TY - JOUR
AB - Let g be a complex semisimple Lie algebra. We give a classification of contravariant forms on the nondegenerate Whittaker g-modules Y(χ,η) introduced by Kostant. We prove that the set of all contravariant forms on Y(χ,η) forms a vector space whose dimension is given by the cardinality of the Weyl group of g. We also describe a procedure for parabolically inducing contravariant forms. As a corollary, we deduce the existence of the Shapovalov form on a Verma module, and provide a formula for the dimension of the space of contravariant forms on the degenerate Whittaker modules M(χ,η) introduced by McDowell.
AU - Brown, Adam
AU - Romanov, Anna
ID - 8773
IS - 1
JF - Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society
KW - Applied Mathematics
KW - General Mathematics
SN - 0002-9939
TI - Contravariant forms on Whittaker modules
VL - 149
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We study optimal election sequences for repeatedly selecting a (very) small group of leaders among a set of participants (players) with publicly known unique ids. In every time slot, every player has to select exactly one player that it considers to be the current leader, oblivious to the selection of the other players, but with the overarching goal of maximizing a given parameterized global (“social”) payoff function in the limit. We consider a quite generic model, where the local payoff achieved by a given player depends, weighted by some arbitrary but fixed real parameter, on the number of different leaders chosen in a round, the number of players that choose the given player as the leader, and whether the chosen leader has changed w.r.t. the previous round or not. The social payoff can be the maximum, average or minimum local payoff of the players. Possible applications include quite diverse examples such as rotating coordinator-based distributed algorithms and long-haul formation flying of social birds. Depending on the weights and the particular social payoff, optimal sequences can be very different, from simple round-robin where all players chose the same leader alternatingly every time slot to very exotic patterns, where a small group of leaders (at most 2) is elected in every time slot. Moreover, we study the question if and when a single player would not benefit w.r.t. its local payoff when deviating from the given optimal sequence, i.e., when our optimal sequences are Nash equilibria in the restricted strategy space of oblivious strategies. As this is the case for many parameterizations of our model, our results reveal that no punishment is needed to make it rational for the players to optimize the social payoff.
AU - Zeiner, Martin
AU - Schmid, Ulrich
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
ID - 8793
IS - 1
JF - Discrete Applied Mathematics
SN - 0166218X
TI - Optimal strategies for selecting coordinators
VL - 289
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Area-dependent quantum field theory is a modification of two-dimensional topological quantum field theory, where one equips each connected component of a bordism with a positive real number—interpreted as area—which behaves additively under glueing. As opposed to topological theories, in area-dependent theories the state spaces can be infinite-dimensional. We introduce the notion of regularised Frobenius algebras in Hilbert spaces and show that area-dependent theories are in one-to-one correspondence to commutative regularised Frobenius algebras. We also provide a state sum construction for area-dependent theories. Our main example is two-dimensional Yang–Mills theory with compact gauge group, which we treat in detail.
AU - Runkel, Ingo
AU - Szegedy, Lorant
ID - 8816
IS - 1
JF - Communications in Mathematical Physics
SN - 00103616
TI - Area-dependent quantum field theory
VL - 381
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Plants are able to orient their growth according to gravity, which ultimately controls both shoot and root architecture.1 Gravitropism is a dynamic process whereby gravistimulation induces the asymmetric distribution of the plant hormone auxin, leading to asymmetric growth, organ bending, and subsequent reset of auxin distribution back to the original pre-gravistimulation situation.1, 2, 3 Differential auxin accumulation during the gravitropic response depends on the activity of polarly localized PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin-efflux carriers.1, 2, 3, 4 In particular, the timing of this dynamic response is regulated by PIN2,5,6 but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that MEMBRANE ASSOCIATED KINASE REGULATOR2 (MAKR2) controls the pace of the root gravitropic response. We found that MAKR2 is required for the PIN2 asymmetry during gravitropism by acting as a negative regulator of the cell-surface signaling mediated by the receptor-like kinase TRANSMEMBRANE KINASE1 (TMK1).2,7, 8, 9, 10 Furthermore, we show that the MAKR2 inhibitory effect on TMK1 signaling is antagonized by auxin itself, which triggers rapid MAKR2 membrane dissociation in a TMK1-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that the timing of the root gravitropic response is orchestrated by the reversible inhibition of the TMK1 signaling pathway at the cell surface.
AU - Marquès-Bueno, MM
AU - Armengot, L
AU - Noack, LC
AU - Bareille, J
AU - Rodriguez Solovey, Lesia
AU - Platre, MP
AU - Bayle, V
AU - Liu, M
AU - Opdenacker, D
AU - Vanneste, S
AU - Möller, BK
AU - Nimchuk, ZL
AU - Beeckman, T
AU - Caño-Delgado, AI
AU - Friml, Jiří
AU - Jaillais, Y
ID - 8824
IS - 1
JF - Current Biology
SN - 0960-9822
TI - Auxin-regulated reversible inhibition of TMK1 signaling by MAKR2 modulates the dynamics of root gravitropism
VL - 31
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Novelty facilitates formation of memories. The detection of novelty and storage of contextual memories are both mediated by the hippocampus, yet the mechanisms that link these two functions remain to be defined. Dentate granule cells (GCs) of the dorsal hippocampus fire upon novelty exposure forming engrams of contextual memory. However, their key excitatory inputs from the entorhinal cortex are not responsive to novelty and are insufficient to make dorsal GCs fire reliably. Here we uncover a powerful glutamatergic pathway to dorsal GCs from ventral hippocampal mossy cells (MCs) that relays novelty, and is necessary and sufficient for driving dorsal GCs activation. Furthermore, manipulation of ventral MCs activity bidirectionally regulates novelty-induced contextual memory acquisition. Our results show that ventral MCs activity controls memory formation through an intra-hippocampal interaction mechanism gated by novelty.
AU - Fredes Tolorza, Felipe A
AU - Silva Sifuentes, Maria A
AU - Koppensteiner, Peter
AU - Kobayashi, Kenta
AU - Jösch, Maximilian A
AU - Shigemoto, Ryuichi
ID - 7551
IS - 1
JF - Current Biology
TI - Ventro-dorsal hippocampal pathway gates novelty-induced contextual memory formation
VL - 31
ER -