@article{5749,
abstract = {Parasitism creates selection for resistance mechanisms in host populations and is hypothesized to promote increased host evolvability. However, the influence of these traits on host evolution when parasites are no longer present is unclear. We used experimental evolution and whole-genome sequencing of Escherichia coli to determine the effects of past and present exposure to parasitic viruses (phages) on the spread of mutator alleles, resistance, and bacterial competitive fitness. We found that mutator alleles spread rapidly during adaptation to any of four different phage species, and this pattern was even more pronounced with multiple phages present simultaneously. However, hypermutability did not detectably accelerate adaptation in the absence of phages and recovery of fitness costs associated with resistance. Several lineages evolved phage resistance through elevated mucoidy, and during subsequent evolution in phage-free conditions they rapidly reverted to nonmucoid, phage-susceptible phenotypes. Genome sequencing revealed that this phenotypic reversion was achieved by additional genetic changes rather than by genotypic reversion of the initial resistance mutations. Insertion sequence (IS) elements played a key role in both the acquisition of resistance and adaptation in the absence of parasites; unlike single nucleotide polymorphisms, IS insertions were not more frequent in mutator lineages. Our results provide a genetic explanation for rapid reversion of mucoidy, a phenotype observed in other bacterial species including human pathogens. Moreover, this demonstrates that the types of genetic change underlying adaptation to fitness costs, and consequently the impact of evolvability mechanisms such as increased point-mutation rates, depend critically on the mechanism of resistance.},
author = {Wielgoss, Sébastien and Bergmiller, Tobias and Bischofberger, Anna M. and Hall, Alex R.},
issn = {0737-4038},
journal = {Molecular Biology and Evolution},
number = {3},
pages = {770--782},
publisher = {Oxford University Press},
title = {{Adaptation to Parasites and Costs of Parasite Resistance in Mutator and Nonmutator Bacteria}},
doi = {10.1093/molbev/msv270},
volume = {33},
year = {2015},
}
@inproceedings{1607,
abstract = {We consider the core algorithmic problems related to verification of systems with respect to three classical quantitative properties, namely, the mean-payoff property, the ratio property, and the minimum initial credit for energy property. The algorithmic problem given a graph and a quantitative property asks to compute the optimal value (the infimum value over all traces) from every node of the graph. We consider graphs with constant treewidth, and it is well-known that the control-flow graphs of most programs have constant treewidth. Let n denote the number of nodes of a graph, m the number of edges (for constant treewidth graphs m=O(n)) and W the largest absolute value of the weights. Our main theoretical results are as follows. First, for constant treewidth graphs we present an algorithm that approximates the mean-payoff value within a multiplicative factor of ϵ in time O(n⋅log(n/ϵ)) and linear space, as compared to the classical algorithms that require quadratic time. Second, for the ratio property we present an algorithm that for constant treewidth graphs works in time O(n⋅log(|a⋅b|))=O(n⋅log(n⋅W)), when the output is ab, as compared to the previously best known algorithm with running time O(n2⋅log(n⋅W)). Third, for the minimum initial credit problem we show that (i) for general graphs the problem can be solved in O(n2⋅m) time and the associated decision problem can be solved in O(n⋅m) time, improving the previous known O(n3⋅m⋅log(n⋅W)) and O(n2⋅m) bounds, respectively; and (ii) for constant treewidth graphs we present an algorithm that requires O(n⋅logn) time, improving the previous known O(n4⋅log(n⋅W)) bound. We have implemented some of our algorithms and show that they present a significant speedup on standard benchmarks.},
author = {Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus and Pavlogiannis, Andreas},
location = {San Francisco, CA, USA},
pages = {140 -- 157},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Faster algorithms for quantitative verification in constant treewidth graphs}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-21690-4_9},
volume = {9206},
year = {2015},
}
@article{9532,
abstract = {Genomic imprinting, an inherently epigenetic phenomenon defined by parent of origin-dependent gene expression, is observed in mammals and flowering plants. Genome-scale surveys of imprinted expression and the underlying differential epigenetic marks have led to the discovery of hundreds of imprinted plant genes and confirmed DNA and histone methylation as key regulators of plant imprinting. However, the biological roles of the vast majority of imprinted plant genes are unknown, and the evolutionary forces shaping plant imprinting remain rather opaque. Here, we review the mechanisms of plant genomic imprinting and discuss theories of imprinting evolution and biological significance in light of recent findings.},
author = {Rodrigues, Jessica A. and ZILBERMAN, Daniel},
issn = {1549-5477},
journal = {Genes and Development},
number = {24},
pages = {2517–2531},
publisher = {Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press},
title = {{Evolution and function of genomic imprinting in plants}},
doi = {10.1101/gad.269902.115},
volume = {29},
year = {2015},
}
@article{9575,
abstract = {We give several results showing that different discrete structures typically gain certain spanning substructures (in particular, Hamilton cycles) after a modest random perturbation. First, we prove that adding linearly many random edges to a dense k-uniform hypergraph ensures the (asymptotically almost sure) existence of a perfect matching or a loose Hamilton cycle. The proof involves an interesting application of Szemerédi's Regularity Lemma, which might be independently useful. We next prove that digraphs with certain strong expansion properties are pancyclic, and use this to show that adding a linear number of random edges typically makes a dense digraph pancyclic. Finally, we prove that perturbing a certain (minimum-degree-dependent) number of random edges in a tournament typically ensures the existence of multiple edge-disjoint Hamilton cycles. All our results are tight.},
author = {Krivelevich, Michael and Kwan, Matthew Alan and Sudakov, Benny},
issn = {1571-0653},
journal = {Electronic Notes in Discrete Mathematics},
pages = {181--187},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Cycles and matchings in randomly perturbed digraphs and hypergraphs}},
doi = {10.1016/j.endm.2015.06.027},
volume = {49},
year = {2015},
}
@article{1619,
abstract = {The emergence of drug resistant pathogens is a serious public health problem. It is a long-standing goal to predict rates of resistance evolution and design optimal treatment strategies accordingly. To this end, it is crucial to reveal the underlying causes of drug-specific differences in the evolutionary dynamics leading to resistance. However, it remains largely unknown why the rates of resistance evolution via spontaneous mutations and the diversity of mutational paths vary substantially between drugs. Here we comprehensively quantify the distribution of fitness effects (DFE) of mutations, a key determinant of evolutionary dynamics, in the presence of eight antibiotics representing the main modes of action. Using precise high-throughput fitness measurements for genome-wide Escherichia coli gene deletion strains, we find that the width of the DFE varies dramatically between antibiotics and, contrary to conventional wisdom, for some drugs the DFE width is lower than in the absence of stress. We show that this previously underappreciated divergence in DFE width among antibiotics is largely caused by their distinct drug-specific dose-response characteristics. Unlike the DFE, the magnitude of the changes in tolerated drug concentration resulting from genome-wide mutations is similar for most drugs but exceptionally small for the antibiotic nitrofurantoin, i.e., mutations generally have considerably smaller resistance effects for nitrofurantoin than for other drugs. A population genetics model predicts that resistance evolution for drugs with this property is severely limited and confined to reproducible mutational paths. We tested this prediction in laboratory evolution experiments using the “morbidostat”, a device for evolving bacteria in well-controlled drug environments. Nitrofurantoin resistance indeed evolved extremely slowly via reproducible mutations—an almost paradoxical behavior since this drug causes DNA damage and increases the mutation rate. Overall, we identified novel quantitative characteristics of the evolutionary landscape that provide the conceptual foundation for predicting the dynamics of drug resistance evolution.},
author = {Chevereau, Guillaume and Dravecka, Marta and Batur, Tugce and Guvenek, Aysegul and Ayhan, Dilay and Toprak, Erdal and Bollenbach, Mark Tobias},
journal = {PLoS Biology},
number = {11},
publisher = {Public Library of Science},
title = {{Quantifying the determinants of evolutionary dynamics leading to drug resistance}},
doi = {10.1371/journal.pbio.1002299},
volume = {13},
year = {2015},
}
@article{2261,
abstract = {To reveal the full potential of human pluripotent stem cells, new methods for rapid, site-specific genomic engineering are needed. Here, we describe a system for precise genetic modification of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We identified a novel human locus, H11, located in a safe, intergenic, transcriptionally active region of chromosome 22, as the recipient site, to provide robust, ubiquitous expression of inserted genes. Recipient cell lines were established by site-specific placement of a ‘landing pad’ cassette carrying attP sites for phiC31 and Bxb1 integrases at the H11 locus by spontaneous or TALEN-assisted homologous recombination. Dual integrase cassette exchange (DICE) mediated by phiC31 and Bxb1 integrases was used to insert genes of interest flanked by phiC31 and Bxb1 attB sites at the H11 locus, replacing the landing pad. This system provided complete control over content, direction and copy number of inserted genes, with a specificity of 100%. A series of genes, including mCherry and various combinations of the neural transcription factors LMX1a, FOXA2 and OTX2, were inserted in recipient cell lines derived from H9 ESC, as well as iPSC lines derived from a Parkinson’s disease patient and a normal sibling control. The DICE system offers rapid, efficient and precise gene insertion in ESC and iPSC and is particularly well suited for repeated modifications of the same locus.},
author = {Zhu, Fangfang and Gamboa, Matthew and Farruggio, Alfonso and Hippenmeyer, Simon and Tasic, Bosiljka and Schüle, Birgitt and Chen Tsai, Yanru and Calos, Michele},
journal = {Nucleic Acids Research},
number = {5},
publisher = {Oxford University Press},
title = {{DICE, an efficient system for iterative genomic editing in human pluripotent stem cells}},
doi = {10.1093/nar/gkt1290},
volume = {42},
year = {2014},
}
@inproceedings{2275,
abstract = {Energies with high-order non-submodular interactions have been shown to be very useful in vision due to their high modeling power. Optimization of such energies, however, is generally NP-hard. A naive approach that works for small problem instances is exhaustive search, that is, enumeration of all possible labelings of the underlying graph. We propose a general minimization approach for large graphs based on enumeration of labelings of certain small patches.
This partial enumeration technique reduces complex high-order energy formulations to pairwise Constraint Satisfaction Problems with unary costs (uCSP), which can be efficiently solved using standard methods like TRW-S. Our approach outperforms a number of existing state-of-the-art algorithms on well known difficult problems (e.g. curvature regularization, stereo, deconvolution); it gives near global minimum and better speed.
Our main application of interest is curvature regularization. In the context of segmentation, our partial enumeration technique allows to evaluate curvature directly on small patches using a novel integral geometry approach.
},
author = {Olsson, Carl and Ulen, Johannes and Boykov, Yuri and Kolmogorov, Vladimir},
location = {Sydney, Australia},
pages = {2936 -- 2943},
publisher = {IEEE},
title = {{Partial enumeration and curvature regularization}},
doi = {10.1109/ICCV.2013.365},
year = {2014},
}
@article{2281,
abstract = {We consider two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates with attractive interaction, described by the Gross-Pitaevskii functional. Minimizers of this functional exist only if the interaction strength a satisfies {Mathematical expression}, where Q is the unique positive radial solution of {Mathematical expression} in {Mathematical expression}. We present a detailed analysis of the behavior of minimizers as a approaches a*, where all the mass concentrates at a global minimum of the trapping potential.},
author = {Guo, Yujin and Seiringer, Robert},
journal = {Letters in Mathematical Physics},
number = {2},
pages = {141 -- 156},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{On the mass concentration for Bose-Einstein condensates with attractive interactions}},
doi = {10.1007/s11005-013-0667-9},
volume = {104},
year = {2014},
}
@article{2285,
abstract = {GABAergic inhibitory interneurons control fundamental aspects of neuronal network function. Their functional roles are assumed to be defined by the identity of their input synapses, the architecture of their dendritic tree, the passive and active membrane properties and finally the nature of their postsynaptic targets. Indeed, interneurons display a high degree of morphological and physiological heterogeneity. However, whether their morphological and physiological characteristics are correlated and whether interneuron diversity can be described by a continuum of GABAergic cell types or by distinct classes has remained unclear. Here we perform a detailed morphological and physiological characterization of GABAergic cells in the dentate gyrus, the input region of the hippocampus. To achieve an unbiased and efficient sampling and classification we used knock-in mice expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67)-positive neurons and performed cluster analysis. We identified five interneuron classes, each of them characterized by a distinct set of anatomical and physiological parameters. Cross-correlation analysis further revealed a direct relation between morphological and physiological properties indicating that dentate gyrus interneurons fall into functionally distinct classes which may differentially control neuronal network activity.},
author = {Hosp, Jonas and Strüber, Michael and Yanagawa, Yuchio and Obata, Kunihiko and Vida, Imre and Jonas, Peter M and Bartos, Marlene},
journal = {Hippocampus},
number = {2},
pages = {189 -- 203},
publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
title = {{Morpho-physiological criteria divide dentate gyrus interneurons into classes}},
doi = {10.1002/hipo.22214},
volume = {23},
year = {2014},
}
@article{2407,
abstract = {Two definitions of the effective mass of a particle interacting with a quantum field, such as a polaron, are considered and shown to be equal in models similar to the Fröhlich polaron model. These are: 1. the mass defined by the low momentum energy E(P)≈E(0)+P2/2 M of the translation invariant system constrained to have momentum P and 2. the mass M of a simple particle in an arbitrary slowly varying external potential, V, described by the nonrelativistic Schrödinger equation, whose ground state energy equals that of the combined particle/field system in a bound state in the same V.},
author = {Lieb, Élliott and Seiringer, Robert},
journal = {Journal of Statistical Physics},
number = {1-2},
pages = {51 -- 57},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Equivalence of two definitions of the effective mass of a polaron}},
doi = {10.1007/s10955-013-0791-z},
volume = {154},
year = {2014},
}