of Science},
title = {{Whole genome sequencing highlights genetic changes associated with laboratory domestication of C. elegans}},
doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0013922},
volume = {5},
year = {2010},
}
@article{6320,
abstract = {We study the average order of the divisor function, as it ranges over the values of binary quartic forms that are reducible over ℚ.},
author = {Bretèche, Régis de la and Browning, Timothy D},
journal = {Crelles Journal},
number = {646},
pages = {1--44},
publisher = {Walter de Gruyter GmbH},
title = {{Le problème des diviseurs pour des formes binaires de degré 4}},
doi = {10.1515/crelle.2010.064},
volume = {2010},
year = {2010},
}
@article{7078,
abstract = {We report resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS), dilatometry/magnetostriction, magnetotransport, magnetization, specific-heat, and 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements on SnTe and Sn0.995Cr0.005Te. Hall measurements at T=77 K indicate that our Bridgman-grown single crystals have a p-type carrier concentration of 3.4×1019 cm−3 and that our Cr-doped crystals have an n-type concentration of 5.8×1022 cm−3. Although our SnTe crystals are diamagnetic over the temperature range 2≤T≤1100 K, the Cr-doped crystals are room-temperature ferromagnets with a Curie temperature of 294 K. For each sample type, three-terminal capacitive dilatometry measurements detect a subtle 0.5 μm distortion at Tc≈85 K. Whereas our RUS measurements on SnTe show elastic hardening near the structural transition, pointing to co-elastic behavior, similar measurements on Sn0.995Cr0.005Te show a pronounced softening, pointing to ferroelastic behavior. Effective Debye temperature, θD, values of SnTe obtained from 119Sn Mössbauer studies show a hardening of phonons in the range 60–115 K (θD=162 K) as compared with the 100–300 K range (θD=150 K). In addition, a precursor softening extending over approximately 100 K anticipates this collapse at the critical temperature and quantitative analysis over three decades of its reduced modulus finds ΔC44/C44=A|(T−T0)/T0|−κ with κ=0.50±0.02, a value indicating a three-dimensional softening of phonon branches at a temperature T0∼75 K, considerably below Tc. We suggest that the differences in these two types of elastic behaviors lie in the absence of elastic domain-wall motion in the one case and their nucleation in the other.},
author = {Salje, E. K. H. and Safarik, D. J. and Modic, Kimberly A and Gubernatis, J. E. and Cooley, J. C. and Taylor, R. D. and Mihaila, B. and Saxena, A. and Lookman, T. and Smith, J. L. and Fisher, R. A. and Pasternak, M. and Opeil, C. P. and Siegrist, T. and Littlewood, P. B. and Lashley, J. C.},
issn = {1098-0121},
journal = {Physical Review B},
number = {18},
publisher = {APS},
title = {{Tin telluride: A weakly co-elastic metal}},
doi = {10.1103/physrevb.82.184112},
volume = {82},
year = {2010},
}
@article{1465,
abstract = {We prove a generating function formula for the Betti numbers of Nakajima quiver varieties. We prove that it is a q-deformation of the Weyl-Kac character formula. In particular this implies that the constant term of the polynomial counting the number of absolutely indecomposable representations of a quiver equals the multiplicity of a certain weight in the corresponding Kac-Moody algebra, which was conjectured by Kac in 1982.},
author = {Tamas Hausel},
journal = {Inventiones Mathematicae},
number = {1},
pages = {21 -- 37},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Kac's conjecture from Nakajima quiver varieties}},
doi = {10.1007/s00222-010-0241-3},
volume = {181},
year = {2010},
}
@article{1466,
abstract = {In Hausel et al. (2008) [10] we presented a conjecture generalizing the Cauchy formula for Macdonald polynomial. This conjecture encodes the mixed Hodge polynomials of the character varieties of representations of the fundamental group of a punctured Riemann surface of genus g. We proved several results which support this conjecture. Here we announce new results which are consequences of those in Hausel et al. (2008) [10].},
author = {Tamas Hausel and Letellier, Emmanuel and Rodríguez Villegas, Fernando},
journal = {Comptes Rendus Mathematique},
number = {3-4},
pages = {131 -- 135},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Topology of character varieties and representations of quivers}},
doi = {10.1016/j.crma.2010.01.025},
volume = {348},
year = {2010},
}
@inbook{1468,
abstract = {This chapter surveys the motivations, related results, and progress made towards the following problem, raised by Hitchin in 1995: What is the space of L2 harmonic forms on the moduli space of Higgs bundles on a Riemann surface?},
author = {Tamas Hausel},
booktitle = {The Many Facets of Geometry: A Tribute to Nigel Hitchin},
publisher = {Oxford University Press},
title = {{S-Duality in HyperkäHler Hodge Theory}},
doi = {10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199534920.003.0016},
year = {2010},
}
@article{1044,
abstract = {Control over all internal and external degrees of freedom of molecules at the level of single quantum states will enable a series of fundamental studies in physics and chemistry1,2. In particular, samples of ground-state molecules at ultralow temperatures and high number densities will facilitate new quantum-gas studies3 and future applications in quantum information science4. However, high phase-space densities for molecular samples are not readily attainable because efficient cooling techniques such as laser cooling are lacking. Here we produce an ultracold and dense sample of molecules in a single hyperfine level of the rovibronic ground state with each molecule individually trapped in the motional ground state of an optical lattice well. Starting from a zero-temperature atomic Mott-insulator state with optimized double-site occupancy6, weakly bound dimer molecules are efficiently associated on a Feshbach resonance7 and subsequently transferred to the rovibronic ground state by a stimulated four-photon process with >50% efficiency. The molecules are trapped in the lattice and have a lifetime of 8 s. Our results present a crucial step towards Bose-Einstein condensation of ground-state molecules and, when suitably generalized to polar heteronuclear molecules, the realization of dipolar quantum-gas phases in optical lattices8-10.},
author = {Danzl, Johann G and Mark, Manfred and Haller, Elmar and Gustavsson, Mattias and Hart, Russell and Aldegunde, Jesus and Hutson, Jeremy and Nägerl, Hanns},
journal = {Nature Physics},
number = {4},
pages = {265 -- 270},
publisher = {Nature Publishing Group},
title = {{An ultracold high-density sample of rovibronic ground-state molecules in an optical lattice}},
doi = {10.1038/nphys1533},
volume = {6},
year = {2010},
}
@article{1045,
abstract = {We report on the observation of confinement-induced resonances in strongly interacting quantum-gas systems with tunable interactions for one- and two-dimensional geometry. Atom-atom scattering is substantially modified when the s-wave scattering length approaches the length scale associated with the tight transversal confinement, leading to characteristic loss and heating signatures. Upon introducing an anisotropy for the transversal confinement we observe a splitting of the confinement-induced resonance. With increasing anisotropy additional resonances appear. In the limit of a two-dimensional system we find that one resonance persists.},
author = {Haller, Elmar and Mark, Manfred and Hart, Russell and Danzl, Johann G and Reichsöllner, Lukas and Melezhik, Vladimir and Schmelcher, Peter and Nägerl, Hanns},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
number = {15},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {{Confinement-induced resonances in low-dimensional quantum systems}},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.153203},
volume = {104},
year = {2010},
}
@article{1047,
abstract = {Particles in a perfect lattice potential perform Bloch oscillations when subject to a constant force, leading to localization and preventing conductivity. For a weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensate of Cs atoms, we observe giant center-of-mass oscillations in position space with a displacement across hundreds of lattice sites when we add a periodic modulation to the force near the Bloch frequency. We study the dependence of these "super" Bloch oscillations on lattice depth, modulation amplitude, and modulation frequency and show that they provide a means to induce linear transport in a dissipation-free lattice.},
author = {Haller, Elmar and Hart, Russell and Mark, Manfred and Danzl, Johann G and Reichsöllner, Lukas and Nägerl, Hanns},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
number = {20},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {{Inducing transport in a dissipation-free lattice with super bloch oscillations}},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.200403},
volume = {104},
year = {2010},
}
@article{1049,
abstract = {Quantum many-body systems can have phase transitions even at zero temperature; fluctuations arising from Heisenbergĝ€™s uncertainty principle, as opposed to thermal effects, drive the system from one phase to another. Typically, during the transition the relative strength of two competing terms in the systemĝ€™s Hamiltonian changes across a finite critical value. A well-known example is the Mottĝ€" Hubbard quantum phase transition from a superfluid to an insulating phase, which has been observed for weakly interacting bosonic atomic gases. However, for strongly interacting quantum systems confined to lower-dimensional geometry, a novel type of quantum phase transition may be induced and driven by an arbitrarily weak perturbation to the Hamiltonian. Here we observe such an effectĝ€"the sineĝ€"Gordon quantum phase transition from a superfluid Luttinger liquid to a Mott insulatorĝ€ "in a one-dimensional quantum gas of bosonic caesium atoms with tunable interactions. For sufficiently strong interactions, the transition is induced by adding an arbitrarily weak optical lattice commensurate with the atomic granularity, which leads to immediate pinning of the atoms. We map out the phase diagram and find that our measurements in the strongly interacting regime agree well with a quantum field description based on the exactly solvable sineĝ€"Gordon model. We trace the phase boundary all the way to the weakly interacting regime, where we find good agreement with the predictions of the one-dimensional Boseĝ€"Hubbard model. Our results open up the experimental study of quantum phase transitions, criticality and transport phenomena beyond Hubbard-type models in the context of ultracold gases.},
author = {Haller, Elmar and Hart, Russell and Mark, Manfred and Danzl, Johann G and Reichsöllner, Lukas and Gustavsson, Mattias and Dalmonte, Marcello and Pupillo, Guido and Nägerl, Hanns},
journal = {Nature},
number = {7306},
pages = {597 -- 600},
publisher = {Nature Publishing Group},
title = {{Pinning quantum phase transition for a Luttinger liquid of strongly interacting bosons}},
doi = {10.1038/nature09259},
volume = {466},
year = {2010},
}
@article{9012,
abstract = {In this Letter, we characterize experimentally the diffusiophoretic motion of colloids and λ-DNA toward higher concentration of solutes, using microfluidic technology to build spatially and temporally controlled concentration gradients. We then demonstrate that segregation and spatial patterning of the particles can be achieved from temporal variations of the solute concentration profile. This segregation takes the form of a strong trapping potential, stemming from an osmotically induced rectification mechanism of the solute time-dependent variations. Depending on the spatial and temporal symmetry of the solute signal, localization patterns with various shapes can be achieved. These results highlight the role of solute contrasts in out-of-equilibrium processes occurring in soft matter.},
author = {Palacci, Jérémie A and Abécassis, Benjamin and Cottin-Bizonne, Cécile and Ybert, Christophe and Bocquet, Lydéric},
issn = {10797114},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
number = {13},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {{Colloidal motility and pattern formation under rectified diffusiophoresis}},
doi = {10.1103/physrevlett.104.138302},
volume = {104},
year = {2010},
}
@article{9013,
abstract = {In this Letter, we investigate experimentally the nonequilibrium steady state of an active colloidal suspension under gravity field. The active particles are made of chemically powered colloids, showing self propulsion in the presence of an added fuel, here hydrogen peroxide. The active suspension is studied in a dedicated microfluidic device, made of permeable gel microstructures. Both the microdynamics of individual colloids and the global stationary state of the suspension under gravity are measured with optical microscopy. This yields a direct measurement of the effective temperature of the active system as a function of the particle activity, on the basis of the fluctuation-dissipation relationship. Our work is a first step in the experimental exploration of the out-of-equilibrium properties of active colloidal systems.},
author = {Palacci, Jérémie A and Cottin-Bizonne, Cécile and Ybert, Christophe and Bocquet, Lydéric},
issn = {10797114},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
number = {8},
publisher = {American Physical Society },
title = {{Sedimentation and effective temperature of active colloidal suspensions}},
doi = {10.1103/physrevlett.105.088304},
volume = {105},
year = {2010},
}
@article{9146,
abstract = {The factors governing the rate of change in the amount of atmospheric water vapor are analyzed in simulations of climate change. The global-mean amount of water vapor is estimated to increase at a differential rate of 7.3% K − 1 with respect to global-mean surface air temperature in the multi-model mean. Larger rates of change result if the fractional change is evaluated over a finite change in temperature (e.g., 8.2% K − 1 for a 3 K warming), and rates of change of zonal-mean column water vapor range from 6 to 12% K − 1 depending on latitude.
Clausius–Clapeyron scaling is directly evaluated using an invariant distribution of monthly-mean relative humidity, giving a rate of 7.4% K − 1 for global-mean water vapor. There are deviations from Clausius–Clapeyron scaling of zonal-mean column water vapor in the tropics and mid-latitudes, but they largely cancel in the global mean. A purely thermodynamic scaling based on a saturated troposphere gives a higher global rate of 7.9% K − 1.
Surface specific humidity increases at a rate of 5.7% K − 1, considerably lower than the rate for global-mean water vapor. Surface specific humidity closely follows Clausius–Clapeyron scaling over ocean. But there are widespread decreases in surface relative humidity over land (by more than 1% K − 1 in many regions), and it is argued that decreases of this magnitude could result from the land/ocean contrast in surface warming.},
author = {O’Gorman, P A and MULLER, Caroline J},
issn = {1748-9326},
journal = {Environmental Research Letters},
keywords = {Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment, Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health, General Environmental Science},
number = {2},
publisher = {IOP Publishing},
title = {{How closely do changes in surface and column water vapor follow Clausius–Clapeyron scaling in climate change simulations?}},
doi = {10.1088/1748-9326/5/2/025207},
volume = {5},
year = {2010},
}
@inproceedings{3719,
abstract = {The induction of a signaling pathway is characterized by transient complex formation and mutual posttranslational modification of proteins. To faithfully capture this combinatorial process in a math- ematical model is an important challenge in systems biology. Exploiting the limited context on which most binding and modification events are conditioned, attempts have been made to reduce the com- binatorial complexity by quotienting the reachable set of molecular species, into species aggregates while preserving the deterministic semantics of the thermodynamic limit. Recently we proposed a quotienting that also preserves the stochastic semantics and that is complete in the sense that the semantics of individual species can be recovered from the aggregate semantics. In this paper we prove that this quotienting yields a sufficient condition for weak lumpability and that it gives rise to a backward Markov bisimulation between the original and aggregated transition system. We illustrate the framework on a case study of the EGF/insulin receptor crosstalk.},
author = {Feret, Jérôme and Henzinger, Thomas A and Koeppl, Heinz and Petrov, Tatjana},
location = {Jena, Germany},
pages = {142--161},
publisher = {Open Publishing Association},
title = {{Lumpability abstractions of rule-based systems}},
volume = {40},
year = {2010},
}
@unpublished{3743,
abstract = {These are notes for a set of 7 two-hour lectures given at the 2010 Summer School on Quantitative Evolutionary and Comparative Genomics at OIST, Okinawa, Japan. The emphasis is on understanding how biological systems process information. We take a physicist's approach of looking for simple phenomenological descriptions that can address the questions of biological function without necessarily modeling all (mostly unknown) microscopic details; the example that is developed throughout the notes is transcriptional regulation in genetic regulatory networks. We present tools from information theory and statistical physics that can be used to analyze noisy nonlinear biological networks, and build generative and predictive models of regulatory processes.},
author = {Gasper Tkacik},
booktitle = {ArXiv},
pages = {1 -- 52},
publisher = {ArXiv},
title = {{From statistical mechanics to information theory: understanding biophysical information-processing systems}},
volume = {q-bio.MN},
year = {2010},
}
@article{3748,
abstract = {The chemotaxis signalling network in Escherichia coli that controls the locomotion of bacteria is a classic model system for signal transduction1, 2. This pathway modulates the behaviour of flagellar motors to propel bacteria towards sources of chemical attractants. Although this system relaxes to a steady state in response to environmental changes, the signalling events within the chemotaxis network are noisy and cause large temporal variations of the motor behaviour even in the absence of stimulus3. That the same signalling network governs both behavioural variability and cellular response raises the question of whether these two traits are independent. Here, we experimentally establish a fluctuation–response relationship in the chemotaxis system of living bacteria. Using this relationship, we demonstrate the possibility of inferring the cellular response from the behavioural variability measured before stimulus. In monitoring the pre- and post-stimulus switching behaviour of individual bacterial motors, we found that variability scales linearly with the response time for different functioning states of the cell. This study highlights that the fundamental relationship between fluctuation and response is not constrained to physical systems at thermodynamic equilibrium4 but is extensible to living cells5. Such a relationship not only implies that behavioural variability and cellular response can be coupled traits, but it also provides a general framework within which we can examine how the selection of a network design shapes this interdependence},
author = {Park, Heungwon and Pontius, William and Calin Guet and Marko, John F and Emonet,Thierry and Cluzel,Philippe},
journal = {Nature},
pages = {819 -- 823},
publisher = {Nature Publishing Group},
title = {{Interdependence of behavioural variability and response to small stimuli in bacteria}},
doi = {10.1038/nature09551},
volume = {468},
year = {2010},
}
@article{3749,
abstract = {In E. coli, chemotactic behavior exhibits perfect adaptation that is robust to changes in the intracellular concentration of the chemotactic proteins, such as CheR and CheB. However, the robustness of the perfect adaptation does not explicitly imply a robust chemotactic response. Previous studies on the robustness of the chemotactic response relied on swarming assays, which can be confounded by processes besides chemotaxis, such as cellular growth and depletion of nutrients. Here, using a high-throughput capillary assay that eliminates the effects of growth, we experimentally studied how the chemotactic response depends on the relative concentration of the chemotactic proteins. We simultaneously measured both the chemotactic response of E. coli cells to L: -aspartate and the concentrations of YFP-CheR and CheB-CFP fusion proteins. We found that the chemotactic response is fine-tuned to a specific ratio of [CheR]/[CheB] with a maximum response comparable to the chemotactic response of wild-type behavior. In contrast to adaptation in chemotaxis, that is robust and exact, capillary assays revealed that the chemotactic response in swimming bacteria is fined-tuned to wild-type level of the [CheR]/[CheB] ratio.},
author = {Park, Heungwon and Calin Guet and Emonet,Thierry and Cluzel,Philippe},
journal = {Current Microbiology},
number = {3},
pages = {764 -- 769},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Fine-tuning of chemotactic response in E. coli determined by high-throughput capillary assay}},
doi = {10.1007/s00284-010-9778-z},
volume = {62},
year = {2010},
}
@article{3772,
author = {Barton, Nicholas H},
journal = {PLoS Genetics},
number = {6},
publisher = {Public Library of Science},
title = {{Understanding adaptation in large populations}},
doi = {10.1371/journal.pgen.1000987},
volume = {6},
year = {2010},
}
@article{3773,
abstract = {If distinct biological species are to coexist in sympatry, they must be reproductively isolated and must exploit different limiting resources. A two-niche Levene model is analysed, in which habitat preference and survival depend on underlying additive traits. The population genetics of preference and viability are equivalent. However, there is a linear trade-off between the chances of settling in either niche, whereas viabilities may be constrained arbitrarily. With a convex trade-off, a sexual population evolves a single generalist genotype, whereas with a concave trade-off, disruptive selection favours maximal variance. A pure habitat preference evolves to global linkage equilibrium if mating occurs in a single pool, but remarkably, evolves to pairwise linkage equilibrium within niches if mating is within those niches--independent of the genetics. With a concave trade-off, the population shifts sharply between a unimodal distribution with high gene flow and a bimodal distribution with strong isolation, as the underlying genetic variance increases. However, these alternative states are only simultaneously stable for a narrow parameter range. A sharp threshold is only seen if survival in the 'wrong' niche is low; otherwise, strong isolation is impossible. Gene flow from divergent demes makes speciation much easier in parapatry than in sympatry.},
author = {Barton, Nicholas H},
journal = {Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences},
number = {1547},
pages = {1825 -- 1840},
publisher = {Royal Society},
title = {{What role does natural selection play in speciation?}},
doi = {10.1098/rstb.2010.0001},
volume = {365},
year = {2010},
}
@article{3776,
abstract = {The prevalence of recombination in eukaryotes poses one of the most puzzling questions in biology. The most compelling general explanation is that recombination facilitates selection by breaking down the negative associations generated by random drift (i.e. Hill-Robertson interference, HRI). I classify the effects of HRI owing to: deleterious mutation, balancing selection and selective sweeps on: neutral diversity, rates of adaptation and the mutation load. These effects are mediated primarily by the density of deleterious mutations and of selective sweeps. Sequence polymorphism and divergence suggest that these rates may be high enough to cause significant interference even in genomic regions of high recombination. However, neither seems able to generate enough variance in fitness to select strongly for high rates of recombination. It is plausible that spatial and temporal fluctuations in selection generate much more fitness variance, and hence selection for recombination, than can be explained by uniformly deleterious mutations or species-wide selective sweeps.},
author = {Barton, Nicholas H},
journal = {Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences},
number = {1552},
pages = {2559 -- 2569},
publisher = {Royal Society},
title = {{Genetic linkage and natural selection}},
doi = {10.1098/rstb.2010.0106},
volume = {365},
year = {2010},
}
@article{3777,
abstract = {Under the classical view, selection depends more or less directly on mutation: standing genetic variance is maintained by a balance between selection and mutation, and adaptation is fuelled by new favourable mutations. Recombination is favoured if it breaks negative associations among selected alleles, which interfere with adaptation. Such associations may be generated by negative epistasis, or by random drift (leading to the Hill-Robertson effect). Both deterministic and stochastic explanations depend primarily on the genomic mutation rate, U. This may be large enough to explain high recombination rates in some organisms, but seems unlikely to be so in general. Random drift is a more general source of negative linkage disequilibria, and can cause selection for recombination even in large populations, through the chance loss of new favourable mutations. The rate of species-wide substitutions is much too low to drive this mechanism, but local fluctuations in selection, combined with gene flow, may suffice. These arguments are illustrated by comparing the interaction between good and bad mutations at unlinked loci under the infinitesimal model.},
author = {Barton, Nicholas H},
journal = {Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences},
number = {1544},
pages = {1281 -- 1294},
publisher = {Royal Society},
title = {{Mutation and the evolution of recombination}},
doi = {10.1098/rstb.2009.0320},
volume = {365},
year = {2010},
}
@article{3779,
abstract = {Crosses between closely related species give two contrasting results. One result is that species hybrids may be inferior to their parents, for example, being less fertile [1]. The other is that F1 hybrids may display superior performance (heterosis), for example with increased vigour [2]. Although various hypotheses have been proposed to account for these two aspects of hybridisation, their biological basis is still poorly understood [3]. To gain further insights into this issue, we analysed the role that variation in gene expression may play. We took a conserved trait, flower asymmetry in Antirrhinum, and determined the extent to which the underlying regulatory genes varied in expression among closely related species. We show that expression of both genes analysed, CYC and RAD, varies significantly between species because of cis-acting differences. By making a quantitative genotype-phenotype map, using a range of mutant alleles, we demonstrate that the species lie on a plateau in gene expression-morphology space, so that the variation has no detectable phenotypic effect. However, phenotypic differences can be revealed by shifting genotypes off the plateau through genetic crosses. Our results can be readily explained if genomes are free to evolve within an effectively neutral zone in gene expression space. The consequences of this drift will be negligible for individual loci, but when multiple loci across the genome are considered, we show that the variation may have significant effects on phenotype and fitness, causing a significant drift load. By considering these consequences for various gene-expression-fitness landscapes, we conclude that F1 hybrids might be expected to show increased performance with regard to conserved traits, such as basic physiology, but reduced performance with regard to others. Thus, our study provides a new way of explaining how various aspects of hybrid performance may arise through natural variation in gene activity.},
author = {Rosas, Ulises and Barton, Nicholas H and Copsey, Lucy and Barbier De Reuille, Pierre and Coen, Enrico},
journal = {PLoS Biology},
number = {7},
publisher = {Public Library of Science},
title = {{Cryptic variation between species and the basis of hybrid performance}},
doi = {10.1371/journal.pbio.1000429},
volume = {8},
year = {2010},
}
@article{3787,
abstract = {DNA samples were extracted from ethanol and formalin-fixed decapod crustacean tissue using a new method based on Tetramethylsilane (TMS)-Chelex. It is shown that neither an indigestible matrix of cross-linked protein nor soluble PCR inhibitors impede PCR success when dealing with formalin-fixed material. Instead, amplification success from formalin-fixed tissue appears to depend on the presence of unmodified DNA in the extracted sample. A staining method that facilitates the targeting of samples with a high content of unmodified DNA is provided.},
author = {Palero, Ferran and Hall, Sally and Clark, Paul and Johnston, David and Mackenzie Dodds, Jackie and Thatje, Sven},
journal = {Scientia Marina},
number = {3},
pages = {465 -- 470},
publisher = {Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas},
title = {{DNA extraction from formalin-fixed tissue: new light from the deep sea}},
doi = {10.3989/scimar.2010.74n3465},
volume = {74},
year = {2010},
}
@article{3790,
abstract = {Cell shape and motility are primarily controlled by cellular mechanics. The attachment of the plasma membrane to the underlying actomyosin cortex has been proposed to be important for cellular processes involving membrane deformation. However, little is known about the actual function of membrane-to-cortex attachment (MCA) in cell protrusion formation and migration, in particular in the context of the developing embryo. Here, we use a multidisciplinary approach to study MCA in zebrafish mesoderm and endoderm (mesendoderm) germ layer progenitor cells, which migrate using a combination of different protrusion types, namely, lamellipodia, filopodia, and blebs, during zebrafish gastrulation. By interfering with the activity of molecules linking the cortex to the membrane and measuring resulting changes in MCA by atomic force microscopy, we show that reducing MCA in mesendoderm progenitors increases the proportion of cellular blebs and reduces the directionality of cell migration. We propose that MCA is a key parameter controlling the relative proportions of different cell protrusion types in mesendoderm progenitors, and thus is key in controlling directed migration during gastrulation.},
author = {Diz Muñoz, Alba and Krieg, Michael and Bergert, Martin and Ibarlucea Benitez, Itziar and Müller, Daniel and Paluch, Ewa and Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp J},
journal = {PLoS Biology},
number = {11},
publisher = {Public Library of Science},
title = {{Control of directed cell migration in vivo by membrane-to-cortex attachment}},
doi = {10.1371/journal.pbio.1000544},
volume = {8},
year = {2010},
}
@inproceedings{3793,
abstract = {Recent progress in per-pixel object class labeling of natural images can be attributed to the use of multiple types of image features and sound statistical learning approaches. Within the latter, Conditional Random Fields (CRF) are prominently used for their ability to represent interactions between random variables. Despite their popularity in computer vision, parameter learning for CRFs has remained difficult, popular approaches being cross-validation and piecewise training.
In this work, we propose a simple yet expressive tree-structured CRF based on a recent hierarchical image segmentation method. Our model combines and weights multiple image features within a hierarchical representation and allows simple and efficient globally-optimal learning of ≈ 105 parameters. The tractability of our model allows us to pose and answer some of the open questions regarding parameter learning applying to CRF-based approaches. The key findings for learning CRF models are, from the obvious to the surprising, i) multiple image features always help, ii) the limiting dimension with respect to current models is the amount of training data, iii) piecewise training is competitive, iv) current methods for max-margin training fail for models with many parameters.
},
author = {Nowozin, Sebastian and Gehler, Peter and Lampert, Christoph},
location = {Heraklion, Crete, Greece},
pages = {98 -- 111},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{On parameter learning in CRF-based approaches to object class image segmentation}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-15567-3_8},
volume = {6316},
year = {2010},
}
@inbook{3795,
abstract = {The (apparent) contour of a smooth mapping from a 2-manifold to the plane, f: M → R2 , is the set of critical values, that is, the image of the points at which the gradients of the two component functions are linearly dependent. Assuming M is compact and orientable and measuring difference with the erosion distance, we prove that the contour is stable.},
author = {Edelsbrunner, Herbert and Morozov, Dmitriy and Patel, Amit},
booktitle = {Topological Data Analysis and Visualization: Theory, Algorithms and Applications},
pages = {27 -- 42},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{The stability of the apparent contour of an orientable 2-manifold}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-15014-2_3},
year = {2010},
}
@article{3831,
abstract = {Fast-spiking, parvalbumin-expressing basket cells (BCs) play a key role in feedforward and feedback inhibition in the hippocampus. However, the dendritic mechanisms underlying rapid interneuron recruitment have remained unclear. To quantitatively address this question, we developed detailed passive cable models of BCs in the dentate gyrus based on dual somatic or somatodendritic recordings and complete morphologic reconstructions. Both specific membrane capacitance and axial resistivity were comparable to those of pyramidal neurons, but the average somatodendritic specific membrane resistance (R(m)) was substantially lower in BCs. Furthermore, R(m) was markedly nonuniform, being lowest in soma and proximal dendrites, intermediate in distal dendrites, and highest in the axon. Thus, the somatodendritic gradient of R(m) was the reverse of that in pyramidal neurons. Further computational analysis revealed that these unique cable properties accelerate the time course of synaptic potentials at the soma in response to fast inputs, while boosting the efficacy of slow distal inputs. These properties will facilitate both rapid phasic and efficient tonic activation of BCs in hippocampal microcircuits.},
author = {Norenberg, Anja and Hua Hu and Vida, Imre and Bartos, Marlene and Peter Jonas},
journal = {PNAS},
number = {2},
pages = {894 -- 9},
publisher = {National Academy of Sciences},
title = {{Distinct nonuniform cable properties optimize rapid and efficient activation of fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons}},
doi = {10.1073/pnas.0910716107},
volume = {107},
year = {2010},
}
@article{3832,
abstract = {A recent paper by von Engelhardt et al. identifies a novel auxiliary subunit of native AMPARs, termedCKAMP44. Unlike other auxiliary subunits, CKAMP44 accelerates desensitization and prolongs recovery from desensitization. CKAMP44 is highly expressed in hippocampal dentate gyrus granule cells and decreases the paired-pulse ratio at perforant path input synapses. Thus, both principal and auxiliary AMPAR subunits control the time course of signaling at glutamatergic synapses.},
author = {Guzmán, José and Jonas, Peter M},
journal = {Neuron},
number = {1},
pages = {8 -- 10},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Beyond TARPs: The growing list of auxiliary AMPAR subunits}},
doi = {10.1016/j.neuron.2010.04.003},
volume = {66},
year = {2010},
}
@article{3834,
abstract = {Background
The chemical master equation (CME) is a system of ordinary differential equations that describes the evolution of a network of chemical reactions as a stochastic process. Its solution yields the probability density vector of the system at each point in time. Solving the CME numerically is in many cases computationally expensive or even infeasible as the number of reachable states can be very large or infinite. We introduce the sliding window method, which computes an approximate solution of the CME by performing a sequence of local analysis steps. In each step, only a manageable subset of states is considered, representing a "window" into the state space. In subsequent steps, the window follows the direction in which the probability mass moves, until the time period of interest has elapsed. We construct the window based on a deterministic approximation of the future behavior of the system by estimating upper and lower bounds on the populations of the chemical species.
Results
In order to show the effectiveness of our approach, we apply it to several examples previously described in the literature. The experimental results show that the proposed method speeds up the analysis considerably, compared to a global analysis, while still providing high accuracy.
Conclusions
The sliding window method is a novel approach to address the performance problems of numerical algorithms for the solution of the chemical master equation. The method efficiently approximates the probability distributions at the time points of interest for a variety of chemically reacting systems, including systems for which no upper bound on the population sizes of the chemical species is known a priori.},
author = {Wolf, Verena and Goel, Rushil and Mateescu, Maria and Henzinger, Thomas A},
journal = {BMC Systems Biology},
number = {42},
pages = {1 -- 19},
publisher = {BioMed Central},
title = {{Solving the chemical master equation using sliding windows}},
doi = {10.1186/1752-0509-4-42},
volume = {4},
year = {2010},
}
@inproceedings{3838,
abstract = {We present a numerical approximation technique for the analysis of continuous-time Markov chains that describe net- works of biochemical reactions and play an important role in the stochastic modeling of biological systems. Our approach is based on the construction of a stochastic hybrid model in which certain discrete random variables of the original Markov chain are approximated by continuous deterministic variables. We compute the solution of the stochastic hybrid model using a numerical algorithm that discretizes time and in each step performs a mutual update of the transient prob- ability distribution of the discrete stochastic variables and the values of the continuous deterministic variables. We im- plemented the algorithm and we demonstrate its usefulness and efficiency on several case studies from systems biology.},
author = {Henzinger, Thomas A and Mateescu, Maria and Mikeev, Linar and Wolf, Verena},
location = {Trento, Italy},
pages = {55 -- 65},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Hybrid numerical solution of the chemical master equation}},
doi = {10.1145/1839764.1839772},
year = {2010},
}
@inproceedings{3839,
abstract = {We present a loop property generation method for loops iterating over multi-dimensional arrays. When used on matrices, our method is able to infer their shapes (also called types), such as upper-triangular, diagonal, etc. To gen- erate loop properties, we first transform a nested loop iterating over a multi- dimensional array into an equivalent collection of unnested loops. Then, we in- fer quantified loop invariants for each unnested loop using a generalization of a recurrence-based invariant generation technique. These loop invariants give us conditions on matrices from which we can derive matrix types automatically us- ing theorem provers. Invariant generation is implemented in the software package Aligator and types are derived by theorem provers and SMT solvers, including Vampire and Z3. When run on the Java matrix package JAMA, our tool was able to infer automatically all matrix types describing the matrix shapes guaranteed by JAMA’s API.},
author = {Henzinger, Thomas A and Hottelier, Thibaud and Kovács, Laura and Voronkov, Andrei},
location = {Madrid, Spain},
pages = {163 -- 179},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Invariant and type inference for matrices}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-11319-2_14},
volume = {5944},
year = {2010},
}
@article{3842,
abstract = {Within systems biology there is an increasing interest in the stochastic behavior of biochemical reaction networks. An appropriate stochastic description is provided by the chemical master equation, which represents a continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC). The uniformization technique is an efficient method to compute probability distributions of a CTMC if the number of states is manageable. However, the size of a CTMC that represents a biochemical reaction network is usually far beyond what is feasible. In this paper we present an on-the-fly variant of uniformization, where we improve the original algorithm at the cost of a small approximation error. By means of several examples, we show that our approach is particularly well-suited for biochemical reaction networks.},
author = {Didier, Frédéric and Henzinger, Thomas A and Mateescu, Maria and Wolf, Verena},
journal = {IET Systems Biology},
number = {6},
pages = {441 -- 452},
publisher = {Institution of Engineering and Technology},
title = {{Fast adaptive uniformization of the chemical master equation}},
doi = {10.1049/iet-syb.2010.0005},
volume = {4},
year = {2010},
}
@inproceedings{3845,
abstract = {This paper presents Aligators, a tool for the generation of universally quantified array invariants. Aligators leverages recurrence solving and algebraic techniques to carry out inductive reasoning over array content. The Aligators’ loop extraction module allows treatment of multi-path loops by exploiting their commutativity and serializability properties. Our experience in applying Aligators on a collection of loops from open source software projects indicates the applicability of recurrence and algebraic solving techniques for reasoning about arrays.},
author = {Henzinger, Thomas A and Hottelier, Thibaud and Kovács, Laura and Rybalchenko, Andrey},
location = {Yogyakarta, Indonesia},
pages = {348 -- 356},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Aligators for arrays}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-16242-8_25},
volume = {6397},
year = {2010},
}
@inproceedings{3847,
abstract = {The importance of stochasticity within biological systems has been shown repeatedly during the last years and has raised the need for efficient stochastic tools. We present SABRE, a tool for stochastic analysis of biochemical reaction networks. SABRE implements fast adaptive uniformization (FAU), a direct numerical approximation algorithm for computing transient solutions of biochemical reaction networks. Biochemical reactions networks represent biological systems studied at a molecular level and these reactions can be modeled as transitions of a Markov chain. SABRE accepts as input the formalism of guarded commands, which it interprets either as continuous-time or as discrete-time Markov chains. Besides operating in a stochastic mode, SABRE may also perform a deterministic analysis by directly computing a mean-field approximation of the system under study. We illustrate the different functionalities of SABRE by means of biological case studies.},
author = {Didier, Frédéric and Henzinger, Thomas A and Mateescu, Maria and Wolf, Verena},
location = {Williamsburg, USA},
pages = {193 -- 194},
publisher = {IEEE},
title = {{SABRE: A tool for the stochastic analysis of biochemical reaction networks}},
doi = {10.1109/QEST.2010.33},
year = {2010},
}
@inproceedings{3849,
abstract = {Using ideas from persistent homology, the robustness of a level set of a real-valued function is defined in terms of the magnitude of the perturbation necessary to kill the classes. Prior work has shown that the homology and robustness information can be read off the extended persistence diagram of the function. This paper extends these results to a non-uniform error model in which perturbations vary in their magnitude across the domain.},
author = {Bendich, Paul and Edelsbrunner, Herbert and Kerber, Michael and Patel, Amit},
location = {Brno, Czech Republic},
pages = {12 -- 23},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Persistent homology under non-uniform error}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-15155-2_2},
volume = {6281},
year = {2010},
}
@article{385,
abstract = {Scanning tunneling spectroscopy studies on high-quality Bi2Te3 crystals exhibit perfect correspondence to angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy data, hence enabling identification of different regimes measured in the local density of states (LDOS). Oscillations of LDOS near a step are analyzed. Within the main part of the surface band oscillations are strongly damped, supporting the hypothesis of topological protection. At higher energies, as the surface band becomes concave, oscillations appear, dispersing with a wave vector that may result from a hexagonal warping term. },
author = {Alpichshev, Zhanybek and Analytis, James and Chu, Jiunhaw and Fisher, Ian and Chen, Yulin and Shen, Zhixun and Fang, Aiping and Kapitulnik, Aharon},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
number = {1},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {{STM imaging of electronic waves on the surface of Bi2Te3 Topologically protected surface states and hexagonal warping effects}},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.016401},
volume = {104},
year = {2010},
}
@inproceedings{3851,
abstract = {Energy parity games are infinite two-player turn-based games played on weighted graphs. The objective of the game combines a (qualitative) parity condition with the (quantitative) requirement that the sum of the weights (i.e., the level of energy in the game) must remain positive. Beside their own interest in the design and synthesis of resource-constrained omega-regular specifications, energy parity games provide one of the simplest model of games with combined qualitative and quantitative objective. Our main results are as follows: (a) exponential memory is sufficient and may be necessary for winning strategies in energy parity games; (b) the problem of deciding the winner in energy parity games can be solved in NP ∩ coNP; and (c) we give an algorithm to solve energy parity by reduction to energy games. We also show that the problem of deciding the winner in energy parity games is polynomially equivalent to the problem of deciding the winner in mean-payoff parity games, which can thus be solved in NP ∩ coNP. As a consequence we also obtain a conceptually simple algorithm to solve mean-payoff parity games.},
author = {Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Doyen, Laurent},
location = {Bordeaux, France},
pages = {599 -- 610},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Energy parity games}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-14162-1_50},
volume = {6199},
year = {2010},
}
@inproceedings{3852,
abstract = {We introduce two-level discounted games played by two players on a perfect-information stochastic game graph. The upper level game is a discounted game and the lower level game is an undiscounted reachability game. Two-level games model hierarchical and sequential decision making under uncertainty across different time scales. We show the existence of pure memoryless optimal strategies for both players and an ordered field property for such games. We show that if there is only one player (Markov decision processes), then the values can be computed in polynomial time. It follows that whether the value of a player is equal to a given rational constant in two-level discounted games can be decided in NP intersected coNP. We also give an alternate strategy improvement algorithm to compute the value. },
author = {Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Majumdar, Ritankar},
location = {Minori, Italy},
pages = {22 -- 29},
publisher = {EPTCS},
title = {{Discounting in games across time scales}},
doi = {10.4204/EPTCS.25.6},
volume = {25},
year = {2010},
}
@inproceedings{3853,
abstract = {Quantitative languages are an extension of boolean languages that assign to each word a real number. Mean-payoff automata are finite automata with numerical weights on transitions that assign to each infinite path the long-run average of the transition weights. When the mode of branching of the automaton is deterministic, nondeterministic, or alternating, the corresponding class of quantitative languages is not robust as it is not closed under the pointwise operations of max, min, sum, and numerical complement. Nondeterministic and alternating mean-payoff automata are not decidable either, as the quantitative generalization of the problems of universality and language inclusion is undecidable. We introduce a new class of quantitative languages, defined by mean-payoff automaton expressions, which is robust and decidable: it is closed under the four pointwise operations, and we show that all decision problems are decidable for this class. Mean-payoff automaton expressions subsume deterministic meanpayoff automata, and we show that they have expressive power incomparable to nondeterministic and alternating mean-payoff automata. We also present for the first time an algorithm to compute distance between two quantitative languages, and in our case the quantitative languages are given as mean-payoff automaton expressions.},
author = {Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Doyen, Laurent and Edelsbrunner, Herbert and Henzinger, Thomas A and Rannou, Philippe},
location = {Paris, France},
pages = {269 -- 283},
publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik},
title = {{Mean-payoff automaton expressions}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-15375-4_19},
volume = {6269},
year = {2010},
}
@inproceedings{3855,
abstract = {We study observation-based strategies for partially-observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) with parity objectives. An observation-based strategy relies on partial information about the history of a play, namely, on the past sequence of observations. We consider qualitative analysis problems: given a POMDP with a parity objective, decide whether there exists an observation-based strategy to achieve the objective with probability 1 (almost-sure winning), or with positive probability (positive winning). Our main results are twofold. First, we present a complete picture of the computational complexity of the qualitative analysis problem for POMDPs with parity objectives and its subclasses: safety, reachability, Büchi, and coBüchi objectives. We establish several upper and lower bounds that were not known in the literature. Second, we give optimal bounds (matching upper and lower bounds) for the memory required by pure and randomized observation-based strategies for each class of objectives.},
author = {Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Doyen, Laurent and Henzinger, Thomas A},
location = {Brno, Czech Republic},
pages = {258 -- 269},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Qualitative analysis of partially-observable Markov Decision Processes}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-15155-2_24},
volume = {6281},
year = {2010},
}
@inproceedings{3856,
abstract = {We consider two-player zero-sum games on graphs. These games can be classified on the basis of the information of the players and on the mode of interaction between them. On the basis of information the classification is as follows: (a) partial-observation (both players have partial view of the game); (b) one-sided complete-observation (one player has complete observation); and (c) complete-observation (both players have complete view of the game). On the basis of mode of interaction we have the following classification: (a) concurrent (players interact simultaneously); and (b) turn-based (players interact in turn). The two sources of randomness in these games are randomness in transition function and randomness in strategies. In general, randomized strategies are more powerful than deterministic strategies, and randomness in transitions gives more general classes of games. We present a complete characterization for the classes of games where randomness is not helpful in: (a) the transition function (probabilistic transition can be simulated by deterministic transition); and (b) strategies (pure strategies are as powerful as randomized strategies). As consequence of our characterization we obtain new undecidability results for these games. },
author = {Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Doyen, Laurent and Gimbert, Hugo and Henzinger, Thomas A},
location = {Brno, Czech Republic},
pages = {246 -- 257},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Randomness for free}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-15155-2_23},
volume = {6281},
year = {2010},
}
@inproceedings{3858,
abstract = {We consider two-player zero-sum games on graphs. On the basis of the information available to the players these games can be classified as follows: (a) partial-observation (both players have partial view of the game); (b) one-sided partial-observation (one player has partial-observation and the other player has complete-observation); and (c) complete-observation (both players have com- plete view of the game). We survey the complexity results for the problem of de- ciding the winner in various classes of partial-observation games with ω-regular winning conditions specified as parity objectives. We present a reduction from the class of parity objectives that depend on sequence of states of the game to the sub-class of parity objectives that only depend on the sequence of observations. We also establish that partial-observation acyclic games are PSPACE-complete.},
author = {Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Doyen, Laurent},
location = {Yogyakarta, Indonesia},
pages = {1 -- 14},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{The complexity of partial-observation parity games}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-16242-8_1},
volume = {6397},
year = {2010},
}
@inproceedings{3860,
abstract = {In mean-payoff games, the objective of the protagonist is to ensure that the limit average of an infinite sequence of numeric weights is nonnegative. In energy games, the objective is to ensure that the running sum of weights is always nonnegative. Generalized mean-payoff and energy games replace individual weights by tuples, and the limit average (resp. running sum) of each coordinate must be (resp. remain) nonnegative. These games have applications in the synthesis of resource-bounded processes with multiple resources. We prove the finite-memory determinacy of generalized energy games and show the inter- reducibility of generalized mean-payoff and energy games for finite-memory strategies. We also improve the computational complexity for solving both classes of games with finite-memory strategies: while the previously best known upper bound was EXPSPACE, and no lower bound was known, we give an optimal coNP-complete bound. For memoryless strategies, we show that the problem of deciding the existence of a winning strategy for the protagonist is NP-complete.},
author = {Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Doyen, Laurent and Henzinger, Thomas A and Raskin, Jean},
location = {Chennai, India},
pages = {505 -- 516},
publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik},
title = {{Generalized mean-payoff and energy games}},
doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2010.505},
volume = {8},
year = {2010},
}
@article{3861,
abstract = {We introduce strategy logic, a logic that treats strategies in two-player games as explicit first-order objects. The explicit treatment of strategies allows us to specify properties of nonzero-sum games in a simple and natural way. We show that the one-alternation fragment of strategy logic is strong enough to express the existence of Nash equilibria and secure equilibria, and subsumes other logics that were introduced to reason about games, such as ATL, ATL*, and game logic. We show that strategy logic is decidable, by constructing tree automata that recognize sets of strategies. While for the general logic, our decision procedure is nonelementary, for the simple fragment that is used above we show that the complexity is polynomial in the size of the game graph and optimal in the size of the formula (ranging from polynomial to 2EXPTIME depending on the form of the formula).},
author = {Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Henzinger, Thomas A and Piterman, Nir},
journal = {Information and Computation},
number = {6},
pages = {677 -- 693},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Strategy logic}},
doi = {10.1016/j.ic.2009.07.004},
volume = {208},
year = {2010},
}
@article{3862,
abstract = {Quantitative generalizations of classical languages, which assign to each word a real number instead of a Boolean value, have applications in modeling resource-constrained computation. We use weighted automata (finite automata with transition weights) to define several natural classes of quantitative languages over finite and infinite words; in particular, the real value of an infinite run is computed as the maximum, limsup, liminf, limit average, or discounted sum of the transition weights. We define the classical decision problems of automata theory (emptiness, universality, language inclusion, and language equivalence) in the quantitative setting and study their computational complexity. As the decidability of the language-inclusion problem remains open for some classes of weighted automata, we introduce a notion of quantitative simulation that is decidable and implies language inclusion. We also give a complete characterization of the expressive power of the various classes of weighted automata. In particular, we show that most classes of weighted automata cannot be determinized.},
author = {Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Doyen, Laurent and Henzinger, Thomas A},
journal = {ACM Transactions on Computational Logic (TOCL)},
number = {4},
publisher = {ACM},
title = {{Quantitative languages}},
doi = {10.1145/1805950.1805953},
volume = {11},
year = {2010},
}
@article{3863,
abstract = {We consider two-player parity games with imperfect information in which strategies rely on observations that provide imperfect information about the history of a play. To solve such games, i.e., to determine the winning regions of players and corresponding winning strategies, one can use the subset construction to build an equivalent perfect-information game. Recently, an algorithm that avoids the inefficient subset construction has been proposed. The algorithm performs a fixed-point computation in a lattice of antichains, thus maintaining a succinct representation of state sets. However, this representation does not allow to recover winning strategies. In this paper, we build on the antichain approach to develop an algorithm for constructing the winning strategies in parity games of imperfect information. One major obstacle in adapting the classical procedure is that the complementation of attractor sets would break the invariant of downward-closedness on which the antichain representation relies. We overcome this difficulty by decomposing problem instances recursively into games with a combination of reachability, safety, and simpler parity conditions. We also report on an experimental implementation of our algorithm: to our knowledge, this is the first implementation of a procedure for solving imperfect-information parity games on graphs.},
author = {Berwanger, Dietmar and Chatterjee, Krishnendu and De Wulf, Martin and Doyen, Laurent and Henzinger, Thomas A},
journal = {Information and Computation},
number = {10},
pages = {1206 -- 1220},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Strategy construction for parity games with imperfect information}},
doi = {10.1016/j.ic.2009.09.006},
volume = {208},
year = {2010},
}
@inproceedings{3864,
abstract = {Often one has a preference order among the different systems that satisfy a given specification. Under a probabilistic assumption about the possible inputs, such a preference order is naturally expressed by a weighted automaton, which assigns to each word a value, such that a system is preferred if it generates a higher expected value. We solve the following optimal-synthesis problem: given an omega-regular specification, a Markov chain that describes the distribution of inputs, and a weighted automaton that measures how well a system satisfies the given specification tinder the given input assumption, synthesize a system that optimizes the measured value. For safety specifications and measures that are defined by mean-payoff automata, the optimal-synthesis problem amounts to finding a strategy in a Markov decision process (MDP) that is optimal for a long-run average reward objective, which can be done in polynomial time. For general omega-regular specifications, the solution rests on a new, polynomial-time algorithm for computing optimal strategies in MDPs with mean-payoff parity objectives. We present some experimental results showing optimal systems that were automatically generated in this way.},
author = {Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Henzinger, Thomas A and Jobstmann, Barbara and Singh, Rohit},
location = {Edinburgh, United Kingdom},
pages = {380 -- 395},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Measuring and synthesizing systems in probabilistic environments}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-14295-6_34},
volume = {6174},
year = {2010},
}