TY - JOUR
AB - Color texture reproduction in 3D printing commonly ignores volumetric light transport (cross-talk) between surface points on a 3D print. Such light diffusion leads to significant blur of details and color bleeding, and is particularly severe for highly translucent resin-based print materials. Given their widely varying scattering properties, this cross-talk between surface points strongly depends on the internal structure of the volume surrounding each surface point. Existing scattering-aware methods use simplified models for light diffusion, and often accept the visual blur as an immutable property of the print medium. In contrast, our work counteracts heterogeneous scattering to obtain the impression of a crisp albedo texture on top of the 3D print, by optimizing for a fully volumetric material distribution that preserves the target appearance. Our method employs an efficient numerical optimizer on top of a general Monte-Carlo simulation of heterogeneous scattering, supported by a practical calibration procedure to obtain scattering parameters from a given set of printer materials. Despite the inherent translucency of the medium, we reproduce detailed surface textures on 3D prints. We evaluate our system using a commercial, five-tone 3D print process and compare against the printer’s native color texturing mode, demonstrating that our method preserves high-frequency features well without having to compromise on color gamut.
AU - Elek, Oskar
AU - Sumin, Denis
AU - Zhang, Ran
AU - Weyrich, Tim
AU - Myszkowski, Karol
AU - Bickel, Bernd
AU - Wilkie, Alexander
AU - Krivanek, Jaroslav
ID - 486
IS - 6
JF - ACM Transactions on Graphics
SN - 07300301
TI - Scattering-aware texture reproduction for 3D printing
VL - 36
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We present an interactive design system to create functional mechanical objects. Our computational approach allows novice users to retarget an existing mechanical template to a user-specified input shape. Our proposed representation for a mechanical template encodes a parameterized mechanism, mechanical constraints that ensure a physically valid configuration, spatial relationships of mechanical parts to the user-provided shape, and functional constraints that specify an intended functionality. We provide an intuitive interface and optimization-in-the-loop approach for finding a valid configuration of the mechanism and the shape to ensure that higher-level functional goals are met. Our algorithm interactively optimizes the mechanism while the user manipulates the placement of mechanical components and the shape. Our system allows users to efficiently explore various design choices and to synthesize customized mechanical objects that can be fabricated with rapid prototyping technologies. We demonstrate the efficacy of our approach by retargeting various mechanical templates to different shapes and fabricating the resulting functional mechanical objects.
AU - Zhang, Ran
AU - Auzinger, Thomas
AU - Ceylan, Duygu
AU - Li, Wilmot
AU - Bickel, Bernd
ID - 1002
IS - 4
SN - 07300301
TI - Functionality-aware retargeting of mechanisms to 3D shapes
VL - 36
ER -
TY - THES
AB - The hippocampus is a key brain region for memory and notably for spatial memory, and is needed for both spatial working and reference memories. Hippocampal place cells selectively discharge in specific locations of the environment to form mnemonic represen tations of space. Several behavioral protocols have been designed to test spatial memory which requires the experimental subject to utilize working memory and reference memory. However, less is known about how these memory traces are presented in the hippo campus, especially considering tasks that require both spatial working and long -term reference memory demand. The aim of my thesis was to elucidate how spatial working memory, reference memory, and the combination of both are represented in the hippocampus. In this thesis, using a radial eight -arm maze, I examined how the combined demand on these memories influenced place cell assemblies while reference memories were partially updated by changing some of the reward- arms. This was contrasted with task varian ts requiring working or reference memories only. Reference memory update led to gradual place field shifts towards the rewards on the switched arms. Cells developed enhanced firing in passes between newly -rewarded arms as compared to those containing an unchanged reward. The working memory task did not show such gradual changes. Place assemblies on occasions replayed trajectories of the maze; at decision points the next arm choice was preferentially replayed in tasks needing reference memory while in the pure working memory task the previously visited arm was replayed. Hence trajectory replay only reflected the decision of the animal in tasks needing reference memory update. At the reward locations, in all three tasks outbound trajectories of the current arm were preferentially replayed, showing the animals’ next path to the center. At reward locations trajectories were replayed preferentially in reverse temporal order. Moreover, in the center reverse replay was seen in the working memory task but in the other tasks forward replay was seen. Hence, the direction of reactivation was determined by the goal locations so that part of the trajectory which was closer to the goal was reactivated later in an HSE while places further away from the goal were reactivated earlier. Altogether my work demonstrated that reference memory update triggers several levels of reorganization of the hippocampal cognitive map which are not seen in simpler working memory demand s. Moreover, hippocampus is likely to be involved in spatial decisions through reactivating planned trajectories when reference memory recall is required for such a decision.
AU - Xu, Haibing
ID - 837
TI - Reactivation of the hippocampal cognitive map in goal-directed spatial tasks
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Most kinesin motors move in only one direction along microtubules. Members of the kinesin-5 subfamily were initially described as unidirectional plus-end-directed motors and shown to produce piconewton forces. However, some fungal kinesin-5 motors are bidirectional. The force production of a bidirectional kinesin-5 has not yet been measured. Therefore, it remains unknown whether the mechanism of the unconventional minus-end-directed motility differs fundamentally from that of plus-end-directed stepping. Using force spectroscopy, we have measured here the forces that ensembles of purified budding yeast kinesin-5 Cin8 produce in microtubule gliding assays in both plus- and minus-end direction. Correlation analysis of pause forces demonstrated that individual Cin8 molecules produce additive forces in both directions of movement. In ensembles, Cin8 motors were able to produce single-motor forces up to a magnitude of ∼1.5 pN. Hence, these properties appear to be conserved within the kinesin-5 subfamily. Force production was largely independent of the directionality of movement, indicating similarities between the motility mechanisms for both directions. These results provide constraints for the development of models for the bidirectional motility mechanism of fission yeast kinesin-5 and provide insight into the function of this mitotic motor.
AU - Fallesen, Todd
AU - Roostalu, Johanna
AU - Düllberg, Christian F
AU - Pruessner, Gunnar
AU - Surrey, Thomas
ID - 453
IS - 9
JF - Biophysical Journal
TI - Ensembles of bidirectional kinesin Cin8 produce additive forces in both directions of movement
VL - 113
ER -
TY - CHAP
AB - Methyl groups are very useful probes of structure, dynamics, and interactions in protein NMR spectroscopy. In particular, methyl-directed experiments provide high sensitivity even in very large proteins, such as membrane proteins in a membrane-mimicking environment. In this chapter, we discuss the approach for labeling methyl groups in E. coli-based protein expression, as exemplified with the mitochondrial carrier GGC.
AU - Kurauskas, Vilius
AU - Schanda, Paul
AU - Sounier, Remy
ID - 8450
SN - 1064-3745
T2 - Membrane protein structure and function characterization
TI - Methyl-specific isotope labeling strategies for NMR studies of membrane proteins
VL - 1635
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Immune cells communicate using cytokine signals, but the quantitative rules of this communication aren't clear. In this issue of Immunity, Oyler-Yaniv et al. (2017) suggest that the distribution of a cytokine within a lymphatic organ is primarily governed by the local density of cells consuming it.
AU - Assen, Frank P
AU - Sixt, Michael K
ID - 664
IS - 4
JF - Immunity
SN - 10747613
TI - The dynamic cytokine niche
VL - 46
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The history of auxin and cytokinin biology including the initial discoveries by father–son duo Charles Darwin and Francis Darwin (1880), and Gottlieb Haberlandt (1919) is a beautiful demonstration of unceasing continuity of research. Novel findings are integrated into existing hypotheses and models and deepen our understanding of biological principles. At the same time new questions are triggered and hand to hand with this new methodologies are developed to address these new challenges.
AU - Hurny, Andrej
AU - Benková, Eva
ID - 1024
JF - Auxins and Cytokinins in Plant Biology
SN - 10643745
TI - Methodological advances in auxin and cytokinin biology
VL - 1569
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Magic: the Gathering is a game about magical combat for any number of players. Formally it is a zero-sum, imperfect information stochastic game that consists of a potentially unbounded number of steps. We consider the problem of deciding if a move is legal in a given single step of Magic. We show that the problem is (a) coNP-complete in general; and (b) in P if either of two small sets of cards are not used. Our lower bound holds even for single-player Magic games. The significant aspects of our results are as follows: First, in most real-life game problems, the task of deciding whether a given move is legal in a single step is trivial, and the computationally hard task is to find the best sequence of legal moves in the presence of multiple players. In contrast, quite uniquely our hardness result holds for single step and with only one-player. Second, we establish efficient algorithms for important special cases of Magic.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus
ID - 478
TI - The complexity of deciding legality of a single step of magic: The gathering
VL - 285
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Clinical guidelines and decision support systems (DSS) play an important role in daily practices of medicine. Many text-based guidelines have been encoded for work-flow simulation of DSS to automate health care. During the collaboration with Carle hospital to develop a DSS, we identify that, for some complex and life-critical diseases, it is highly desirable to automatically rigorously verify some complex temporal properties in guidelines, which brings new challenges to current simulation based DSS with limited support of automatical formal verification and real-time data analysis. In this paper, we conduct the first study on applying runtime verification to cooperate with current DSS based on real-time data. Within the proposed technique, a user-friendly domain specific language, named DRTV, is designed to specify vital real-time data sampled by medical devices and temporal properties originated from clinical guidelines. Some interfaces are developed for data acquisition and communication. Then, for medical practice scenarios described in DRTV model, we will automatically generate event sequences and runtime property verifier automata. If a temporal property violates, real-time warnings will be produced by the formal verifier and passed to medical DSS. We have used DRTV to specify different kinds of medical care scenarios, and applied the proposed technique to assist existing DSS. As presented in experiment results, in terms of warning detection, it outperforms the only use of DSS or human inspection, and improves the quality of clinical health care of hospital
AU - Jiang, Yu
AU - Liu, Han
AU - Kong, Hui
AU - Wang, Rui
AU - Hosseini, Mohamad
AU - Sun, Jiaguang
AU - Sha, Lui
ID - 479
T2 - Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Software Engineering Companion
TI - Use runtime verification to improve the quality of medical care practice
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Graph games provide the foundation for modeling and synthesizing reactive processes. In the synthesis of stochastic reactive processes, the traditional model is perfect-information stochastic games, where some transitions of the game graph are controlled by two adversarial players, and the other transitions are executed probabilistically. We consider such games where the objective is the conjunction of several quantitative objectives (specified as mean-payoff conditions), which we refer to as generalized mean-payoff objectives. The basic decision problem asks for the existence of a finite-memory strategy for a player that ensures the generalized mean-payoff objective be satisfied with a desired probability against all strategies of the opponent. A special case of the decision problem is the almost-sure problem where the desired probability is 1. Previous results presented a semi-decision procedure for -approximations of the almost-sure problem. In this work, we show that both the almost-sure problem as well as the general basic decision problem are coNP-complete, significantly improving the previous results. Moreover, we show that in the case of 1-player stochastic games, randomized memoryless strategies are sufficient and the problem can be solved in polynomial time. In contrast, in two-player stochastic games, we show that even with randomized strategies exponential memory is required in general, and present a matching exponential upper bound. We also study the basic decision problem with infinite-memory strategies and present computational complexity results for the problem. Our results are relevant in the synthesis of stochastic reactive systems with multiple quantitative requirements.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Doyen, Laurent
ID - 480
TI - Perfect-information stochastic games with generalized mean-payoff objectives
VL - 05-08-July-2016
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Nonlinear electro-optical conversion of microwave radiation into the optical telecommunication band is achieved within a crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator, reaching 0.1% photon number conversion efficiency with MHz bandwidth.
AU - Rueda, Alfredo
AU - Sedlmeir, Florian
AU - Collodo, Michele
AU - Vogl, Ulrich
AU - Stiller, Birgit
AU - Schunk, Gerhard
AU - Strekalov, Dmitry
AU - Marquardt, Christoph
AU - Fink, Johannes M
AU - Painter, Oskar
AU - Leuchs, Gerd
AU - Schwefel, Harald
ID - 482
TI - Nonlinear single sideband microwave to optical conversion using an electro-optic WGM-resonator
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The CLE (CLAVATA3/Embryo Surrounding Region-related) peptides are small secreted signaling peptides that are primarily involved in the regulation of stem cell homeostasis in different plant meristems. Particularly, the characterization of the CLE41-PXY/TDR signaling pathway has greatly advanced our understanding on the potential roles of CLE peptides in vascular development and wood formation. Nevertheless, our knowledge on this gene family in a tree species is limited. In a recent study, we reported on a systematically investigation of the CLE gene family in Populus trichocarpa . The potential roles of PtCLE genes were studied by comparative analysis and transcriptional pro fi ling. Among fi fty PtCLE members, many PtCLE proteins share identical CLE motifs or contain the same CLE motif as that of AtCLEs, while PtCLE genes exhibited either comparable or distinct expression patterns comparing to their Arabidopsis counterparts. These fi ndings indicate the existence of both functional conservation and functional divergence between PtCLEs and their AtCLE orthologues. Our results provide valuable resources for future functional investigations of these critical signaling molecules in woody plants.
AU - Liu, Zhijun
AU - Yang, Nan
AU - Lv, Yanting
AU - Pan, Lixia
AU - Lv, Shuo
AU - Han, Huibin
AU - Wang, Guodong
ID - 510
IS - 6
JF - Plant Signaling & Behavior
TI - The CLE gene family in Populus trichocarpa
VL - 11
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - We consider the quantitative analysis problem for interprocedural control-flow graphs (ICFGs). The input consists of an ICFG, a positive weight function that assigns every transition a positive integer-valued number, and a labelling of the transitions (events) as good, bad, and neutral events. The weight function assigns to each transition a numerical value that represents ameasure of how good or bad an event is. The quantitative analysis problem asks whether there is a run of the ICFG where the ratio of the sum of the numerical weights of good events versus the sum of weights of bad events in the long-run is at least a given threshold (or equivalently, to compute the maximal ratio among all valid paths in the ICFG). The quantitative analysis problem for ICFGs can be solved in polynomial time, and we present an efficient and practical algorithm for the problem. We show that several problems relevant for static program analysis, such as estimating the worst-case execution time of a program or the average energy consumption of a mobile application, can be modeled in our framework. We have implemented our algorithm as a tool in the Java Soot framework. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach with two case studies. First, we show that our framework provides a sound approach (no false positives) for the analysis of inefficiently-used containers. Second, we show that our approach can also be used for static profiling of programs which reasons about methods that are frequently invoked. Our experimental results show that our tool scales to relatively large benchmarks, and discovers relevant and useful information that can be used to optimize performance of the programs.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Pavlogiannis, Andreas
AU - Velner, Yaron
ID - 5445
SN - 2664-1690
TI - Quantitative interprocedural analysis
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - We study the problem of developing efficient approaches for proving termination of recursive programs with one-dimensional arrays. Ranking functions serve as a sound and complete approach for proving termination of non-recursive programs without array operations. First, we generalize ranking functions to the notion of measure functions, and prove that measure functions (i) provide a sound method to prove termination of recursive programs (with one-dimensional arrays), and (ii) is both sound and complete over recursive programs without array operations. Our second contribution is the synthesis of measure functions of specific forms in polynomial time. More precisely, we prove that (i) polynomial measure functions over recursive programs can be synthesized in polynomial time through Farkas’ Lemma and Handelman’s Theorem, and (ii) measure functions involving logarithm and exponentiation can be synthesized in polynomial time through abstraction of logarithmic or exponential terms and Handelman’s Theorem. A key application of our method is the worst-case analysis of recursive programs. While previous methods obtain worst-case polynomial bounds of the form O(n^k), where k is an integer, our polynomial time methods can synthesize bounds of the form O(n log n), as well as O(n^x), where x is not an integer. We show the applicability of our automated technique to obtain worst-case complexity of classical recursive algorithms such as (i) Merge-Sort, the divideand-
conquer algorithm for the Closest-Pair problem, where we obtain O(n log n) worst-case bound, and (ii) Karatsuba’s algorithm for polynomial multiplication and Strassen’s algorithm for matrix multiplication, where we obtain O(n^x) bound, where x is not an integer and close to the best-known bounds for the respective algorithms. Finally, we present experimental results to demonstrate the
effectiveness of our approach.
AU - Anonymous, 1
AU - Anonymous, 2
AU - Anonymous, 3
ID - 5446
SN - 2664-1690
TI - Termination and worst-case analysis of recursive programs
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - We consider the problem of developing automated techniques to aid the average-case complexity analysis of programs. Several classical textbook algorithms have quite efficient average-case complexity, whereas the corresponding worst-case bounds are either inefficient (e.g., QUICK-SORT), or completely ineffective (e.g., COUPONCOLLECTOR). Since the main focus of average-case analysis is to obtain efficient bounds, we consider bounds that are either logarithmic,
linear, or almost-linear (O(log n), O(n), O(n · log n),
respectively, where n represents the size of the input). Our main contribution is a sound approach for deriving such average-case bounds for randomized recursive programs. Our approach is efficient (a simple linear-time algorithm), and it is based on (a) the analysis of recurrence relations induced by randomized algorithms, and (b) a guess-and-check technique. Our approach can infer the asymptotically optimal average-case bounds for classical randomized algorithms, including RANDOMIZED-SEARCH, QUICKSORT, QUICK-SELECT, COUPON-COLLECTOR, where the worstcase
bounds are either inefficient (such as linear as compared to logarithmic of average-case, or quadratic as compared to linear or almost-linear of average-case), or ineffective. We have implemented our approach, and the experimental results show that we obtain the bounds efficiently for various classical algorithms.
AU - Anonymous, 1
AU - Anonymous, 2
AU - Anonymous, 3
ID - 5447
SN - 2664-1690
TI - Average-case analysis of programs: Automated recurrence analysis for almost-linear bounds
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - We present a new dynamic partial-order reduction method for stateless model checking of concurrent programs. A common approach for exploring program behaviors relies on enumerating the traces of the program, without storing the visited states (aka stateless exploration). As the number of distinct traces grows exponentially, dynamic partial-order reduction (DPOR) techniques have been successfully used to partition the space of traces into equivalence classes (Mazurkiewicz partitioning), with the goal of exploring only few representative traces from each class.
We introduce a new equivalence on traces under sequential consistency semantics, which we call the observation equivalence. Two traces are observationally equivalent if every read event observes the same write event in both traces. While the traditional Mazurkiewicz equivalence is control-centric, our new definition is data-centric. We show that our observation equivalence is coarser than the Mazurkiewicz equivalence, and in many cases even exponentially coarser. We devise a DPOR exploration of the trace space, called data-centric DPOR, based on the observation equivalence.
1. For acyclic architectures, our algorithm is guaranteed to explore exactly one representative trace from each observation class, while spending polynomial time per class. Hence, our algorithm is optimal wrt the observation equivalence, and in several cases explores exponentially fewer traces than any enumerative method based on the Mazurkiewicz equivalence.
2. For cyclic architectures, we consider an equivalence between traces which is finer than the observation equivalence; but coarser than the Mazurkiewicz equivalence, and in some cases is exponentially coarser. Our data-centric DPOR algorithm remains optimal under this trace equivalence.
Finally, we perform a basic experimental comparison between the existing Mazurkiewicz-based DPOR and our data-centric DPOR on a set of academic benchmarks. Our results show a significant reduction in both running time and the number of explored equivalence classes.
AU - Anonymous, 1
AU - Anonymous, 2
AU - Anonymous, 3
AU - Anonymous, 4
ID - 5448
SN - 2664-1690
TI - Data-centric dynamic partial order reduction
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - The fixation probability is the probability that a new mutant introduced in a homogeneous population eventually takes over the entire population.
The fixation probability is a fundamental quantity of natural selection, and known to depend on the population structure.
Amplifiers of natural selection are population structures which increase the fixation probability of advantageous mutants, as compared to the baseline case of well-mixed populations. In this work we focus on symmetric population structures represented as undirected graphs. In the regime of undirected graphs, the strongest amplifier known has been the Star graph, and the existence of undirected graphs with stronger amplification properties has remained open for over a decade.
In this work we present the Comet and Comet-swarm families of undirected graphs. We show that for a range of fitness values of the mutants, the Comet and Comet-swarm graphs have fixation probability strictly larger than the fixation probability of the Star graph, for fixed population size and at the limit of large populations, respectively.
AU - Pavlogiannis, Andreas
AU - Tkadlec, Josef
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Nowak, Martin
ID - 5449
SN - 2664-1690
TI - Amplification on undirected population structures: Comets beat stars
ER -
TY - GEN
AU - Pavlogiannis, Andreas
AU - Tkadlec, Josef
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Nowak, Martin
ID - 5451
SN - 2664-1690
TI - Strong amplifiers of natural selection
ER -
TY - GEN
AU - Pavlogiannis, Andreas
AU - Tkadlec, Josef
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Nowak, Martin
ID - 5452
SN - 2664-1690
TI - Arbitrarily strong amplifiers of natural selection
ER -
TY - GEN
AU - Pavlogiannis, Andreas
AU - Tkadlec, Josef
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Nowak, Martin
ID - 5453
SN - 2664-1690
TI - Arbitrarily strong amplifiers of natural selection
ER -
TY - DATA
AB - We collected flower colour information on species in the tribe Antirrhineae from taxonomic literature. We also retreived molecular data from GenBank for as many of these species as possible to estimate phylogenetic relationships among these taxa. We then used the R package 'diversitree' to examine patterns of evolutionary transitions between anthocyanin and yellow pigmentation across the phylogeny.
For full details of the methods see:
Ellis TJ and Field DL "Repeated gains in yellow and anthocyanin pigmentation in flower colour transitions in the Antirrhineae”, Annals of Botany (in press)
AU - Ellis, Thomas
AU - Field, David
ID - 5550
TI - Flower colour data and phylogeny (NEXUS) files
ER -
TY - DATA
AB - Data from array experiments investigating pollinator behaviour on snapdragons in controlled conditions, and their effect on plant mating. Data were collected as part of Tom Ellis' PhD thesis , submitted February 2016.
We placed a total of 36 plants in a grid inside a closed organza tent, with a single hive of commercially bred bumblebees (Bombus hortorum). We used only the yellow-flowered Antirrhinum majus striatum and the magenta-flowered Antirrhinum majus pseudomajus, at ratios of 6:36, 12:24, 18:18, 24:12 and 30:6.
After 24 hours to learn how to deal with snapdragons, I observed pollinators foraging on plants, and recorded the transitions between plants. Thereafter seeds on plants were allowed to develops. A sample of these were grown to maturity when their flower colour could be determined, and they were scored as yellow, magenta, or hybrid.
AU - Ellis, Thomas
ID - 5551
TI - Data on pollinator observations and offpsring phenotypes
ER -
TY - DATA
AB - Data on pollinator visitation to wild snapdragons in a natural hybrid zone, collected as part of Tom Ellis' PhD thesis (submitted February 2016).
Snapdragon flowers have a mouth-like structure which pollinators must open to access nectar. We placed 5mm cellophane tags in these mouths, which are held in place by the pressure of the flower until a pollinator visits. When she opens the flower, the tag drops out, and one can infer a visit. We surveyed plants over multiple days in 2010, 2011 and 2012.
Also included are data on phenotypic and demographic variables which may be explanatory variables for pollinator visitation.
AU - Ellis, Thomas
ID - 5552
TI - Pollinator visitation data for wild Antirrhinum majus plants, with phenotypic and frequency data.
ER -
TY - DATA
AB - Genotypic, phenotypic and demographic data for 2128 wild snapdragons and 1127 open-pollinated progeny from a natural hybrid zone, collected as part of Tom Ellis' PhD thesis (submitted) February 2016).
Tissue samples were sent to LGC Genomics in Berlin for DNA extraction, and genotyping at 70 SNP markers by KASPR genotyping. 29 of these SNPs failed to amplify reliably, and have been removed from this dataset.
Other data were retreived from an online database of this population at www.antspec.org.
AU - Field, David
AU - Ellis, Thomas
ID - 5553
KW - paternity assignment
KW - pedigree
KW - matting patterns
KW - assortative mating
KW - Antirrhinum majus
KW - frequency-dependent selection
KW - plant-pollinator interaction
TI - Inference of mating patterns among wild snapdragons in a natural hybrid zone in 2012
ER -
TY - DATA
AB - The data stored here is used in Murat Tugrul's PhD thesis (Chapter 3), which is related to the evolution of bacterial RNA polymerase binding.
Magdalena Steinrueck (PhD Student in Calin Guet's group at IST Austria) performed the experiments and created the data on de novo promoter evolution. Fabienne Jesse (PhD Student in Jon Bollback's group at IST Austria) performed the experiments and created the data on lac promoter evolution.
AU - Tugrul, Murat
ID - 5554
KW - RNAP binding
KW - de novo promoter evolution
KW - lac promoter
TI - Experimental Data for Binding Site Evolution of Bacterial RNA Polymerase
ER -
TY - DATA
AB - This FIJI script calculates the population average of the migration speed as a function of time of all cells from wide field microscopy movies.
AU - Hauschild, Robert
ID - 5555
KW - cell migration
KW - wide field microscopy
KW - FIJI
TI - Fiji script to determine average speed and direction of migration of cells
ER -
TY - DATA
AB - Small synthetic discrete tomography problems.
Sizes are 32x32, 64z64 and 256x256.
Projection angles are 2, 4, and 6.
Number of labels are 3 and 5.
AU - Swoboda, Paul
ID - 5557
KW - discrete tomography
TI - Synthetic discrete tomography problems
ER -
TY - DATA
AB - PhD thesis LaTeX source code
AU - Bojsen-Hansen, Morten
ID - 5558
TI - Tracking, Correcting and Absorbing Water Surface Waves
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We provide general conditions for which bosonic quadratic Hamiltonians on Fock spaces can be diagonalized by Bogoliubov transformations. Our results cover the case when quantum systems have infinite degrees of freedom and the associated one-body kinetic and paring operators are unbounded. Our sufficient conditions are optimal in the sense that they become necessary when the relevant one-body operators commute.
AU - Nam, Phan
AU - Napiórkowski, Marcin M
AU - Solovej, Jan
ID - 1545
IS - 11
JF - Journal of Functional Analysis
TI - Diagonalization of bosonic quadratic Hamiltonians by Bogoliubov transformations
VL - 270
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Antibiotic resistance carries a fitness cost that must be overcome in order for resistance to persist over the long term. Compensatory mutations that recover the functional defects associated with resistance mutations have been argued to play a key role in overcoming the cost of resistance, but compensatory mutations are expected to be rare relative to generally beneficial mutations that increase fitness, irrespective of antibiotic resistance. Given this asymmetry, population genetics theory predicts that populations should adapt by compensatory mutations when the cost of resistance is large, whereas generally beneficial mutations should drive adaptation when the cost of resistance is small. We tested this prediction by determining the genomic mechanisms underpinning adaptation to antibiotic-free conditions in populations of the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa that carry costly antibiotic resistance mutations. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that populations founded by high-cost rifampicin-resistant mutants adapted via compensatory mutations in three genes of the RNA polymerase core enzyme, whereas populations founded by low-cost mutants adapted by generally beneficial mutations, predominantly in the quorum-sensing transcriptional regulator gene lasR. Even though the importance of compensatory evolution in maintaining resistance has been widely recognized, our study shows that the roles of general adaptation in maintaining resistance should not be underestimated and highlights the need to understand how selection at other sites in the genome influences the dynamics of resistance alleles in clinical settings.
AU - Qi, Qin
AU - Toll Riera, Macarena
AU - Heilbron, Karl
AU - Preston, Gail
AU - Maclean, R Craig
ID - 1552
IS - 1822
JF - Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B Biological Sciences
TI - The genomic basis of adaptation to the fitness cost of rifampicin resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
VL - 283
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - A modular approach to constructing cryptographic protocols leads to simple designs but often inefficient instantiations. On the other hand, ad hoc constructions may yield efficient protocols at the cost of losing conceptual simplicity. We suggest a new design paradigm, structure-preserving cryptography, that provides a way to construct modular protocols with reasonable efficiency while retaining conceptual simplicity. A cryptographic scheme over a bilinear group is called structure-preserving if its public inputs and outputs consist of elements from the bilinear groups and their consistency can be verified by evaluating pairing-product equations. As structure-preserving schemes smoothly interoperate with each other, they are useful as building blocks in modular design of cryptographic applications. This paper introduces structure-preserving commitment and signature schemes over bilinear groups with several desirable properties. The commitment schemes include homomorphic, trapdoor and length-reducing commitments to group elements, and the structure-preserving signature schemes are the first ones that yield constant-size signatures on multiple group elements. A structure-preserving signature scheme is called automorphic if the public keys lie in the message space, which cannot be achieved by compressing inputs via a cryptographic hash function, as this would destroy the mathematical structure we are trying to preserve. Automorphic signatures can be used for building certification chains underlying privacy-preserving protocols. Among a vast number of applications of structure-preserving protocols, we present an efficient round-optimal blind-signature scheme and a group signature scheme with an efficient and concurrently secure protocol for enrolling new members.
AU - Abe, Masayuki
AU - Fuchsbauer, Georg
AU - Groth, Jens
AU - Haralambiev, Kristiyan
AU - Ohkubo, Miyako
ID - 1592
IS - 2
JF - Journal of Cryptology
TI - Structure preserving signatures and commitments to group elements
VL - 29
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Chemokines are the main guidance cues directing leukocyte migration. Opposed to early assumptions, chemokines do not necessarily act as soluble cues but are often immobilized within tissues, e.g., dendritic cell migration toward lymphatic vessels is guided by a haptotactic gradient of the chemokine CCL21. Controlled assay systems to quantitatively study haptotaxis in vitro are still missing. In this chapter, we describe an in vitro haptotaxis assay optimized for the unique properties of dendritic cells. The chemokine CCL21 is immobilized in a bioactive state, using laser-assisted protein adsorption by photobleaching. The cells follow this immobilized CCL21 gradient in a haptotaxis chamber, which provides three dimensionally confined migration conditions.
AU - Schwarz, Jan
AU - Sixt, Michael K
ID - 1597
JF - Methods in Enzymology
TI - Quantitative analysis of dendritic cell haptotaxis
VL - 570
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The addition of polysialic acid to N- and/or O-linked glycans, referred to as polysialylation, is a rare posttranslational modification that is mainly known to control the developmental plasticity of the nervous system. Here we show that CCR7, the central chemokine receptor controlling immune cell trafficking to secondary lymphatic organs, carries polysialic acid. This modification is essential for the recognition of the CCR7 ligand CCL21. As a consequence, dendritic cell trafficking is abrogated in polysialyltransferase-deficient mice, manifesting as disturbed lymph node homeostasis and unresponsiveness to inflammatory stimuli. Structure-function analysis of chemokine-receptor interactions reveals that CCL21 adopts an autoinhibited conformation, which is released upon interaction with polysialic acid. Thus, we describe a glycosylation-mediated immune cell trafficking disorder and its mechanistic basis.
AU - Kiermaier, Eva
AU - Moussion, Christine
AU - Veldkamp, Christopher
AU - Gerardy Schahn, Rita
AU - De Vries, Ingrid
AU - Williams, Larry
AU - Chaffee, Gary
AU - Phillips, Andrew
AU - Freiberger, Friedrich
AU - Imre, Richard
AU - Taleski, Deni
AU - Payne, Richard
AU - Braun, Asolina
AU - Förster, Reinhold
AU - Mechtler, Karl
AU - Mühlenhoff, Martina
AU - Volkman, Brian
AU - Sixt, Michael K
ID - 1599
IS - 6269
JF - Science
TI - Polysialylation controls dendritic cell trafficking by regulating chemokine recognition
VL - 351
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We show that the Anderson model has a transition from localization to delocalization at exactly 2 dimensional growth rate on antitrees with normalized edge weights which are certain discrete graphs. The kinetic part has a one-dimensional structure allowing a description through transfer matrices which involve some Schur complement. For such operators we introduce the notion of having one propagating channel and extend theorems from the theory of one-dimensional Jacobi operators that relate the behavior of transfer matrices with the spectrum. These theorems are then applied to the considered model. In essence, in a certain energy region the kinetic part averages the random potentials along shells and the transfer matrices behave similar as for a one-dimensional operator with random potential of decaying variance. At d dimensional growth for d>2 this effective decay is strong enough to obtain absolutely continuous spectrum, whereas for some uniform d dimensional growth with d<2 one has pure point spectrum in this energy region. At exactly uniform 2 dimensional growth also some singular continuous spectrum appears, at least at small disorder. As a corollary we also obtain a change from singular spectrum (d≤2) to absolutely continuous spectrum (d≥3) for random operators of the type rΔdr+λ on ℤd, where r is an orthogonal radial projection, Δd the discrete adjacency operator (Laplacian) on ℤd and λ a random potential.
AU - Sadel, Christian
ID - 1608
IS - 7
JF - Annales Henri Poincare
TI - Anderson transition at 2 dimensional growth rate on antitrees and spectral theory for operators with one propagating channel
VL - 17
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We prove that whenever A is a 3-conservative relational structure with only binary and unary relations,then the algebra of polymorphisms of A either has no Taylor operation (i.e.,CSP(A)is NP-complete),or it generates an SD(∧) variety (i.e.,CSP(A)has bounded width).
AU - Kazda, Alexandr
ID - 1612
IS - 1
JF - Algebra Universalis
TI - CSP for binary conservative relational structures
VL - 75
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The hippocampus plays a key role in learning and memory. Previous studies suggested that the main types of principal neurons, dentate gyrus granule cells (GCs), CA3 pyramidal neurons, and CA1 pyramidal neurons, differ in their activity pattern, with sparse firing in GCs and more frequent firing in CA3 and CA1 pyramidal neurons. It has been assumed but never shown that such different activity may be caused by differential synaptic excitation. To test this hypothesis, we performed high-resolution whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in anesthetized rats in vivo. In contrast to previous in vitro data, both CA3 and CA1 pyramidal neurons fired action potentials spontaneously, with a frequency of ∼3–6 Hz, whereas GCs were silent. Furthermore, both CA3 and CA1 cells primarily fired in bursts. To determine the underlying mechanisms, we quantitatively assessed the frequency of spontaneous excitatory synaptic input, the passive membrane properties, and the active membrane characteristics. Surprisingly, GCs showed comparable synaptic excitation to CA3 and CA1 cells and the highest ratio of excitation versus hyperpolarizing inhibition. Thus, differential synaptic excitation is not responsible for differences in firing. Moreover, the three types of hippocampal neurons markedly differed in their passive properties. While GCs showed the most negative membrane potential, CA3 pyramidal neurons had the highest input resistance and the slowest membrane time constant. The three types of neurons also differed in the active membrane characteristics. GCs showed the highest action potential threshold, but displayed the largest gain of the input-output curves. In conclusion, our results reveal that differential firing of the three main types of hippocampal principal neurons in vivo is not primarily caused by differences in the characteristics of the synaptic input, but by the distinct properties of synaptic integration and input-output transformation.
AU - Kowalski, Janina
AU - Gan, Jian
AU - Jonas, Peter M
AU - Pernia-Andrade, Alejandro
ID - 1616
IS - 5
JF - Hippocampus
TI - Intrinsic membrane properties determine hippocampal differential firing pattern in vivo in anesthetized rats
VL - 26
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We study the discrepancy of jittered sampling sets: such a set P⊂ [0,1]d is generated for fixed m∈ℕ by partitioning [0,1]d into md axis aligned cubes of equal measure and placing a random point inside each of the N=md cubes. We prove that, for N sufficiently large, 1/10 d/N1/2+1/2d ≤EDN∗(P)≤ √d(log N) 1/2/N1/2+1/2d, where the upper bound with an unspecified constant Cd was proven earlier by Beck. Our proof makes crucial use of the sharp Dvoretzky-Kiefer-Wolfowitz inequality and a suitably taylored Bernstein inequality; we have reasons to believe that the upper bound has the sharp scaling in N. Additional heuristics suggest that jittered sampling should be able to improve known bounds on the inverse of the star-discrepancy in the regime N≳dd. We also prove a partition principle showing that every partition of [0,1]d combined with a jittered sampling construction gives rise to a set whose expected squared L2-discrepancy is smaller than that of purely random points.
AU - Pausinger, Florian
AU - Steinerberger, Stefan
ID - 1617
JF - Journal of Complexity
TI - On the discrepancy of jittered sampling
VL - 33
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider the Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer free energy functional for particles interacting via a two-body potential on a microscopic scale and in the presence of weak external fields varying on a macroscopic scale. We study the influence of the external fields on the critical temperature. We show that in the limit where the ratio between the microscopic and macroscopic scale tends to zero, the next to leading order of the critical temperature is determined by the lowest eigenvalue of the linearization of the Ginzburg–Landau equation.
AU - Frank, Rupert
AU - Hainzl, Christian
AU - Seiringer, Robert
AU - Solovej, Jan
ID - 1620
IS - 1
JF - Communications in Mathematical Physics
TI - The external field dependence of the BCS critical temperature
VL - 342
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We prove analogues of the Lieb–Thirring and Hardy–Lieb–Thirring inequalities for many-body quantum systems with fractional kinetic operators and homogeneous interaction potentials, where no anti-symmetry on the wave functions is assumed. These many-body inequalities imply interesting one-body interpolation inequalities, and we show that the corresponding one- and many-body inequalities are actually equivalent in certain cases.
AU - Lundholm, Douglas
AU - Nam, Phan
AU - Portmann, Fabian
ID - 1622
IS - 3
JF - Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis
TI - Fractional Hardy–Lieb–Thirring and related Inequalities for interacting systems
VL - 219
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Ancestral processes are fundamental to modern population genetics and spatial structure has been the subject of intense interest for many years. Despite this interest, almost nothing is known about the distribution of the locations of pedigree or genetic ancestors. Using both spatially continuous and stepping-stone models, we show that the distribution of pedigree ancestors approaches a travelling wave, for which we develop two alternative approximations. The speed and width of the wave are sensitive to the local details of the model. After a short time, genetic ancestors spread far more slowly than pedigree ancestors, ultimately diffusing out with radius ## rather than spreading at constant speed. In contrast to the wave of pedigree ancestors, the spread of genetic ancestry is insensitive to the local details of the models.
AU - Kelleher, Jerome
AU - Etheridge, Alison
AU - Véber, Amandine
AU - Barton, Nicholas H
ID - 1631
JF - Theoretical Population Biology
TI - Spread of pedigree versus genetic ancestry in spatially distributed populations
VL - 108
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The plant hormone auxin (indole-3-acetic acid) is a major regulator of plant growth and development including embryo and root patterning, lateral organ formation and growth responses to environmental stimuli. Auxin is directionally transported from cell to cell by the action of specific auxin influx [AUXIN-RESISTANT1 (AUX1)] and efflux [PIN-FORMED (PIN)] transport regulators, whose polar, subcellular localizations are aligned with the direction of the auxin flow. Auxin itself regulates its own transport by modulation of the expression and subcellular localization of the auxin transporters. Increased auxin levels promote the transcription of PIN2 and AUX1 genes as well as stabilize PIN proteins at the plasma membrane, whereas prolonged auxin exposure increases the turnover of PIN proteins and their degradation in the vacuole. In this study, we applied a forward genetic approach, to identify molecular components playing a role in the auxin-mediated degradation. We generated EMS-mutagenized Arabidopsis PIN2::PIN2:GFP, AUX1::AUX1:YFP eir1aux1 populations and designed a screen for mutants with persistently strong fluorescent signals of the tagged PIN2 and AUX1 after prolonged treatment with the synthetic auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). This approach yielded novel auxin degradation mutants defective in trafficking and degradation of PIN2 and AUX1 proteins and established a role for auxin-mediated degradation in plant development.
AU - Zemová, Radka
AU - Zwiewka, Marta
AU - Bielach, Agnieszka
AU - Robert, Hélène
AU - Friml, Jirí
ID - 1641
IS - 2
JF - Journal of Plant Growth Regulation
TI - A forward genetic screen for new regulators of auxin mediated degradation of auxin transport proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana
VL - 35
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - A somewhere statistically binding (SSB) hash, introduced by Hubáček and Wichs (ITCS ’15), can be used to hash a long string x to a short digest y = H hk (x) using a public hashing-key hk. Furthermore, there is a way to set up the hash key hk to make it statistically binding on some arbitrary hidden position i, meaning that: (1) the digest y completely determines the i’th bit (or symbol) of x so that all pre-images of y have the same value in the i’th position, (2) it is computationally infeasible to distinguish the position i on which hk is statistically binding from any other position i’. Lastly, the hash should have a local opening property analogous to Merkle-Tree hashing, meaning that given x and y = H hk (x) it should be possible to create a short proof π that certifies the value of the i’th bit (or symbol) of x without having to provide the entire input x. A similar primitive called a positional accumulator, introduced by Koppula, Lewko and Waters (STOC ’15) further supports dynamic updates of the hashed value. These tools, which are interesting in their own right, also serve as one of the main technical components in several recent works building advanced applications from indistinguishability obfuscation (iO).
The prior constructions of SSB hashing and positional accumulators required fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) and iO respectively. In this work, we give new constructions of these tools based on well studied number-theoretic assumptions such as DDH, Phi-Hiding and DCR, as well as a general construction from lossy/injective functions.
AU - Okamoto, Tatsuaki
AU - Pietrzak, Krzysztof Z
AU - Waters, Brent
AU - Wichs, Daniel
ID - 1653
TI - New realizations of somewhere statistically binding hashing and positional accumulators
VL - 9452
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We introduce a modification of the classic notion of intrinsic volume using persistence moments of height functions. Evaluating the modified first intrinsic volume on digital approximations of a compact body with smoothly embedded boundary in Rn, we prove convergence to the first intrinsic volume of the body as the resolution of the approximation improves. We have weaker results for the other modified intrinsic volumes, proving they converge to the corresponding intrinsic volumes of the n-dimensional unit ball.
AU - Edelsbrunner, Herbert
AU - Pausinger, Florian
ID - 1662
JF - Advances in Mathematics
TI - Approximation and convergence of the intrinsic volume
VL - 287
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Hybrid systems represent an important and powerful formalism for modeling real-world applications such as embedded systems. A verification tool like SpaceEx is based on the exploration of a symbolic search space (the region space). As a verification tool, it is typically optimized towards proving the absence of errors. In some settings, e.g., when the verification tool is employed in a feedback-directed design cycle, one would like to have the option to call a version that is optimized towards finding an error trajectory in the region space. A recent approach in this direction is based on guided search. Guided search relies on a cost function that indicates which states are promising to be explored, and preferably explores more promising states first. In this paper, we propose an abstraction-based cost function based on coarse-grained space abstractions for guiding the reachability analysis. For this purpose, a suitable abstraction technique that exploits the flexible granularity of modern reachability analysis algorithms is introduced. The new cost function is an effective extension of pattern database approaches that have been successfully applied in other areas. The approach has been implemented in the SpaceEx model checker. The evaluation shows its practical potential.
AU - Bogomolov, Sergiy
AU - Donzé, Alexandre
AU - Frehse, Goran
AU - Grosu, Radu
AU - Johnson, Taylor
AU - Ladan, Hamed
AU - Podelski, Andreas
AU - Wehrle, Martin
ID - 1705
IS - 4
JF - International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer
TI - Guided search for hybrid systems based on coarse-grained space abstractions
VL - 18
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Volunteer supporters play an important role in modern crisis and disaster management. In the times of mobile Internet devices, help from thousands of volunteers can be requested within a short time span, thus relieving professional helpers from minor chores or geographically spread-out tasks. However, the simultaneous availability of many volunteers also poses new problems. In particular, the volunteer efforts must be well coordinated, or otherwise situations might emerge in which too many idle volunteers at one location become more of a burden than a relief to the professionals.
In this work, we study the task of optimally assigning volunteers to selected locations, e.g. in order to perform regular measurements, to report on damage, or to distribute information or resources to the population in a crisis situation. We formulate the assignment tasks as an optimization problem and propose an effective and efficient solution procedure. Experiments on real data of the Team Österreich, consisting of over 36,000 Austrian volunteers, show the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach.
AU - Pielorz, Jasmin
AU - Lampert, Christoph
ID - 1707
TI - Optimal geospatial allocation of volunteers for crisis management
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider Conditional random fields (CRFs) with pattern-based potentials defined on a chain. In this model the energy of a string (labeling) (Formula presented.) is the sum of terms over intervals [i, j] where each term is non-zero only if the substring (Formula presented.) equals a prespecified pattern w. Such CRFs can be naturally applied to many sequence tagging problems. We present efficient algorithms for the three standard inference tasks in a CRF, namely computing (i) the partition function, (ii) marginals, and (iii) computing the MAP. Their complexities are respectively (Formula presented.), (Formula presented.) and (Formula presented.) where L is the combined length of input patterns, (Formula presented.) is the maximum length of a pattern, and D is the input alphabet. This improves on the previous algorithms of Ye et al. (NIPS, 2009) whose complexities are respectively (Formula presented.), (Formula presented.) and (Formula presented.), where (Formula presented.) is the number of input patterns. In addition, we give an efficient algorithm for sampling, and revisit the case of MAP with non-positive weights.
AU - Kolmogorov, Vladimir
AU - Takhanov, Rustem
ID - 1794
IS - 1
JF - Algorithmica
TI - Inference algorithms for pattern-based CRFs on sequence data
VL - 76
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Relational models for contingency tables are generalizations of log-linear models, allowing effects associated with arbitrary subsets of cells in the table, and not necessarily containing the overall effect, that is, a common parameter in every cell. Similarly to log-linear models, relational models can be extended to non-negative distributions, but the extension requires more complex methods. An extended relational model is defined as an algebraic variety, and it turns out to be the closure of the original model with respect to the Bregman divergence. In the extended relational model, the MLE of the cell parameters always exists and is unique, but some of its properties may be different from those of the MLE under log-linear models. The MLE can be computed using a generalized iterative scaling procedure based on Bregman projections.
AU - Klimova, Anna
AU - Rudas, Tamás
ID - 1833
JF - Journal of Multivariate Analysis
TI - On the closure of relational models
VL - 143
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider random matrices of the form H=W+λV, λ∈ℝ+, where W is a real symmetric or complex Hermitian Wigner matrix of size N and V is a real bounded diagonal random matrix of size N with i.i.d.\ entries that are independent of W. We assume subexponential decay for the matrix entries of W and we choose λ∼1, so that the eigenvalues of W and λV are typically of the same order. Further, we assume that the density of the entries of V is supported on a single interval and is convex near the edges of its support. In this paper we prove that there is λ+∈ℝ+ such that the largest eigenvalues of H are in the limit of large N determined by the order statistics of V for λ>λ+. In particular, the largest eigenvalue of H has a Weibull distribution in the limit N→∞ if λ>λ+. Moreover, for N sufficiently large, we show that the eigenvectors associated to the largest eigenvalues are partially localized for λ>λ+, while they are completely delocalized for λ<λ+. Similar results hold for the lowest eigenvalues.
AU - Lee, Jioon
AU - Schnelli, Kevin
ID - 1881
IS - 1-2
JF - Probability Theory and Related Fields
TI - Extremal eigenvalues and eigenvectors of deformed Wigner matrices
VL - 164
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - With the accelerated development of robot technologies, optimal control becomes one of the central themes of research. In traditional approaches, the controller, by its internal functionality, finds appropriate actions on the basis of the history of sensor values, guided by the goals, intentions, objectives, learning schemes, and so forth. The idea is that the controller controls the world---the body plus its environment---as reliably as possible. This paper focuses on new lines of self-organization for developmental robotics. We apply the recently developed differential extrinsic synaptic plasticity to a muscle-tendon driven arm-shoulder system from the Myorobotics toolkit. In the experiments, we observe a vast variety of self-organized behavior patterns: when left alone, the arm realizes pseudo-random sequences of different poses. By applying physical forces, the system can be entrained into definite motion patterns like wiping a table. Most interestingly, after attaching an object, the controller gets in a functional resonance with the object's internal dynamics, starting to shake spontaneously bottles half-filled with water or sensitively driving an attached pendulum into a circular mode. When attached to the crank of a wheel the neural system independently discovers how to rotate it. In this way, the robot discovers affordances of objects its body is interacting with.
AU - Martius, Georg S
AU - Hostettler, Rafael
AU - Knoll, Alois
AU - Der, Ralf
ID - 8094
SN - 9780262339360
T2 - Proceedings of the Artificial Life Conference 2016
TI - Self-organized control of an tendon driven arm by differential extrinsic plasticity
VL - 28
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Experience constantly shapes neural circuits through a variety of plasticity mechanisms. While the functional roles of some plasticity mechanisms are well-understood, it remains unclear how changes in neural excitability contribute to learning. Here, we develop a normative interpretation of intrinsic plasticity (IP) as a key component of unsupervised learning. We introduce a novel generative mixture model that accounts for the class-specific statistics of stimulus intensities, and we derive a neural circuit that learns the input classes and their intensities. We will analytically show that inference and learning for our generative model can be achieved by a neural circuit with intensity-sensitive neurons equipped with a specific form of IP. Numerical experiments verify our analytical derivations and show robust behavior for artificial and natural stimuli. Our results link IP to non-trivial input statistics, in particular the statistics of stimulus intensities for classes to which a neuron is sensitive. More generally, our work paves the way toward new classification algorithms that are robust to intensity variations.
AU - Monk, Travis
AU - Savin, Cristina
AU - Lücke, Jörg
ID - 948
TI - Neurons equipped with intrinsic plasticity learn stimulus intensity statistics
VL - 29
ER -