TY - JOUR
AB - Practical quantum networks require low-loss and noise-resilient optical interconnects as well as non-Gaussian resources for entanglement distillation and distributed quantum computation. The latter could be provided by superconducting circuits but existing solutions to interface the microwave and optical domains lack either scalability or efficiency, and in most cases the conversion noise is not known. In this work we utilize the unique opportunities of silicon photonics, cavity optomechanics and superconducting circuits to demonstrate a fully integrated, coherent transducer interfacing the microwave X and the telecom S bands with a total (internal) bidirectional transduction efficiency of 1.2% (135%) at millikelvin temperatures. The coupling relies solely on the radiation pressure interaction mediated by the femtometer-scale motion of two silicon nanobeams reaching a Vπ as low as 16 μV for sub-nanowatt pump powers. Without the associated optomechanical gain, we achieve a total (internal) pure conversion efficiency of up to 0.019% (1.6%), relevant for future noise-free operation on this qubit-compatible platform.
AU - Arnold, Georg M
AU - Wulf, Matthias
AU - Barzanjeh, Shabir
AU - Redchenko, Elena
AU - Rueda Sanchez, Alfredo R
AU - Hease, William J
AU - Hassani, Farid
AU - Fink, Johannes M
ID - 8529
JF - Nature Communications
KW - General Biochemistry
KW - Genetics and Molecular Biology
KW - General Physics and Astronomy
KW - General Chemistry
SN - 2041-1723
TI - Converting microwave and telecom photons with a silicon photonic nanomechanical interface
VL - 11
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The molecular anatomy of synapses defines their characteristics in transmission and plasticity. Precise measurements of the number and distribution of synaptic proteins are important for our understanding of synapse heterogeneity within and between brain regions. Freeze–fracture replica immunogold electron microscopy enables us to analyze them quantitatively on a two-dimensional membrane surface. Here, we introduce Darea software, which utilizes deep learning for analysis of replica images and demonstrate its usefulness for quick measurements of the pre- and postsynaptic areas, density and distribution of gold particles at synapses in a reproducible manner. We used Darea for comparing glutamate receptor and calcium channel distributions between hippocampal CA3-CA1 spine synapses on apical and basal dendrites, which differ in signaling pathways involved in synaptic plasticity. We found that apical synapses express a higher density of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors and a stronger increase of AMPA receptors with synaptic size, while basal synapses show a larger increase in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors with size. Interestingly, AMPA and NMDA receptors are segregated within postsynaptic sites and negatively correlated in density among both apical and basal synapses. In the presynaptic sites, Cav2.1 voltage-gated calcium channels show similar densities in apical and basal synapses with distributions consistent with an exclusion zone model of calcium channel-release site topography.
AU - Kleindienst, David
AU - Montanaro-Punzengruber, Jacqueline-Claire
AU - Bhandari, Pradeep
AU - Case, Matthew J
AU - Fukazawa, Yugo
AU - Shigemoto, Ryuichi
ID - 8532
IS - 18
JF - International Journal of Molecular Sciences
SN - 16616596
TI - Deep learning-assisted high-throughput analysis of freeze-fracture replica images applied to glutamate receptors and calcium channels at hippocampal synapses
VL - 21
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Game of Life is a simple and elegant model to study dynamical system over networks. The model consists of a graph where every vertex has one of two types, namely, dead or alive. A configuration is a mapping of the vertices to the types. An update rule describes how the type of a vertex is updated given the types of its neighbors. In every round, all vertices are updated synchronously, which leads to a configuration update. While in general, Game of Life allows a broad range of update rules, we focus on two simple families of update rules, namely, underpopulation and overpopulation, that model several interesting dynamics studied in the literature. In both settings, a dead vertex requires at least a desired number of live neighbors to become alive. For underpopulation (resp., overpopulation), a live vertex requires at least (resp. at most) a desired number of live neighbors to remain alive. We study the basic computation problems, e.g., configuration reachability, for these two families of rules. For underpopulation rules, we show that these problems can be solved in polynomial time, whereas for overpopulation rules they are PSPACE-complete.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus
AU - Jecker, Ismael R
AU - Svoboda, Jakub
ID - 8533
SN - 18688969
T2 - 45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science
TI - Simplified game of life: Algorithms and complexity
VL - 170
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - A regular language L of finite words is composite if there are regular languages L₁,L₂,…,L_t such that L = ⋂_{i = 1}^t L_i and the index (number of states in a minimal DFA) of every language L_i is strictly smaller than the index of L. Otherwise, L is prime. Primality of regular languages was introduced and studied in [O. Kupferman and J. Mosheiff, 2015], where the complexity of deciding the primality of the language of a given DFA was left open, with a doubly-exponential gap between the upper and lower bounds. We study primality for unary regular languages, namely regular languages with a singleton alphabet. A unary language corresponds to a subset of ℕ, making the study of unary prime languages closer to that of primality in number theory. We show that the setting of languages is richer. In particular, while every composite number is the product of two smaller numbers, the number t of languages necessary to decompose a composite unary language induces a strict hierarchy. In addition, a primality witness for a unary language L, namely a word that is not in L but is in all products of languages that contain L and have an index smaller than L’s, may be of exponential length. Still, we are able to characterize compositionality by structural properties of a DFA for L, leading to a LogSpace algorithm for primality checking of unary DFAs.
AU - Jecker, Ismael R
AU - Kupferman, Orna
AU - Mazzocchi, Nicolas
ID - 8534
SN - 18688969
T2 - 45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science
TI - Unary prime languages
VL - 170
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We propose a method to enhance the visual detail of a water surface simulation. Our method works as a post-processing step which takes a simulation as input and increases its apparent resolution by simulating many detailed Lagrangian water waves on top of it. We extend linear water wave theory to work in non-planar domains which deform over time, and we discretize the theory using Lagrangian wave packets attached to spline curves. The method is numerically stable and trivially parallelizable, and it produces high frequency ripples with dispersive wave-like behaviors customized to the underlying fluid simulation.
AU - Skrivan, Tomas
AU - Soderstrom, Andreas
AU - Johansson, John
AU - Sprenger, Christoph
AU - Museth, Ken
AU - Wojtan, Christopher J
ID - 8535
IS - 4
JF - ACM Transactions on Graphics
SN - 07300301
TI - Wave curves: Simulating Lagrangian water waves on dynamically deforming surfaces
VL - 39
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - This work analyzes the latency of the simplified successive cancellation (SSC) decoding scheme for polar codes proposed by Alamdar-Yazdi and Kschischang. It is shown that, unlike conventional successive cancellation decoding, where latency is linear in the block length, the latency of SSC decoding is sublinear. More specifically, the latency of SSC decoding is O(N 1−1/µ ), where N is the block length and µ is the scaling exponent of the channel, which captures the speed of convergence of the rate to capacity. Numerical results demonstrate the tightness of the bound and show that most of the latency reduction arises from the parallel decoding of subcodes of rate 0 and 1.
AU - Mondelli, Marco
AU - Hashemi, Seyyed Ali
AU - Cioffi, John
AU - Goldsmith, Andrea
ID - 8536
SN - 21578095
T2 - IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory - Proceedings
TI - Simplified successive cancellation decoding of polar codes has sublinear latency
VL - 2020-June
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We prove some recent experimental observations of Dan Reznik concerning periodic billiard orbits in ellipses. For example, the sum of cosines of the angles of a periodic billiard polygon remains constant in the 1-parameter family of such polygons (that exist due to the Poncelet porism). In our proofs, we use geometric and complex analytic methods.
AU - Akopyan, Arseniy
AU - Schwartz, Richard
AU - Tabachnikov, Serge
ID - 8538
JF - European Journal of Mathematics
SN - 2199675X
TI - Billiards in ellipses revisited
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Cohomological and K-theoretic stable bases originated from the study of quantum cohomology and quantum K-theory. Restriction formula for cohomological stable bases played an important role in computing the quantum connection of cotangent bundle of partial flag varieties. In this paper we study the K-theoretic stable bases of cotangent bundles of flag varieties. We describe these bases in terms of the action of the affine Hecke algebra and the twisted group algebra of KostantKumar. Using this algebraic description and the method of root polynomials, we give a restriction formula of the stable bases. We apply it to obtain the restriction formula for partial flag varieties. We also build a relation between the stable basis and the Casselman basis in the principal series representations of the Langlands dual group. As an application, we give a closed formula for the transition matrix between Casselman basis and the characteristic functions.
AU - Su, C.
AU - Zhao, Gufang
AU - Zhong, C.
ID - 8539
IS - 3
JF - Annales Scientifiques de l'Ecole Normale Superieure
SN - 0012-9593
TI - On the K-theory stable bases of the springer resolution
VL - 53
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - The synaptotrophic hypothesis posits that synapse formation stabilizes dendritic branches, yet this hypothesis has not been causally tested in vivo in the mammalian brain. Presynaptic ligand cerebellin-1 (Cbln1) and postsynaptic receptor GluD2 mediate synaptogenesis between granule cells and Purkinje cells in the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex. Here we show that sparse but not global knockout of GluD2 causes under-elaboration of Purkinje cell dendrites in the deep molecular layer and overelaboration in the superficial molecular layer. Developmental, overexpression, structure-function, and genetic epistasis analyses indicate that dendrite morphogenesis defects result from competitive synaptogenesis in a Cbln1/GluD2-dependent manner. A generative model of dendritic growth based on competitive synaptogenesis largely recapitulates GluD2 sparse and global knockout phenotypes. Our results support the synaptotrophic hypothesis at initial stages of dendrite development, suggest a second mode in which cumulative synapse formation inhibits further dendrite growth, and highlight the importance of competition in dendrite morphogenesis.
AU - Takeo, Yukari H.
AU - Shuster, S. Andrew
AU - Jiang, Linnie
AU - Hu, Miley
AU - Luginbuhl, David J.
AU - Rülicke, Thomas
AU - Contreras, Ximena
AU - Hippenmeyer, Simon
AU - Wagner, Mark J.
AU - Ganguli, Surya
AU - Luo, Liqun
ID - 8544
T2 - bioRxiv
TI - GluD2- and Cbln1-mediated competitive synaptogenesis shapes the dendritic arbors of cerebellar Purkinje cells
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - Mosaic Analysis with Double Markers (MADM) offers a unique approach to visualize and concomitantly manipulate genetically-defined cells in mice with single-cell resolution. MADM applications include the analysis of lineage; single-cell morphology and physiology; genomic imprinting phenotypes; and dissection of cell-autonomous gene functions in vivo in health and disease. Yet, MADM could only be applied to <25% of all mouse genes on select chromosomes thus far. To overcome this limitation, we generated transgenic mice with knocked-in MADM cassettes near the centromeres of all 19 autosomes and validated their use across organs. With this resource, >96% of the entire mouse genome can now be subjected to single-cell genetic mosaic analysis. Beyond proof-of-principle, we applied our MADM library to systematically trace sister chromatid segregation in distinct mitotic cell lineages. We found striking chromosome-specific biases in segregation patterns, reflecting a putative mechanism for the asymmetric segregation of genetic determinants in somatic stem cell division.
AU - Contreras, Ximena
AU - Davaatseren, Amarbayasgalan
AU - Amberg, Nicole
AU - Hansen, Andi H
AU - Sonntag, Johanna
AU - Andersen, Lill
AU - Bernthaler, Tina
AU - Heger, Anna-Magdalena
AU - Johnson, Randy
AU - Schwarz, Lindsay A.
AU - Luo, Liqun
AU - Rülicke, Thomas
AU - Hippenmeyer, Simon
ID - 8545
T2 - bioRxiv
TI - A genome-wide library of MADM mice for single-cell genetic mosaic analysis
ER -