TY - CONF
AB - Software model checking, as an undecidable problem, has three possible outcomes: (1) the program satisfies the specification, (2) the program does not satisfy the specification, and (3) the model checker fails. The third outcome usually manifests itself in a space-out, time-out, or one component of the verification tool giving up; in all of these failing cases, significant computation is performed by the verification tool before the failure, but no result is reported. We propose to reformulate the model-checking problem as follows, in order to have the verification tool report a summary of the performed work even in case of failure: given a program and a specification, the model checker returns a condition Ψ - usually a state predicate - such that the program satisfies the specification under the condition Ψ - that is, as long as the program does not leave the states in which Ψ is satisfied. In our experiments, we investigated as one major application of conditional model checking the sequential combination of model checkers with information passing. We give the condition that one model checker produces, as input to a second conditional model checker, such that the verification problem for the second is restricted to the part of the state space that is not covered by the condition, i.e., the second model checker works on the problems that the first model checker could not solve. Our experiments demonstrate that repeated application of conditional model checkers, passing information from one model checker to the next, can significantly improve the verification results and performance, i.e., we can now verify programs that we could not verify before.
AU - Beyer, Dirk
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
AU - Keremoglu, Mehmet
AU - Wendler, Philipp
ID - 1384
T2 - Proceedings of the ACM SIGSOFT 20th International Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering
TI - Conditional model checking: A technique to pass information between verifiers
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - There is a long-running controversy about how early cell fate decisions are made in the developing mammalian embryo. 1,2 In particular, it is controversial when the first events that can predict the establishment of the pluripotent and extra-embryonic lineages in the blastocyst of the pre-implantation embryo occur. It has long been proposed that the position and polarity of cells at the 16- to 32-cell stage embryo influence their decision to either give rise to the pluripotent cell lineage that eventually contributes to the inner cell mass (ICM), comprising the primitive endoderm (PE) and the epiblast (EPI), or the extra-embryonic trophectoderm (TE) surrounding the blastocoel. The positioning of cells in the embryo at this developmental stage could largely be the result of random events, making this a stochastic model of cell lineage allocation. Contrary to such a stochastic model, some studies have detected putative differences in the lineage potential of individual blastomeres before compaction, indicating that the first cell fate decisions may occur as early as at the 4-cell stage. Using a non-invasive, quantitative in vivo imaging assay to study the kinetic behavior of Oct4 (also known as POU5F1), a key transcription factor (TF) controlling pre-implantation development in the mouse embryo, 3-5 a recent study identifies Oct4 kinetics as a predictive measure of cell lineage patterning in the early mouse embryo. 6 Here, we discuss the implications of such molecular heterogeneities in early development and offer potential avenues toward a mechanistic understanding of these observations, contributing to the resolution of the controversy of developmental cell lineage allocation.
AU - Pantazis, Periklis
AU - Bollenbach, Tobias
ID - 3160
IS - 11
JF - Cell Cycle
TI - Transcription factor kinetics and the emerging asymmetry in the early mammalian embryo
VL - 11
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Some inflammatory stimuli trigger activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by inducing efflux of cellular potassium. Loss of cellular potassium is known to potently suppress protein synthesis, leading us to test whether the inhibition of protein synthesis itself serves as an activating signal for the NLRP3 inflammasome. Murine bone marrow-derived macrophages, either primed by LPS or unprimed, were exposed to a panel of inhibitors of ribosomal function: ricin, cycloheximide, puromycin, pactamycin, and anisomycin. Macrophages were also exposed to nigericin, ATP, monosodium urate (MSU), and poly I:C. Synthesis of pro-IL-ß and release of IL-1ß from cells in response to these agents was detected by immunoblotting and ELISA. Release of intracellular potassium was measured by mass spectrometry. Inhibition of translation by each of the tested translation inhibitors led to processing of IL-1ß, which was released from cells. Processing and release of IL-1ß was reduced or absent from cells deficient in NLRP3, ASC, or caspase-1, demonstrating the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Despite the inability of these inhibitors to trigger efflux of intracellular potassium, the addition of high extracellular potassium suppressed activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. MSU and double-stranded RNA, which are known to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome, also substantially inhibited protein translation, supporting a close association between inhibition of translation and inflammasome activation. These data demonstrate that translational inhibition itself constitutes a heretofore-unrecognized mechanism underlying IL-1ß dependent inflammatory signaling and that other physical, chemical, or pathogen-associated agents that impair translation may lead to IL-1ß-dependent inflammation through activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. For agents that inhibit translation through decreased cellular potassium, the application of high extracellular potassium restores protein translation and suppresses activation of the NLRP inflammasome. For agents that inhibit translation through mechanisms that do not involve loss of potassium, high extracellular potassium suppresses IL-1ß processing through a mechanism that remains undefined.
AU - Vyleta, Meghan
AU - Wong, John
AU - Magun, Bruce
ID - 3161
IS - 5
JF - PLoS One
TI - Suppression of ribosomal function triggers innate immune signaling through activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome
VL - 7
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Given a dense-time real-valued signal and a parameterized temporal logic formula with both magnitude and timing parameters, we compute the subset of the parameter space that renders the formula satisfied by the trace. We provide two preliminary implementations, one which follows the exact semantics and attempts to compute the validity domain by quantifier elimination in linear arithmetics and one which conducts adaptive search in the parameter space.
AU - Asarin, Eugene
AU - Donzé, Alexandre
AU - Maler, Oded
AU - Nickovic, Dejan
ID - 3162
TI - Parametric identification of temporal properties
VL - 7186
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Overview of the Special Issue on structured prediction and inference.
AU - Blaschko, Matthew
AU - Lampert, Christoph
ID - 3164
IS - 3
JF - International Journal of Computer Vision
TI - Guest editorial: Special issue on structured prediction and inference
VL - 99
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Computing the winning set for Büchi objectives in alternating games on graphs is a central problem in computer aided verification with a large number of applications. The long standing best known upper bound for solving the problem is Õ(n·m), where n is the number of vertices and m is the number of edges in the graph. We are the first to break the Õ(n·m) boundary by presenting a new technique that reduces the running time to O(n 2). This bound also leads to O(n 2) time algorithms for computing the set of almost-sure winning vertices for Büchi objectives (1) in alternating games with probabilistic transitions (improving an earlier bound of Õ(n·m)), (2) in concurrent graph games with constant actions (improving an earlier bound of O(n 3)), and (3) in Markov decision processes (improving for m > n 4/3 an earlier bound of O(min(m 1.5, m·n 2/3)). We also show that the same technique can be used to compute the maximal end-component decomposition of a graph in time O(n 2), which is an improvement over earlier bounds for m > n 4/3. Finally, we show how to maintain the winning set for Büchi objectives in alternating games under a sequence of edge insertions or a sequence of edge deletions in O(n) amortized time per operation. This is the first dynamic algorithm for this problem.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Henzinger, Monika
ID - 3165
T2 - Proceedings of the Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms
TI - An O(n2) time algorithm for alternating Büchi games
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - There is evidence that the genetic code was established prior to the existence of proteins, when metabolism was powered by ribozymes. Also, early proto-organisms had to rely on simple anaerobic bioenergetic processes. In this work I propose that amino acid fermentation powered metabolism in the RNA world, and that this was facilitated by proto-adapters, the precursors of the tRNAs. Amino acids were used as carbon sources rather than as catalytic or structural elements. In modern bacteria, amino acid fermentation is known as the Stickland reaction. This pathway involves two amino acids: the first undergoes oxidative deamination, and the second acts as an electron acceptor through reductive deamination. This redox reaction results in two keto acids that are employed to synthesise ATP via substrate-level phosphorylation. The Stickland reaction is the basic bioenergetic pathway of some bacteria of the genus Clostridium. Two other facts support Stickland fermentation in the RNA world. First, several Stickland amino acid pairs are synthesised in abiotic amino acid synthesis. This suggests that amino acids that could be used as an energy substrate were freely available. Second, anticodons that have complementary sequences often correspond to amino acids that form Stickland pairs. The main hypothesis of this paper is that pairs of complementary proto-adapters were assigned to Stickland amino acids pairs. There are signatures of this hypothesis in the genetic code. Furthermore, it is argued that the proto-adapters formed double strands that brought amino acid pairs into proximity to facilitate their mutual redox reaction, structurally constraining the anticodon pairs that are assigned to these amino acid pairs. Significance tests which randomise the code are performed to study the extent of the variability of the energetic (ATP) yield. Random assignments can lead to a substantial yield of ATP and maintain enough variability, thus selection can act and refine the assignments into a proto-code that optimises the energetic yield. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to evaluate the establishment of these simple proto-codes, based on amino acid substitutions and codon swapping. In all cases, donor amino acids are assigned to anticodons composed of U+G, and have low redundancy (1-2 codons), whereas acceptor amino acids are assigned to the the remaining codons. These bioenergetic and structural constraints allow for a metabolic role for amino acids before their co-option as catalyst cofactors. Reviewers: this article was reviewed by Prof. William Martin, Prof. Eors Szathmary (nominated by Dr. Gaspar Jekely) and Dr. Adam Kun (nominated by Dr. Sandor Pongor)
AU - Vladar, Harold
ID - 3166
JF - Biology Direct
TI - Amino acid fermentation at the origin of the genetic code
VL - 7
ER -
TY - JOUR
AU - Weber, Michele
ID - 3167
IS - 6077
JF - Science
TI - NextGen speaks 13
VL - 336
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The induction of a signaling pathway is characterized by transient complex formation and mutual posttranslational modification of proteins. To faithfully capture this combinatorial process in a mathematical model is an important challenge in systems biology. Exploiting the limited context on which most binding and modification events are conditioned, attempts have been made to reduce the combinatorial complexity by quotienting the reachable set of molecular species into species aggregates while preserving the deterministic semantics of the thermodynamic limit. Recently, we proposed a quotienting that also preserves the stochastic semantics and that is complete in the sense that the semantics of individual species can be recovered from the aggregate semantics. In this paper, we prove that this quotienting yields a sufficient condition for weak lumpability (that is to say that the quotient system is still Markovian for a given set of initial distributions) and that it gives rise to a backward Markov bisimulation between the original and aggregated transition system (which means that the conditional probability of being in a given state in the original system knowing that we are in its equivalence class is an invariant of the system). We illustrate the framework on a case study of the epidermal growth factor (EGF)/insulin receptor crosstalk.
AU - Feret, Jérôme
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
AU - Koeppl, Heinz
AU - Petrov, Tatjana
ID - 3168
JF - Theoretical Computer Science
TI - Lumpability abstractions of rule based systems
VL - 431
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Due to the omnipresent risk of epidemics, insect societies have evolved sophisticated disease defences at the individual and colony level. An intriguing yet little understood phenomenon is that social contact to pathogen-exposed individuals reduces susceptibility of previously naive nestmates to this pathogen. We tested whether such social immunisation in Lasius ants against the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is based on active upregulation of the immune system of nestmates following contact to an infectious individual or passive protection via transfer of immune effectors among group members—that is, active versus passive immunisation. We found no evidence for involvement of passive immunisation via transfer of antimicrobials among colony members. Instead, intensive allogrooming behaviour between naive and pathogen-exposed ants before fungal conidia firmly attached to their cuticle suggested passage of the pathogen from the exposed individuals to their nestmates. By tracing fluorescence-labelled conidia we indeed detected frequent pathogen transfer to the nestmates, where they caused low-level infections as revealed by growth of small numbers of fungal colony forming units from their dissected body content. These infections rarely led to death, but instead promoted an enhanced ability to inhibit fungal growth and an active upregulation of immune genes involved in antifungal defences (defensin and prophenoloxidase, PPO). Contrarily, there was no upregulation of the gene cathepsin L, which is associated with antibacterial and antiviral defences, and we found no increased antibacterial activity of nestmates of fungus-exposed ants. This indicates that social immunisation after fungal exposure is specific, similar to recent findings for individual-level immune priming in invertebrates. Epidemiological modeling further suggests that active social immunisation is adaptive, as it leads to faster elimination of the disease and lower death rates than passive immunisation. Interestingly, humans have also utilised the protective effect of low-level infections to fight smallpox by intentional transfer of low pathogen doses (“variolation” or “inoculation”).
AU - Konrad, Matthias
AU - Vyleta, Meghan
AU - Theis, Fabian
AU - Stock, Miriam
AU - Tragust, Simon
AU - Klatt, Martina
AU - Drescher, Verena
AU - Marr, Carsten
AU - Ugelvig, Line V
AU - Cremer, Sylvia
ID - 3242
IS - 4
JF - PLoS Biology
TI - Social transfer of pathogenic fungus promotes active immunisation in ant colonies
VL - 10
ER -
TY - JOUR
AU - Danowski, Patrick
ID - 3243
JF - Büchereiperspektiven
TI - Zwischen Technologie und Information
VL - 1/2012
ER -
TY - JOUR
AU - Danowski, Patrick
ID - 3244
IS - 4
JF - BuB – Forum Bibliothek und Information
TI - Die Zeit des Abwartens ist vorbei!
VL - 64
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - How cells orchestrate their behavior during collective migration is a long-standing question. Using magnetic tweezers to apply mechanical stimuli to Xenopus mesendoderm cells, Weber etal. (2012) now reveal, in this issue of Developmental Cell, a cadherin-mediated mechanosensitive response that promotes cell polarization and movement persistence during the collective mesendoderm migration in gastrulation.
AU - Behrndt, Martin
AU - Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp J
ID - 3245
IS - 1
JF - Developmental Cell
TI - Spurred by resistance mechanosensation in collective migration
VL - 22
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Visualizing and analyzing shape changes at various scales, ranging from single molecules to whole organisms, are essential for understanding complex morphogenetic processes, such as early embryonic development. Embryo morphogenesis relies on the interplay between different tissues, the properties of which are again determined by the interaction between their constituent cells. Cell interactions, on the other hand, are controlled by various molecules, such as signaling and adhesion molecules, which in order to exert their functions need to be spatiotemporally organized within and between the interacting cells. In this review, we will focus on the role of cell adhesion functioning at different scales to organize cell, tissue and embryo morphogenesis. We will specifically ask how the subcellular distribution of adhesion molecules controls the formation of cell-cell contacts, how cell-cell contacts determine tissue shape, and how tissue interactions regulate embryo morphogenesis.
AU - Barone, Vanessa
AU - Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp J
ID - 3246
IS - 1
JF - Current Opinion in Cell Biology
TI - Cell adhesion in embryo morphogenesis
VL - 24
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The Brazilian Merganser is a very rare and threatened species that nowadays inhabits only a few protected areas and their surroundings in the Brazilian territory. In order to estimate the remaining genetic diversity and population structure in this species, two mitochondrial genes were sequenced in 39 individuals belonging to two populations and in one individual collected in Argentina in 1950. We found a highly significant divergence between two major remaining populations of Mergus octosetaceus, which suggests a historical population structure in this species. Furthermore, two deeply divergent lineages were found in a single location, which could due to current or historical secondary contact. Based on the available genetic data, we point out future directions which would contribute to design strategies for conservation and management of this threatened species.
AU - Vilaça, Sibelle
AU - Fernandes Redondo, Rodrigo A
AU - Lins, Lívia
AU - Santos, Fabrício
ID - 3247
IS - 1
JF - Conservation Genetics
TI - Remaining genetic diversity in Brazilian Merganser (Mergus octosetaceus)
VL - 13
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We describe RTblob, a high speed vision system that detects objects in cluttered scenes based on their color and shape at a speed of over 800 frames/s. Because the system is available as open-source software and relies only on off-the-shelf PC hardware components, it can provide the basis for multiple application scenarios. As an illustrative example, we show how RTblob can be used in a robotic table tennis scenario to estimate ball trajectories through 3D space simultaneously from four cameras images at a speed of 200 Hz.
AU - Lampert, Christoph
AU - Peters, Jan
ID - 3248
IS - 1
JF - Journal of Real-Time Image Processing
TI - Real-time detection of colored objects in multiple camera streams with off-the-shelf hardware components
VL - 7
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Boolean notions of correctness are formalized by preorders on systems. Quantitative measures of correctness can be formalized by real-valued distance functions between systems, where the distance between implementation and specification provides a measure of "fit" or "desirability". We extend the simulation preorder to the quantitative setting by making each player of a simulation game pay a certain price for her choices. We use the resulting games with quantitative objectives to define three different simulation distances. The correctness distance measures how much the specification must be changed in order to be satisfied by the implementation. The coverage distance measures how much the implementation restricts the degrees of freedom offered by the specification. The robustness distance measures how much a system can deviate from the implementation description without violating the specification. We consider these distances for safety as well as liveness specifications. The distances can be computed in polynomial time for safety specifications, and for liveness specifications given by weak fairness constraints. We show that the distance functions satisfy the triangle inequality, that the distance between two systems does not increase under parallel composition with a third system, and that the distance between two systems can be bounded from above and below by distances between abstractions of the two systems. These properties suggest that our simulation distances provide an appropriate basis for a quantitative theory of discrete systems. We also demonstrate how the robustness distance can be used to measure how many transmission errors are tolerated by error correcting codes.
AU - Cerny, Pavol
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
AU - Radhakrishna, Arjun
ID - 3249
IS - 1
JF - Theoretical Computer Science
TI - Simulation distances
VL - 413
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - The Learning Parity with Noise (LPN) problem has recently found many applications in cryptography as the hardness assumption underlying the constructions of "provably secure" cryptographic schemes like encryption or authentication protocols. Being provably secure means that the scheme comes with a proof showing that the existence of an efficient adversary against the scheme implies that the underlying hardness assumption is wrong. LPN based schemes are appealing for theoretical and practical reasons. On the theoretical side, LPN based schemes offer a very strong security guarantee. The LPN problem is equivalent to the problem of decoding random linear codes, a problem that has been extensively studied in the last half century. The fastest known algorithms run in exponential time and unlike most number-theoretic problems used in cryptography, the LPN problem does not succumb to known quantum algorithms. On the practical side, LPN based schemes are often extremely simple and efficient in terms of code-size as well as time and space requirements. This makes them prime candidates for light-weight devices like RFID tags, which are too weak to implement standard cryptographic primitives like the AES block-cipher. This talk will be a gentle introduction to provable security using simple LPN based schemes as examples. Starting from pseudorandom generators and symmetric key encryption, over secret-key authentication protocols, and, if time admits, touching on recent constructions of public-key identification, commitments and zero-knowledge proofs.
AU - Pietrzak, Krzysztof Z
ID - 3250
TI - Cryptography from learning parity with noise
VL - 7147
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Many infinite state systems can be seen as well-structured transition systems (WSTS), i.e., systems equipped with a well-quasi-ordering on states that is also a simulation relation. WSTS are an attractive target for formal analysis because there exist generic algorithms that decide interesting verification problems for this class. Among the most popular algorithms are acceleration-based forward analyses for computing the covering set. Termination of these algorithms can only be guaranteed for flattable WSTS. Yet, many WSTS of practical interest are not flattable and the question whether any given WSTS is flattable is itself undecidable. We therefore propose an analysis that computes the covering set and captures the essence of acceleration-based algorithms, but sacrifices precision for guaranteed termination. Our analysis is an abstract interpretation whose abstract domain builds on the ideal completion of the well-quasi-ordered state space, and a widening operator that mimics acceleration and controls the loss of precision of the analysis. We present instances of our framework for various classes of WSTS. Our experience with a prototype implementation indicates that, despite the inherent precision loss, our analysis often computes the precise covering set of the analyzed system.
AU - Zufferey, Damien
AU - Wies, Thomas
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
ID - 3251
TI - Ideal abstractions for well structured transition systems
VL - 7148
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We study the automatic synthesis of fair non-repudiation protocols, a class of fair exchange protocols, used for digital contract signing. First, we show how to specify the objectives of the participating agents, the trusted third party (TTP) and the protocols as path formulas in Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) and prove that the satisfaction of the objectives of the agents and the TTP imply satisfaction of the protocol objectives. We then show that weak (co-operative) co-synthesis and classical (strictly competitive) co-synthesis fail in synthesizing these protocols, whereas assume-guarantee synthesis (AGS) succeeds. We demonstrate the success of assume-guarantee synthesis as follows: (a) any solution of assume-guarantee synthesis is attack-free; no subset of participants can violate the objectives of the other participants without violating their own objectives; (b) the Asokan-Shoup-Waidner (ASW) certified mail protocol that has known vulnerabilities is not a solution of AGS; and (c) the Kremer-Markowitch (KM) non-repudiation protocol is a solution of AGS. To our knowledge this is the first application of synthesis to fair non-repudiation protocols, and our results show how synthesis can generate correct protocols and automatically discover vulnerabilities. The solution to assume-guarantee synthesis can be computed efficiently as the secure equilibrium solution of three-player graph games. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Raman, Vishwanath
ID - 3252
TI - Synthesizing protocols for digital contract signing
VL - 7148
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We describe a framework for reasoning about programs with lists carrying integer numerical data. We use abstract domains to describe and manipulate complex constraints on configurations of these programs mixing constraints on the shape of the heap, sizes of the lists, on the multisets of data stored in these lists, and on the data at their different positions. Moreover, we provide powerful techniques for automatic validation of Hoare-triples and invariant checking, as well as for automatic synthesis of invariants and procedure summaries using modular inter-procedural analysis. The approach has been implemented in a tool called Celia and experimented successfully on a large benchmark of programs.
AU - Bouajjani, Ahmed
AU - Dragoi, Cezara
AU - Enea, Constantin
AU - Sighireanu, Mihaela
ID - 3253
TI - Abstract domains for automated reasoning about list manipulating programs with infinite data
VL - 7148
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The theory of graph games with ω-regular winning conditions is the foundation for modeling and synthesizing reactive processes. In the case of stochastic reactive processes, the corresponding stochastic graph games have three players, two of them (System and Environment) behaving adversarially, and the third (Uncertainty) behaving probabilistically. We consider two problems for stochastic graph games: the qualitative problem asks for the set of states from which a player can win with probability 1 (almost-sure winning); and the quantitative problem asks for the maximal probability of winning (optimal winning) from each state. We consider ω-regular winning conditions formalized as Müller winning conditions. We present optimal memory bounds for pure (deterministic) almost-sure winning and optimal winning strategies in stochastic graph games with Müller winning conditions. We also study the complexity of stochastic Müller games and show that both the qualitative and quantitative analysis problems are PSPACE-complete. Our results are relevant in synthesis of stochastic reactive processes.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
ID - 3254
JF - Information and Computation
TI - The complexity of stochastic Müller games
VL - 211
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - In this paper we survey results of two-player games on graphs and Markov decision processes with parity, mean-payoff and energy objectives, and the combination of mean-payoff and energy objectives with parity objectives. These problems have applications in verification and synthesis of reactive systems in resource-constrained environments.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Doyen, Laurent
ID - 3255
TI - Games and Markov decision processes with mean payoff parity and energy parity objectives
VL - 7119
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We use a distortion to define the dual complex of a cubical subdivision of ℝ n as an n-dimensional subcomplex of the nerve of the set of n-cubes. Motivated by the topological analysis of high-dimensional digital image data, we consider such subdivisions defined by generalizations of quad- and oct-trees to n dimensions. Assuming the subdivision is balanced, we show that mapping each vertex to the center of the corresponding n-cube gives a geometric realization of the dual complex in ℝ n.
AU - Edelsbrunner, Herbert
AU - Kerber, Michael
ID - 3256
IS - 2
JF - Discrete & Computational Geometry
TI - Dual complexes of cubical subdivisions of ℝn
VL - 47
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Consider a convex relaxation f̂ of a pseudo-Boolean function f. We say that the relaxation is totally half-integral if f̂(x) is a polyhedral function with half-integral extreme points x, and this property is preserved after adding an arbitrary combination of constraints of the form x i=x j, x i=1-x j, and x i=γ where γ∈{0,1,1/2} is a constant. A well-known example is the roof duality relaxation for quadratic pseudo-Boolean functions f. We argue that total half-integrality is a natural requirement for generalizations of roof duality to arbitrary pseudo-Boolean functions. Our contributions are as follows. First, we provide a complete characterization of totally half-integral relaxations f̂ by establishing a one-to-one correspondence with bisubmodular functions. Second, we give a new characterization of bisubmodular functions. Finally, we show some relationships between general totally half-integral relaxations and relaxations based on the roof duality. On the conceptual level, our results show that bisubmodular functions provide a natural generalization of the roof duality approach to higher-order terms. This can be viewed as a non-submodular analogue of the fact that submodular functions generalize the s-t minimum cut problem with non-negative weights to higher-order terms.
AU - Kolmogorov, Vladimir
ID - 3257
IS - 4-5
JF - Discrete Applied Mathematics
TI - Generalized roof duality and bisubmodular functions
VL - 160
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - CA3 pyramidal neurons are important for memory formation and pattern completion in the hippocampal network. It is generally thought that proximal synapses from the mossy fibers activate these neurons most efficiently, whereas distal inputs from the perforant path have a weaker modulatory influence. We used confocally targeted patch-clamp recording from dendrites and axons to map the activation of rat CA3 pyramidal neurons at the subcellular level. Our results reveal two distinct dendritic domains. In the proximal domain, action potentials initiated in the axon backpropagate actively with large amplitude and fast time course. In the distal domain, Na+ channel–mediated dendritic spikes are efficiently initiated by waveforms mimicking synaptic events. CA3 pyramidal neuron dendrites showed a high Na+-to-K+ conductance density ratio, providing ideal conditions for active backpropagation and dendritic spike initiation. Dendritic spikes may enhance the computational power of CA3 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal network.
AU - Kim, Sooyun
AU - Guzmán, José
AU - Hu, Hua
AU - Jonas, Peter M
ID - 3258
IS - 4
JF - Nature Neuroscience
TI - Active dendrites support efficient initiation of dendritic spikes in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons
VL - 15
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Many scenarios in the living world, where individual organisms compete for winning positions (or resources), have properties of auctions. Here we study the evolution of bids in biological auctions. For each auction, n individuals are drawn at random from a population of size N. Each individual makes a bid which entails a cost. The winner obtains a benefit of a certain value. Costs and benefits are translated into reproductive success (fitness). Therefore, successful bidding strategies spread in the population. We compare two types of auctions. In “biological all-pay auctions”, the costs are the bid for every participating individual. In “biological second price all-pay auctions”, the cost for everyone other than the winner is the bid, but the cost for the winner is the second highest bid. Second price all-pay auctions are generalizations of the “war of attrition” introduced by Maynard Smith. We study evolutionary dynamics in both types of auctions. We calculate pairwise invasion plots and evolutionarily stable distributions over the continuous strategy space. We find that the average bid in second price all-pay auctions is higher than in all-pay auctions, but the average cost for the winner is similar in both auctions. In both cases, the average bid is a declining function of the number of participants, n. The more individuals participate in an auction the smaller is the chance of winning, and thus expensive bids must be avoided.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Reiter, Johannes
AU - Nowak, Martin
ID - 3260
IS - 1
JF - Theoretical Population Biology
TI - Evolutionary dynamics of biological auctions
VL - 81
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Living cells must control the reading out or "expression" of information encoded in their genomes, and this regulation often is mediated by transcription factors--proteins that bind to DNA and either enhance or repress the expression of nearby genes. But the expression of transcription factor proteins is itself regulated, and many transcription factors regulate their own expression in addition to responding to other input signals. Here we analyze the simplest of such self-regulatory circuits, asking how parameters can be chosen to optimize information transmission from inputs to outputs in the steady state. Some nonzero level of self-regulation is almost always optimal, with self-activation dominant when transcription factor concentrations are low and self-repression dominant when concentrations are high. In steady state the optimal self-activation is never strong enough to induce bistability, although there is a limit in which the optimal parameters are very close to the critical point.
AU - Tkacik, Gasper
AU - Walczak, Aleksandra
AU - Bialek, William
ID - 3262
IS - 4
JF - Physical Review E statistical nonlinear and soft matter physics
TI - Optimizing information flow in small genetic networks. III. A self-interacting gene
VL - 85
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We propose a mid-level statistical model for image segmentation that composes multiple figure-ground hypotheses (FG) obtained by applying constraints at different locations and scales, into larger interpretations (tilings) of the entire image. Inference is cast as optimization over sets of maximal cliques sampled from a graph connecting all non-overlapping figure-ground segment hypotheses. Potential functions over cliques combine unary, Gestalt-based figure qualities, and pairwise compatibilities among spatially neighboring segments, constrained by T-junctions and the boundary interface statistics of real scenes. Learning the model parameters is based on maximum likelihood, alternating between sampling image tilings and optimizing their potential function parameters. State of the art results are reported on the Berkeley and Stanford segmentation datasets, as well as VOC2009, where a 28% improvement was achieved.
AU - Ion, Adrian
AU - Carreira, Joao
AU - Sminchisescu, Cristian
ID - 3265
TI - Image segmentation by figure-ground composition into maximal cliques
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - A boundary element model of a tunnel running through horizontally layered soil with anisotropic material properties is presented. Since there is no analytical fundamental solution for wave propagation inside a layered orthotropic medium in 3D, the fundamental displacements and stresses have to be calculated numerically. In our model this is done in the Fourier domain with respect to space and time. The assumption of a straight tunnel with infinite extension in the x direction makes it possible to decouple the system for every wave number kx, leading to a 2.5D-problem, which is suited for parallel computation. The special form of the fundamental solution, resulting from our Fourier ansatz, and the fact, that the calculation of the boundary integral equation is performed in the Fourier domain, enhances the stability and efficiency of the numerical calculations.
AU - Rieckh, Georg
AU - Kreuzer, Wolfgang
AU - Waubke, Holger
AU - Balazs, Peter
ID - 3274
IS - 6
JF - Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements
TI - A 2.5D-Fourier-BEM model for vibrations in a tunnel running through layered anisotropic soil
VL - 36
ER -
TY - CHAP
AB - The problem of the origin of metazoa is becoming more urgent in the context of astrobiology. By now it is clear that clues to the understanding of this crucial transition in the evolution of life can arise in a fourth pathway besides the three possibilities in the quest for simplicity outlined by Bonner in his classical book. In other words, solar system exploration seems to be one way in the long-term to elucidate the simplicity of evolutionary development. We place these ideas in the context of different inheritance systems, namely the genotypic and phenotypic replicators with limited or unlimited heredity, and ask which of these can support multicellular development, and to which degree of complexity. However, the quest for evidence on the evolution of biotas from planets around other stars does not seem to be feasible with present technology with direct visualization of living organisms on exoplanets. But this may be attempted on the Galilean moons of Jupiter where there is a possibility of detecting reliable biomarkers in the next decade with the Europa Jupiter System Mission, in view of recent progress by landing micropenetrators on planetary, or satellite surfaces. Mars is a second possibility in the inner Solar System, in spite of the multiple difficulties faced by the fleet of past, present and future missions. We discuss a series of preliminary ideas for elucidating the origin of metazoan analogues with available instrumentation in potential payloads of feasible space missions to the Galilean moons.
AU - de Vladar, Harold
AU - Chela Flores, Julian
ID - 3277
T2 - Life on Earth and other planetary bodies
TI - Can the evolution of multicellularity be anticipated in the exploration of the solar system?
VL - 24
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We show a hardness-preserving construction of a PRF from any length doubling PRG which improves upon known constructions whenever we can put a non-trivial upper bound q on the number of queries to the PRF. Our construction requires only O(logq) invocations to the underlying PRG with each query. In comparison, the number of invocations by the best previous hardness-preserving construction (GGM using Levin's trick) is logarithmic in the hardness of the PRG. For example, starting from an exponentially secure PRG {0,1} n → {0,1} 2n, we get a PRF which is exponentially secure if queried at most q = exp(√n)times and where each invocation of the PRF requires Θ(√n) queries to the underlying PRG. This is much less than the Θ(n) required by known constructions.
AU - Jain, Abhishek
AU - Pietrzak, Krzysztof Z
AU - Tentes, Aris
ID - 3279
TI - Hardness preserving constructions of pseudorandom functions
VL - 7194
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - The (decisional) learning with errors problem (LWE) asks to distinguish "noisy" inner products of a secret vector with random vectors from uniform. The learning parities with noise problem (LPN) is the special case where the elements of the vectors are bits. In recent years, the LWE and LPN problems have found many applications in cryptography. In this paper we introduce a (seemingly) much stronger adaptive assumption, called "subspace LWE" (SLWE), where the adversary can learn the inner product of the secret and random vectors after they were projected into an adaptively and adversarially chosen subspace. We prove that, surprisingly, the SLWE problem mapping into subspaces of dimension d is almost as hard as LWE using secrets of length d (the other direction is trivial.) This result immediately implies that several existing cryptosystems whose security is based on the hardness of the LWE/LPN problems are provably secure in a much stronger sense than anticipated. As an illustrative example we show that the standard way of using LPN for symmetric CPA secure encryption is even secure against a very powerful class of related key attacks.
AU - Pietrzak, Krzysztof Z
ID - 3280
TI - Subspace LWE
VL - 7194
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We consider the problem of amplifying the "lossiness" of functions. We say that an oracle circuit C*: {0,1} m → {0,1}* amplifies relative lossiness from ℓ/n to L/m if for every function f:{0,1} n → {0,1} n it holds that 1 If f is injective then so is C f. 2 If f has image size of at most 2 n-ℓ, then C f has image size at most 2 m-L. The question is whether such C* exists for L/m ≫ ℓ/n. This problem arises naturally in the context of cryptographic "lossy functions," where the relative lossiness is the key parameter. We show that for every circuit C* that makes at most t queries to f, the relative lossiness of C f is at most L/m ≤ ℓ/n + O(log t)/n. In particular, no black-box method making a polynomial t = poly(n) number of queries can amplify relative lossiness by more than an O(logn)/n additive term. We show that this is tight by giving a simple construction (cascading with some randomization) that achieves such amplification.
AU - Pietrzak, Krzysztof Z
AU - Rosen, Alon
AU - Segev, Gil
ID - 3281
TI - Lossy functions do not amplify well
VL - 7194
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Traditionally, symmetric-key message authentication codes (MACs) are easily built from pseudorandom functions (PRFs). In this work we propose a wide variety of other approaches to building efficient MACs, without going through a PRF first. In particular, unlike deterministic PRF-based MACs, where each message has a unique valid tag, we give a number of probabilistic MAC constructions from various other primitives/assumptions. Our main results are summarized as follows: We show several new probabilistic MAC constructions from a variety of general assumptions, including CCA-secure encryption, Hash Proof Systems and key-homomorphic weak PRFs. By instantiating these frameworks under concrete number theoretic assumptions, we get several schemes which are more efficient than just using a state-of-the-art PRF instantiation under the corresponding assumption. For probabilistic MACs, unlike deterministic ones, unforgeability against a chosen message attack (uf-cma ) alone does not imply security if the adversary can additionally make verification queries (uf-cmva ). We give an efficient generic transformation from any uf-cma secure MAC which is "message-hiding" into a uf-cmva secure MAC. This resolves the main open problem of Kiltz et al. from Eurocrypt'11; By using our transformation on their constructions, we get the first efficient MACs from the LPN assumption. While all our new MAC constructions immediately give efficient actively secure, two-round symmetric-key identification schemes, we also show a very simple, three-round actively secure identification protocol from any weak PRF. In particular, the resulting protocol is much more efficient than the trivial approach of building a regular PRF from a weak PRF. © 2012 International Association for Cryptologic Research.
AU - Dodis, Yevgeniy
AU - Pietrzak, Krzysztof Z
AU - Kiltz, Eike
AU - Wichs, Daniel
ID - 3282
TI - Message authentication, revisited
VL - 7237
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Viral manipulation of transduction pathways associated with key cellular functions such as survival, response to microbial infection, and cytoskeleton reorganization can provide the supportive milieu for a productive infection. Here, we demonstrate that vaccinia virus (VACV) infection leads to activation of the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 4/7 (MKK4/7)-c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) pathway; further, the stimulation of this pathway requires postpenetration, prereplicative events in the viral replication cycle. Although the formation of intracellular mature virus (IMV) was not affected in MKK4/7- or JNK1/2-knockout (KO) cells, we did note an accentuated deregulation of microtubule and actin network organization in infected JNK1/2-KO cells. This was followed by deregulated viral trafficking to the periphery and enhanced enveloped particle release. Furthermore, VACV infection induced alterations in the cell contractility and morphology, and cell migration was reduced in the JNK-KO cells. In addition, phosphorylation of proteins implicated with early cell contractility and cell migration, such as microtubule-associated protein 1B and paxillin, respectively, was not detected in the VACV-infected KO cells. In sum, our findings uncover a regulatory role played by the MKK4/7-JNK1/2 pathway in cytoskeleton reorganization during VACV infection.
AU - Pereira, Anna
AU - Leite, Flávia
AU - Brasil, Bruno
AU - Soares Martins, Jamaria
AU - Torres, Alice
AU - Pimenta, Paulo
AU - Souto Padrón, Thais
AU - Tranktman, Paula
AU - Ferreira, Paulo
AU - Kroon, Erna
AU - Bonjardim, Cláudio
ID - 3289
IS - 1
JF - Journal of Virology
TI - A vaccinia virus-driven interplay between the MKK4/7-JNK1/2 pathway and cytoskeleton reorganization
VL - 86
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The theory of persistent homology opens up the possibility to reason about topological features of a space or a function quantitatively and in combinatorial terms. We refer to this new angle at a classical subject within algebraic topology as a point calculus, which we present for the family of interlevel sets of a real-valued function. Our account of the subject is expository, devoid of proofs, and written for non-experts in algebraic topology.
AU - Bendich, Paul
AU - Cabello, Sergio
AU - Edelsbrunner, Herbert
ID - 3310
IS - 11
JF - Pattern Recognition Letters
TI - A point calculus for interlevel set homology
VL - 33
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We introduce two-level discounted and mean-payoff games played by two players on a perfect-information stochastic game graph. The upper level game is a discounted or mean-payoff game and the lower level game is a (undiscounted) reachability game. Two-level games model hierarchical and sequential decision making under uncertainty across different time scales. For both discounted and mean-payoff two-level games, we show the existence of pure memoryless optimal strategies for both players and an ordered field property. We show that if there is only one player (Markov decision processes), then the values can be computed in polynomial time. It follows that whether the value of a player is equal to a given rational constant in two-level discounted or mean-payoff games can be decided in NP ∩ coNP. We also give an alternate strategy improvement algorithm to compute the value. © 2012 World Scientific Publishing Company.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Majumdar, Ritankar
ID - 3314
IS - 3
JF - International Journal of Foundations of Computer Science
TI - Discounting and averaging in games across time scales
VL - 23
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The physical distance between presynaptic Ca2+ channels and the Ca2+ sensors that trigger exocytosis of neurotransmitter-containing vesicles is a key determinant of the signalling properties of synapses in the nervous system. Recent functional analysis indicates that in some fast central synapses, transmitter release is triggered by a small number of Ca2+ channels that are coupled to Ca2+ sensors at the nanometre scale. Molecular analysis suggests that this tight coupling is generated by protein–protein interactions involving Ca2+ channels, Ca2+ sensors and various other synaptic proteins. Nanodomain coupling has several functional advantages, as it increases the efficacy, speed and energy efficiency of synaptic transmission.
AU - Eggermann, Emmanuel
AU - Bucurenciu, Iancu
AU - Goswami, Sarit
AU - Jonas, Peter M
ID - 3317
IS - 1
JF - Nature Reviews Neuroscience
TI - Nanodomain coupling between Ca(2+) channels and sensors of exocytosis at fast mammalian synapses
VL - 13
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Computing the topology of an algebraic plane curve C means computing a combinatorial graph that is isotopic to C and thus represents its topology in R2. We prove that, for a polynomial of degree n with integer coefficients bounded by 2ρ, the topology of the induced curve can be computed with bit operations ( indicates that we omit logarithmic factors). Our analysis improves the previous best known complexity bounds by a factor of n2. The improvement is based on new techniques to compute and refine isolating intervals for the real roots of polynomials, and on the consequent amortized analysis of the critical fibers of the algebraic curve.
AU - Kerber, Michael
AU - Sagraloff, Michael
ID - 3331
IS - 3
JF - Journal of Symbolic Computation
TI - A worst case bound for topology computation of algebraic curves
VL - 47
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We consider two-player stochastic games played on a finite state space for an infinite number of rounds. The games are concurrent: in each round, the two players (player 1 and player 2) choose their moves independently and simultaneously; the current state and the two moves determine a probability distribution over the successor states. We also consider the important special case of turn-based stochastic games where players make moves in turns, rather than concurrently. We study concurrent games with \omega-regular winning conditions specified as parity objectives. The value for player 1 for a parity objective is the maximal probability with which the player can guarantee the satisfaction of the objective against all strategies of the opponent. We study the problem of continuity and robustness of the value function in concurrent and turn-based stochastic parity gameswith respect to imprecision in the transition probabilities. We present quantitative bounds on the difference of the value function (in terms of the imprecision of the transition probabilities) and show the value continuity for structurally equivalent concurrent games (two games are structurally equivalent if the support of the transition function is same and the probabilities differ). We also show robustness of optimal strategies for structurally equivalent turn-based stochastic parity games. Finally we show that the value continuity property breaks without the structurally equivalent assumption (even for Markov chains) and show that our quantitative bound is asymptotically optimal. Hence our results are tight (the assumption is both necessary and sufficient) and optimal (our quantitative bound is asymptotically optimal).
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
ID - 3341
TI - Robustness of structurally equivalent concurrent parity games
VL - 7213
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Hierarchical Timing Language (HTL) is a coordination language for distributed, hard real-time applications. HTL is a hierarchical extension of Giotto and, like its predecessor, based on the logical execution time (LET) paradigm of real-time programming. Giotto is compiled into code for a virtual machine, called the EmbeddedMachine (or E machine). If HTL is targeted to the E machine, then the hierarchicalprogram structure needs to be flattened; the flattening makes separatecompilation difficult, and may result in E machinecode of exponential size. In this paper, we propose a generalization of the E machine, which supports a hierarchicalprogram structure at runtime through real-time trigger mechanisms that are arranged in a tree. We present the generalized E machine, and a modular compiler for HTL that generates code of linear size. The compiler may generate code for any part of a given HTL program separately in any order.
AU - Ghosal, Arkadeb
AU - Iercan, Daniel
AU - Kirsch, Christoph
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
AU - Sangiovanni Vincentelli, Alberto
ID - 3836
IS - 2
JF - Science of Computer Programming
TI - Separate compilation of hierarchical real-time programs into linear-bounded embedded machine code
VL - 77
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We summarize classical and recent results about two-player games played on graphs with ω-regular objectives. These games have applications in the verification and synthesis of reactive systems. Important distinctions are whether a graph game is turn-based or concurrent; deterministic or stochastic; zero-sum or not. We cluster known results and open problems according to these classifications.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
ID - 3846
IS - 2
JF - Journal of Computer and System Sciences
TI - A survey of stochastic ω regular games
VL - 78
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The elevation function on a smoothly embedded 2-manifold in R-3 reflects the multiscale topography of cavities and protrusions as local maxima. The function has been useful in identifying coarse docking configurations for protein pairs. Transporting the concept from the smooth to the piecewise linear category, this paper describes an algorithm for finding all local maxima. While its worst-case running time is the same as of the algorithm used in prior work, its performance in practice is orders of magnitudes superior. We cast light on this improvement by relating the running time to the total absolute Gaussian curvature of the 2-manifold.
AU - Wang, Bei
AU - Edelsbrunner, Herbert
AU - Morozov, Dmitriy
ID - 3965
IS - 2.2
JF - Journal of Experimental Algorithmics
TI - Computing elevation maxima by searching the Gauss sphere
VL - 16
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Spontaneous release of glutamate is important for maintaining synaptic strength and controlling spike timing in the brain. Mechanisms regulating spontaneous exocytosis remain poorly understood. Extracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]o) regulates Ca2+ entry through voltage-activated calcium channels (VACCs) and consequently is a pivotal determinant of action potential-evoked vesicle fusion. Extracellular Ca 2+ also enhances spontaneous release, but via unknown mechanisms. Here we report that external Ca2+ triggers spontaneous glutamate release more weakly than evoked release in mouse neocortical neurons. Blockade of VACCs has no effect on the spontaneous release rate or its dependence on [Ca2+]o. Intracellular [Ca2+] slowly increases in a minority of neurons following increases in [Ca2+]o. Furthermore, the enhancement of spontaneous release by extracellular calcium is insensitive to chelation of intracellular calcium by BAPTA. Activation of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a G-protein-coupled receptor present in nerve terminals, by several specific agonists increased spontaneous glutamate release. The frequency of spontaneous synaptic transmission was decreased in CaSR mutant neurons. The concentration-effect relationship for extracellular calcium regulation of spontaneous release was well described by a combination of CaSR-dependent and CaSR-independent mechanisms. Overall these results indicate that extracellular Ca2+ does not trigger spontaneous glutamate release by simply increasing calcium influx but stimulates CaSR and thereby promotes resting spontaneous glutamate release.
AU - Vyleta, Nicholas
AU - Smith, Stephen
ID - 469
IS - 12
JF - European Journal of Neuroscience
TI - Spontaneous glutamate release is independent of calcium influx and tonically activated by the calcium-sensing receptor
VL - 31
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - BioSig is an open source software library for biomedical signal processing. The aim of the BioSig project is to foster research in biomedical signal processing by providing free and open source software tools for many different application areas. Some of the areas where BioSig can be employed are neuroinformatics, brain-computer interfaces, neurophysiology, psychology, cardiovascular systems, and sleep research. Moreover, the analysis of biosignals such as the electroencephalogram (EEG), electrocorticogram (ECoG), electrocardiogram (ECG), electrooculogram (EOG), electromyogram (EMG), or respiration signals is a very relevant element of the BioSig project. Specifically, BioSig provides solutions for data acquisition, artifact processing, quality control, feature extraction, classification, modeling, and data visualization, to name a few. In this paper, we highlight several methods to help students and researchers to work more efficiently with biomedical signals.
AU - Schlögl, Alois
AU - Vidaurre, Carmen
AU - Sander, Tilmann
ID - 490
JF - Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
TI - BioSig: The free and open source software library for biomedical signal processing
VL - 2011
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - In their search for antigens, lymphocytes continuously shuttle among blood vessels, lymph vessels, and lymphatic tissues. Chemokines mediate entry of lymphocytes into lymphatic tissues, and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) promotes localization of lymphocytes to the vasculature. Both signals are sensed through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Most GPCRs undergo ligand-dependent homologous receptor desensitization, a process that decreases their signaling output after previous exposure to high ligand concentration. Such desensitization can explain why lymphocytes do not take an intermediate position between two signals but rather oscillate between them. The desensitization of S1P receptor 1 (S1PR1) is mediated by GPCR kinase 2 (GRK2). Deletion of GRK2 in lymphocytes compromises desensitization by high vascular S1P concentrations, thereby reducing responsiveness to the chemokine signal and trapping the cells in the vascular compartment. The desensitization kinetics of S1PR1 allows lymphocytes to dynamically shuttle between vasculature and lymphatic tissue, although the positional information in both compartments is static.
AU - Eichner, Alexander
AU - Sixt, Michael K
ID - 491
IS - 198
JF - Science Signaling
TI - Setting the clock for recirculating lymphocytes
VL - 4
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Cancer stem cells or cancer initiating cells are believed to contribute to cancer recurrence after therapy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNA molecules with fundamental roles in gene regulation. The role of miRNAs in cancer stem cells is only poorly understood. Here, we report miRNA expression profiles of glioblastoma stem cell-containing CD133 + cell populations. We find that miR-9, miR-9 * (referred to as miR-9/9 *), miR-17 and miR-106b are highly abundant in CD133 + cells. Furthermore, inhibition of miR-9/9 * or miR-17 leads to reduced neurosphere formation and stimulates cell differentiation. Calmodulin-binding transcription activator 1 (CAMTA1) is a putative transcription factor, which induces the expression of the anti-proliferative cardiac hormone natriuretic peptide A (NPPA). We identify CAMTA1 as an miR-9/9 * and miR-17 target. CAMTA1 expression leads to reduced neurosphere formation and tumour growth in nude mice, suggesting that CAMTA1 can function as tumour suppressor. Consistently, CAMTA1 and NPPA expression correlate with patient survival. Our findings could provide a basis for novel strategies of glioblastoma therapy.
AU - Schraivogel, Daniel
AU - Weinmann, Lasse
AU - Beier, Dagmar
AU - Tabatabai, Ghazaleh
AU - Eichner, Alexander
AU - Zhu, Jia
AU - Anton, Martina
AU - Sixt, Michael K
AU - Weller, Michael
AU - Beier, Christoph
AU - Meister, Gunter
ID - 518
IS - 20
JF - EMBO Journal
TI - CAMTA1 is a novel tumour suppressor regulated by miR-9/9 * in glioblastoma stem cells
VL - 30
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Software transactional memories (STM) are described in the literature with assumptions of sequentially consistent program execution and atomicity of high level operations like read, write, and abort. However, in a realistic setting, processors use relaxed memory models to optimize hardware performance. Moreover, the atomicity of operations depends on the underlying hardware. This paper presents the first approach to verify STMs under relaxed memory models with atomicity of 32 bit loads and stores, and read-modify-write operations. We describe RML, a simple language for expressing concurrent programs. We develop a semantics of RML parametrized by a relaxed memory model. We then present our tool, FOIL, which takes as input the RML description of an STM algorithm restricted to two threads and two variables, and the description of a memory model, and automatically determines the locations of fences, which if inserted, ensure the correctness of the restricted STM algorithm under the given memory model. We use FOIL to verify DSTM, TL2, and McRT STM under the memory models of sequential consistency, total store order, partial store order, and relaxed memory order for two threads and two variables. Finally, we extend the verification results for DSTM and TL2 to an arbitrary number of threads and variables by manually proving that the structural properties of STMs are satisfied at the hardware level of atomicity under the considered relaxed memory models.
AU - Guerraoui, Rachid
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
AU - Singh, Vasu
ID - 531
IS - 3
JF - Formal Methods in System Design
TI - Verification of STM on relaxed memory models
VL - 39
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - Computing the winning set for Büchi objectives in alternating games on graphs is a central problem in computer aided verification with a large number of applications. The long standing best known upper bound for solving the problem is ̃O(n·m), where n is the number of vertices and m is the number of edges in the graph. We are the first to break the ̃O(n·m) boundary by presenting a new technique that reduces the running time to O(n2). This bound also leads to O(n2) time algorithms for computing the set of almost-sure winning vertices for Büchi objectives (1) in alternating games with probabilistic transitions (improving an earlier bound of O(n·m)), (2) in concurrent graph games with constant actions (improving an earlier bound of O(n3)), and (3) in Markov decision processes (improving for m > n4/3 an earlier bound of O(min(m1.5, m·n2/3)). We also show that the same technique can be used to compute the maximal end-component decomposition of a graph in time O(n2), which is an improvement over earlier bounds for m > n4/3. Finally, we show how to maintain the winning set for Büchi objectives in alternating games under a sequence of edge insertions or a sequence of edge deletions in O(n) amortized time per operation. This is the first dynamic algorithm for this problem.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Henzinger, Monika
ID - 5379
SN - 2664-1690
TI - An O(n2) time algorithm for alternating Büchi games
ER -