0 there exists a large subset of a ∈ F×p such that for kl a,1,p : x → e((ax+x) / p) we have M(kla,1,p) ≥ (1−ε/√2π + o(1)) log log p, as p→∞. Finally, we prove a result on the growth of the moments of {M (kla,1,p)}a∈F×p. 2020 Mathematics Subject Classification: 11L03, 11T23 (Primary); 14F20, 60F10 (Secondary).}, author = {Bonolis, Dante}, issn = {14698064}, journal = {Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society}, publisher = {Cambridge University Press}, title = {{On the size of the maximum of incomplete Kloosterman sums}}, doi = {10.1017/S030500412100030X}, year = {2021}, } @article{9380, abstract = {Shigella are pathogens originating within the Escherichia lineage but frequently classified as a separate genus. Shigella genomes contain numerous insertion sequences (ISs) that lead to pseudogenisation of affected genes and an increase of non-homologous recombination. Here, we study 414 genomes of E. coli and Shigella strains to assess the contribution of genomic rearrangements to Shigella evolution. We found that Shigella experienced exceptionally high rates of intragenomic rearrangements and had a decreased rate of homologous recombination compared to pathogenic and non-pathogenic E. coli. The high rearrangement rate resulted in independent disruption of syntenic regions and parallel rearrangements in different Shigella lineages. Specifically, we identified two types of chromosomally encoded E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases acquired independently by all Shigella strains that also showed a high level of sequence conservation in the promoter and further in the 5′-intergenic region. In the only available enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) strain, which is a pathogenic E. coli with a phenotype intermediate between Shigella and non-pathogenic E. coli, we found a rate of genome rearrangements comparable to those in other E. coli and no functional copies of the two Shigella-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases. These data indicate that the accumulation of ISs influenced many aspects of genome evolution and played an important role in the evolution of intracellular pathogens. Our research demonstrates the power of comparative genomics-based on synteny block composition and an important role of non-coding regions in the evolution of genomic islands.}, author = {Seferbekova, Zaira and Zabelkin, Alexey and Yakovleva, Yulia and Afasizhev, Robert and Dranenko, Natalia O. and Alexeev, Nikita and Gelfand, Mikhail S. and Bochkareva, Olga}, issn = {1664302X}, journal = {Frontiers in Microbiology}, title = {{High rates of genome rearrangements and pathogenicity of Shigella spp.}}, doi = {10.3389/fmicb.2021.628622}, volume = {12}, year = {2021}, } @article{9381, abstract = {A game of rock-paper-scissors is an interesting example of an interaction where none of the pure strategies strictly dominates all others, leading to a cyclic pattern. In this work, we consider an unstable version of rock-paper-scissors dynamics and allow individuals to make behavioural mistakes during the strategy execution. We show that such an assumption can break a cyclic relationship leading to a stable equilibrium emerging with only one strategy surviving. We consider two cases: completely random mistakes when individuals have no bias towards any strategy and a general form of mistakes. Then, we determine conditions for a strategy to dominate all other strategies. However, given that individuals who adopt a dominating strategy are still prone to behavioural mistakes in the observed behaviour, we may still observe extinct strategies. That is, behavioural mistakes in strategy execution stabilise evolutionary dynamics leading to an evolutionary stable and, potentially, mixed co-existence equilibrium.}, author = {Kleshnina, Maria and Streipert, Sabrina S. and Filar, Jerzy A. and Chatterjee, Krishnendu}, issn = {15537358}, journal = {PLoS Computational Biology}, number = {4}, title = {{Mistakes can stabilise the dynamics of rock-paper-scissors games}}, doi = {10.1371/journal.pcbi.1008523}, volume = {17}, year = {2021}, }