TY - JOUR
AB - Practical quantum networks require low-loss and noise-resilient optical interconnects as well as non-Gaussian resources for entanglement distillation and distributed quantum computation. The latter could be provided by superconducting circuits but existing solutions to interface the microwave and optical domains lack either scalability or efficiency, and in most cases the conversion noise is not known. In this work we utilize the unique opportunities of silicon photonics, cavity optomechanics and superconducting circuits to demonstrate a fully integrated, coherent transducer interfacing the microwave X and the telecom S bands with a total (internal) bidirectional transduction efficiency of 1.2% (135%) at millikelvin temperatures. The coupling relies solely on the radiation pressure interaction mediated by the femtometer-scale motion of two silicon nanobeams reaching a Vπ as low as 16 μV for sub-nanowatt pump powers. Without the associated optomechanical gain, we achieve a total (internal) pure conversion efficiency of up to 0.019% (1.6%), relevant for future noise-free operation on this qubit-compatible platform.
AU - Arnold, Georg M
AU - Wulf, Matthias
AU - Barzanjeh, Shabir
AU - Redchenko, Elena
AU - Rueda Sanchez, Alfredo R
AU - Hease, William J
AU - Hassani, Farid
AU - Fink, Johannes M
ID - 8529
JF - Nature Communications
KW - General Biochemistry
KW - Genetics and Molecular Biology
KW - General Physics and Astronomy
KW - General Chemistry
SN - 2041-1723
TI - Converting microwave and telecom photons with a silicon photonic nanomechanical interface
VL - 11
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Aqueous iodine based electrochemical energy storage is considered a potential candidate to improve sustainability and performance of current battery and supercapacitor technology. It harnesses the redox activity of iodide, iodine, and polyiodide species in the confined geometry of nanoporous carbon electrodes. However, current descriptions of the electrochemical reaction mechanism to interconvert these species are elusive. Here we show that electrochemical oxidation of iodide in nanoporous carbons forms persistent solid iodine deposits. Confinement slows down dissolution into triiodide and pentaiodide, responsible for otherwise significant self-discharge via shuttling. The main tools for these insights are in situ Raman spectroscopy and in situ small and wide-angle X-ray scattering (in situ SAXS/WAXS). In situ Raman confirms the reversible formation of triiodide and pentaiodide. In situ SAXS/WAXS indicates remarkable amounts of solid iodine deposited in the carbon nanopores. Combined with stochastic modeling, in situ SAXS allows quantifying the solid iodine volume fraction and visualizing the iodine structure on 3D lattice models at the sub-nanometer scale. Based on the derived mechanism, we demonstrate strategies for improved iodine pore filling capacity and prevention of self-discharge, applicable to hybrid supercapacitors and batteries.
AU - Prehal, Christian
AU - Fitzek, Harald
AU - Kothleitner, Gerald
AU - Presser, Volker
AU - Gollas, Bernhard
AU - Freunberger, Stefan Alexander
AU - Abbas, Qamar
ID - 8568
JF - Nature Communications
KW - General Biochemistry
KW - Genetics and Molecular Biology
KW - General Physics and Astronomy
KW - General Chemistry
SN - 2041-1723
TI - Persistent and reversible solid iodine electrodeposition in nanoporous carbons
VL - 11
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The actin-related protein (Arp)2/3 complex nucleates branched actin filament networks pivotal for cell migration, endocytosis and pathogen infection. Its activation is tightly regulated and involves complex structural rearrangements and actin filament binding, which are yet to be understood. Here, we report a 9.0 Å resolution structure of the actin filament Arp2/3 complex branch junction in cells using cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging. This allows us to generate an accurate model of the active Arp2/3 complex in the branch junction and its interaction with actin filaments. Notably, our model reveals a previously undescribed set of interactions of the Arp2/3 complex with the mother filament, significantly different to the previous branch junction model. Our structure also indicates a central role for the ArpC3 subunit in stabilizing the active conformation.
AU - Fäßler, Florian
AU - Dimchev, Georgi A
AU - Hodirnau, Victor-Valentin
AU - Wan, William
AU - Schur, Florian KM
ID - 8971
JF - Nature Communications
KW - General Biochemistry
KW - Genetics and Molecular Biology
KW - General Physics and Astronomy
KW - General Chemistry
SN - 2041-1723
TI - Cryo-electron tomography structure of Arp2/3 complex in cells reveals new insights into the branch junction
VL - 11
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Inspired by the possibility to experimentally manipulate and enhance chemical reactivity in helium nanodroplets, we investigate the effective interaction and the resulting correlations between two diatomic molecules immersed in a bath of bosons. By analogy with the bipolaron, we introduce the biangulon quasiparticle describing two rotating molecules that align with respect to each other due to the effective attractive interaction mediated by the excitations of the bath. We study this system in different parameter regimes and apply several theoretical approaches to describe its properties. Using a Born–Oppenheimer approximation, we investigate the dependence of the effective intermolecular interaction on the rotational state of the two molecules. In the strong-coupling regime, a product-state ansatz shows that the molecules tend to have a strong alignment in the ground state. To investigate the system in the weak-coupling regime, we apply a one-phonon excitation variational ansatz, which allows us to access the energy spectrum. In comparison to the angulon quasiparticle, the biangulon shows shifted angulon instabilities and an additional spectral instability, where resonant angular momentum transfer between the molecules and the bath takes place. These features are proposed as an experimentally observable signature for the formation of the biangulon quasiparticle. Finally, by using products of single angulon and bare impurity wave functions as basis states, we introduce a diagonalization scheme that allows us to describe the transition from two separated angulons to a biangulon as a function of the distance between the two molecules.
AU - Li, Xiang
AU - Yakaboylu, Enderalp
AU - Bighin, Giacomo
AU - Schmidt, Richard
AU - Lemeshko, Mikhail
AU - Deuchert, Andreas
ID - 8587
IS - 16
JF - The Journal of Chemical Physics
KW - Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
KW - General Physics and Astronomy
SN - 0021-9606
TI - Intermolecular forces and correlations mediated by a phonon bath
VL - 152
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Glioblastoma is the most malignant cancer in the brain and currently incurable. It is urgent to identify effective targets for this lethal disease. Inhibition of such targets should suppress the growth of cancer cells and, ideally also precancerous cells for early prevention, but minimally affect their normal counterparts. Using genetic mouse models with neural stem cells (NSCs) or oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) as the cells‐of‐origin/mutation, it is shown that the susceptibility of cells within the development hierarchy of glioma to the knockout of insulin‐like growth factor I receptor (IGF1R) is determined not only by their oncogenic states, but also by their cell identities/states. Knockout of IGF1R selectively disrupts the growth of mutant and transformed, but not normal OPCs, or NSCs. The desirable outcome of IGF1R knockout on cell growth requires the mutant cells to commit to the OPC identity regardless of its development hierarchical status. At the molecular level, oncogenic mutations reprogram the cellular network of OPCs and force them to depend more on IGF1R for their growth. A new‐generation brain‐penetrable, orally available IGF1R inhibitor harnessing tumor OPCs in the brain is also developed. The findings reveal the cellular window of IGF1R targeting and establish IGF1R as an effective target for the prevention and treatment of glioblastoma.
AU - Tian, Anhao
AU - Kang, Bo
AU - Li, Baizhou
AU - Qiu, Biying
AU - Jiang, Wenhong
AU - Shao, Fangjie
AU - Gao, Qingqing
AU - Liu, Rui
AU - Cai, Chengwei
AU - Jing, Rui
AU - Wang, Wei
AU - Chen, Pengxiang
AU - Liang, Qinghui
AU - Bao, Lili
AU - Man, Jianghong
AU - Wang, Yan
AU - Shi, Yu
AU - Li, Jin
AU - Yang, Minmin
AU - Wang, Lisha
AU - Zhang, Jianmin
AU - Hippenmeyer, Simon
AU - Zhu, Junming
AU - Bian, Xiuwu
AU - Wang, Ying‐Jie
AU - Liu, Chong
ID - 8592
IS - 21
JF - Advanced Science
KW - General Engineering
KW - General Physics and Astronomy
KW - General Materials Science
KW - Medicine (miscellaneous)
KW - General Chemical Engineering
KW - Biochemistry
KW - Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)
SN - 2198-3844
TI - Oncogenic state and cell identity combinatorially dictate the susceptibility of cells within glioma development hierarchy to IGF1R targeting
VL - 7
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In laboratory studies and numerical simulations, we observe clear signatures of unstable time-periodic solutions in a moderately turbulent quasi-two-dimensional flow. We validate the dynamical relevance of such solutions by demonstrating that turbulent flows in both experiment and numerics transiently display time-periodic dynamics when they shadow unstable periodic orbits (UPOs). We show that UPOs we computed are also statistically significant, with turbulent flows spending a sizable fraction of the total time near these solutions. As a result, the average rates of energy input and dissipation for the turbulent flow and frequently visited UPOs differ only by a few percent.
AU - Suri, Balachandra
AU - Kageorge, Logan
AU - Grigoriev, Roman O.
AU - Schatz, Michael F.
ID - 8634
IS - 6
JF - Physical Review Letters
KW - General Physics and Astronomy
SN - 0031-9007
TI - Capturing turbulent dynamics and statistics in experiments with unstable periodic orbits
VL - 125
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Understanding the conformational sampling of translation-arrested ribosome nascent chain complexes is key to understand co-translational folding. Up to now, coupling of cysteine oxidation, disulfide bond formation and structure formation in nascent chains has remained elusive. Here, we investigate the eye-lens protein γB-crystallin in the ribosomal exit tunnel. Using mass spectrometry, theoretical simulations, dynamic nuclear polarization-enhanced solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and cryo-electron microscopy, we show that thiol groups of cysteine residues undergo S-glutathionylation and S-nitrosylation and form non-native disulfide bonds. Thus, covalent modification chemistry occurs already prior to nascent chain release as the ribosome exit tunnel provides sufficient space even for disulfide bond formation which can guide protein folding.
AU - Schulte, Linda
AU - Mao, Jiafei
AU - Reitz, Julian
AU - Sreeramulu, Sridhar
AU - Kudlinzki, Denis
AU - Hodirnau, Victor-Valentin
AU - Meier-Credo, Jakob
AU - Saxena, Krishna
AU - Buhr, Florian
AU - Langer, Julian D.
AU - Blackledge, Martin
AU - Frangakis, Achilleas S.
AU - Glaubitz, Clemens
AU - Schwalbe, Harald
ID - 8744
JF - Nature Communications
KW - General Biochemistry
KW - Genetics and Molecular Biology
KW - General Physics and Astronomy
KW - General Chemistry
SN - 2041-1723
TI - Cysteine oxidation and disulfide formation in the ribosomal exit tunnel
VL - 11
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Atomic-resolution structure determination is crucial for understanding protein function. Cryo-EM and NMR spectroscopy both provide structural information, but currently cryo-EM does not routinely give access to atomic-level structural data, and, generally, NMR structure determination is restricted to small (<30 kDa) proteins. We introduce an integrated structure determination approach that simultaneously uses NMR and EM data to overcome the limits of each of these methods. The approach enables structure determination of the 468 kDa large dodecameric aminopeptidase TET2 to a precision and accuracy below 1 Å by combining secondary-structure information obtained from near-complete magic-angle-spinning NMR assignments of the 39 kDa-large subunits, distance restraints from backbone amides and ILV methyl groups, and a 4.1 Å resolution EM map. The resulting structure exceeds current standards of NMR and EM structure determination in terms of molecular weight and precision. Importantly, the approach is successful even in cases where only medium-resolution cryo-EM data are available.
AU - Gauto, Diego F.
AU - Estrozi, Leandro F.
AU - Schwieters, Charles D.
AU - Effantin, Gregory
AU - Macek, Pavel
AU - Sounier, Remy
AU - Sivertsen, Astrid C.
AU - Schmidt, Elena
AU - Kerfah, Rime
AU - Mas, Guillaume
AU - Colletier, Jacques-Philippe
AU - Güntert, Peter
AU - Favier, Adrien
AU - Schoehn, Guy
AU - Schanda, Paul
AU - Boisbouvier, Jerome
ID - 8405
JF - Nature Communications
KW - General Biochemistry
KW - Genetics and Molecular Biology
KW - General Physics and Astronomy
KW - General Chemistry
SN - 2041-1723
TI - Integrated NMR and cryo-EM atomic-resolution structure determination of a half-megadalton enzyme complex
VL - 10
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In this survey, we provide a concise introduction to convex billiards and describe some recent results, obtained by the authors and collaborators, on the classification of integrable billiards, namely the so-called Birkhoff conjecture.
This article is part of the theme issue ‘Finite dimensional integrable systems: new trends and methods’.
AU - Kaloshin, Vadim
AU - Sorrentino, Alfonso
ID - 8419
IS - 2131
JF - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
KW - General Engineering
KW - General Physics and Astronomy
KW - General Mathematics
SN - 1364-503X
TI - On the integrability of Birkhoff billiards
VL - 376
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We show that in the space of all convex billiard boundaries, the set of boundaries with rational caustics is dense. More precisely, the set of billiard boundaries with caustics of rotation number 1/q is polynomially sense in the smooth case, and exponentially dense in the analytic case.
AU - Kaloshin, Vadim
AU - Zhang, Ke
ID - 8420
IS - 11
JF - Nonlinearity
KW - Mathematical Physics
KW - General Physics and Astronomy
KW - Applied Mathematics
KW - Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
SN - 0951-7715
TI - Density of convex billiards with rational caustics
VL - 31
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The large majority of three-dimensional structures of biological macromolecules have been determined by X-ray diffraction of crystalline samples. High-resolution structure determination crucially depends on the homogeneity of the protein crystal. Overall ‘rocking’ motion of molecules in the crystal is expected to influence diffraction quality, and such motion may therefore affect the process of solving crystal structures. Yet, so far overall molecular motion has not directly been observed in protein crystals, and the timescale of such dynamics remains unclear. Here we use solid-state NMR, X-ray diffraction methods and μs-long molecular dynamics simulations to directly characterize the rigid-body motion of a protein in different crystal forms. For ubiquitin crystals investigated in this study we determine the range of possible correlation times of rocking motion, 0.1–100 μs. The amplitude of rocking varies from one crystal form to another and is correlated with the resolution obtainable in X-ray diffraction experiments.
AU - Ma, Peixiang
AU - Xue, Yi
AU - Coquelle, Nicolas
AU - Haller, Jens D.
AU - Yuwen, Tairan
AU - Ayala, Isabel
AU - Mikhailovskii, Oleg
AU - Willbold, Dieter
AU - Colletier, Jacques-Philippe
AU - Skrynnikov, Nikolai R.
AU - Schanda, Paul
ID - 8456
JF - Nature Communications
KW - General Biochemistry
KW - Genetics and Molecular Biology
KW - General Physics and Astronomy
KW - General Chemistry
SN - 2041-1723
TI - Observing the overall rocking motion of a protein in a crystal
VL - 6
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In the present note we announce a proof of a strong form of Arnold diffusion for smooth convex Hamiltonian systems. Let ${\mathbb T}^2$ be a 2-dimensional torus and B2 be the unit ball around the origin in ${\mathbb R}^2$ . Fix ρ > 0. Our main result says that for a 'generic' time-periodic perturbation of an integrable system of two degrees of freedom $H_0(p)+\varepsilon H_1(\theta,p,t),\quad \ \theta\in {\mathbb T}^2,\ p\in B^2,\ t\in {\mathbb T}={\mathbb R}/{\mathbb Z}$ , with a strictly convex H0, there exists a ρ-dense orbit (θε, pε, t)(t) in ${\mathbb T}^2 \times B^2 \times {\mathbb T}$ , namely, a ρ-neighborhood of the orbit contains ${\mathbb T}^2 \times B^2 \times {\mathbb T}$ .
Our proof is a combination of geometric and variational methods. The fundamental elements of the construction are the usage of crumpled normally hyperbolic invariant cylinders from [9], flower and simple normally hyperbolic invariant manifolds from [36] as well as their kissing property at a strong double resonance. This allows us to build a 'connected' net of three-dimensional normally hyperbolic invariant manifolds. To construct diffusing orbits along this net we employ a version of the Mather variational method [41] equipped with weak KAM theory [28], proposed by Bernard in [7].
AU - Kaloshin, Vadim
AU - Zhang, K
ID - 8498
IS - 8
JF - Nonlinearity
KW - Mathematical Physics
KW - General Physics and Astronomy
KW - Applied Mathematics
KW - Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
SN - 0951-7715
TI - Arnold diffusion for smooth convex systems of two and a half degrees of freedom
VL - 28
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We introduce a new potential-theoretic definition of the dimension spectrum of a probability measure for q > 1 and explain its relation to prior definitions. We apply this definition to prove that if and is a Borel probability measure with compact support in , then under almost every linear transformation from to , the q-dimension of the image of is ; in particular, the q-dimension of is preserved provided . We also present results on the preservation of information dimension and pointwise dimension. Finally, for and q > 2 we give examples for which is not preserved by any linear transformation into . All results for typical linear transformations are also proved for typical (in the sense of prevalence) continuously differentiable functions.
AU - Hunt, Brian R
AU - Kaloshin, Vadim
ID - 8527
IS - 5
JF - Nonlinearity
KW - Mathematical Physics
KW - General Physics and Astronomy
KW - Applied Mathematics
KW - Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
SN - 0951-7715
TI - How projections affect the dimension spectrum of fractal measures
VL - 10
ER -