TY - CONF
AB - Cryptographic access control promises to offer easily distributed trust and broader applicability, while reducing reliance on low-level online monitors. Traditional implementations of cryptographic access control rely on simple cryptographic primitives whereas recent endeavors employ primitives with richer functionality and security guarantees. Worryingly, few of the existing cryptographic access-control schemes come with precise guarantees, the gap between the policy specification and the implementation being analyzed only informally, if at all. In this paper we begin addressing this shortcoming. Unlike prior work that targeted ad-hoc policy specification, we look at the well-established Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) model, as used in a typical file system. In short, we provide a precise syntax for a computational version of RBAC, offer rigorous definitions for cryptographic policy enforcement of a large class of RBAC security policies, and demonstrate that an implementation based on attribute-based encryption meets our security notions. We view our main contribution as being at the conceptual level. Although we work with RBAC for concreteness, our general methodology could guide future research for uses of cryptography in other access-control models.
AU - Ferrara, Anna
AU - Fuchsbauer, Georg
AU - Warinschi, Bogdan
ID - 2291
TI - Cryptographically enforced RBAC
ER -
TY - GEN
AB - This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed conference proceedings of the 38th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science, MFCS 2013, held in Klosterneuburg, Austria, in August 2013. The 67 revised full papers presented together with six invited talks were carefully selected from 191 submissions. Topics covered include algorithmic game theory, algorithmic learning theory, algorithms and data structures, automata, formal languages, bioinformatics, complexity, computational geometry, computer-assisted reasoning, concurrency theory, databases and knowledge-based systems, foundations of computing, logic in computer science, models of computation, semantics and verification of programs, and theoretical issues in artificial intelligence.
ED - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
ED - Sgall, Jiri
ID - 2292
SN - 978-3-642-40312-5
TI - Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science 2013
VL - 8087
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Many computer vision problems have an asymmetric distribution of information between training and test time. In this work, we study the case where we are given additional information about the training data, which however will not be available at test time. This situation is called learning using privileged information (LUPI). We introduce two maximum-margin techniques that are able to make use of this additional source of information, and we show that the framework is applicable to several scenarios that have been studied in computer vision before. Experiments with attributes, bounding boxes, image tags and rationales as additional information in object classification show promising results.
AU - Sharmanska, Viktoriia
AU - Quadrianto, Novi
AU - Lampert, Christoph
ID - 2293
TI - Learning to rank using privileged information
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - In this work we propose a system for automatic classification of Drosophila embryos into developmental stages.
While the system is designed to solve an actual problem in biological research, we believe that the principle underly-
ing it is interesting not only for biologists, but also for researchers in computer vision. The main idea is to combine two orthogonal sources of information: one is a classifier trained on strongly invariant features, which makes it applicable to images of very different conditions, but also leads to rather noisy predictions. The other is a label propagation step based on a more powerful similarity measure that however is only consistent within specific subsets of the data at a time.
In our biological setup, the information sources are the shape and the staining patterns of embryo images. We show
experimentally that while neither of the methods can be used by itself to achieve satisfactory results, their combina-
tion achieves prediction quality comparable to human performance.
AU - Kazmar, Tomas
AU - Kvon, Evgeny
AU - Stark, Alexander
AU - Lampert, Christoph
ID - 2294
TI - Drosophila Embryo Stage Annotation using Label Propagation
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We consider partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) with ω-regular conditions specified as parity objectives. The qualitative analysis problem given a POMDP and a parity objective asks whether there is a strategy to ensure that the objective is satisfied with probability 1 (resp. positive probability). While the qualitative analysis problems are known to be undecidable even for very special cases of parity objectives, we establish decidability (with optimal EXPTIME-complete complexity) of the qualitative analysis problems for POMDPs with all parity objectives under finite-memory strategies. We also establish asymptotically optimal (exponential) memory bounds.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Chmelik, Martin
AU - Tracol, Mathieu
ID - 2295
TI - What is decidable about partially observable Markov decision processes with omega-regular objectives
VL - 23
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We present an overview of mathematical results on the low temperature properties of dilute quantum gases, which have been obtained in the past few years. The presentation includes a discussion of Bose-Einstein condensation, the excitation spectrum for trapped gases and its relation to superfluidity, as well as the appearance of quantized vortices in rotating systems. All these properties are intensely being studied in current experiments on cold atomic gases. We will give a description of the mathematics involved in understanding these phenomena, starting from the underlying many-body Schrödinger equation.
AU - Seiringer, Robert
ID - 2297
IS - 2
JF - Japanese Journal of Mathematics
TI - Hot topics in cold gases: A mathematical physics perspective
VL - 8
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We present a shape analysis for programs that manipulate overlaid data structures which share sets of objects. The abstract domain contains Separation Logic formulas that (1) combine a per-object separating conjunction with a per-field separating conjunction and (2) constrain a set of variables interpreted as sets of objects. The definition of the abstract domain operators is based on a notion of homomorphism between formulas, viewed as graphs, used recently to define optimal decision procedures for fragments of the Separation Logic. Based on a Frame Rule that supports the two versions of the separating conjunction, the analysis is able to reason in a modular manner about non-overlaid data structures and then, compose information only at a few program points, e.g., procedure returns. We have implemented this analysis in a prototype tool and applied it on several interesting case studies that manipulate overlaid and nested linked lists.
AU - Dragoi, Cezara
AU - Enea, Constantin
AU - Sighireanu, Mihaela
ID - 2298
TI - Local shape analysis for overlaid data structures
VL - 7935
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The standard hardware design flow involves: (a) design of an integrated circuit using a hardware description language, (b) extensive functional and formal verification, and (c) logical synthesis. However, the above-mentioned processes consume significant effort and time. An alternative approach is to use a formal specification language as a high-level hardware description language and synthesize hardware from formal specifications. Our work is a case study of the synthesis of the widely and industrially used AMBA AHB protocol from formal specifications. Bloem et al. presented the first formal specifications for the AMBA AHB Arbiter and synthesized the AHB Arbiter circuit. However, in the first formal specification some important assumptions were missing. Our contributions are as follows: (a) We present detailed formal specifications for the AHB Arbiter incorporating the missing details, and obtain significant improvements in the synthesis results (both with respect to the number of gates in the synthesized circuit and with respect to the time taken to synthesize the circuit), and (b) we present formal specifications to generate compact circuits for the remaining two main components of AMBA AHB, namely, AHB Master and AHB Slave. Thus with systematic description we are able to automatically and completely synthesize an important and widely used industrial protocol.
AU - Godhal, Yashdeep
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
ID - 2299
IS - 5-6
JF - International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer
TI - Synthesis of AMBA AHB from formal specification: A case study
VL - 15
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider Ising models in two and three dimensions with nearest neighbor ferromagnetic interactions and long-range, power law decaying, antiferromagnetic interactions. If the strength of the ferromagnetic coupling J is larger than a critical value Jc, then the ground state is homogeneous and ferromagnetic. As the critical value is approached from smaller values of J, it is believed that the ground state consists of a periodic array of stripes (d=2) or slabs (d=3), all of the same size and alternating magnetization. Here we prove rigorously that the ground state energy per site converges to that of the optimal periodic striped or slabbed state, in the limit that J tends to the ferromagnetic transition point. While this theorem does not prove rigorously that the ground state is precisely striped or slabbed, it does prove that in any suitably large box the ground state is striped or slabbed with high probability.
AU - Giuliani, Alessandro
AU - Lieb, Élliott
AU - Seiringer, Robert
ID - 2300
IS - 6
JF - Physical Review B
TI - Realization of stripes and slabs in two and three dimensions
VL - 88
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We describe the design and implementation of P, a domain-specific language to write asynchronous event driven code. P allows the programmer to specify the system as a collection of interacting state machines, which communicate with each other using events. P unifies modeling and programming into one activity for the programmer. Not only can a P program be compiled into executable code, but it can also be tested using model checking techniques. P allows the programmer to specify the environment, used to "close" the system during testing, as nondeterministic ghost machines. Ghost machines are erased during compilation to executable code; a type system ensures that the erasure is semantics preserving. The P language is designed so that a P program can be checked for responsiveness-the ability to handle every event in a timely manner. By default, a machine needs to handle every event that arrives in every state. But handling every event in every state is impractical. The language provides a notion of deferred events where the programmer can annotate when she wants to delay processing an event. The default safety checker looks for presence of unhan-dled events. The language also provides default liveness checks that an event cannot be potentially deferred forever. P was used to implement and verify the core of the USB device driver stack that ships with Microsoft Windows 8. The resulting driver is more reliable and performs better than its prior incarnation (which did not use P); we have more confidence in the robustness of its design due to the language abstractions and verification provided by P.
AU - Desai, Ankush
AU - Gupta, Vivek
AU - Jackson, Ethan
AU - Qadeer, Shaz
AU - Rajamani, Sriram
AU - Zufferey, Damien
ID - 2301
T2 - Proceedings of the 34th ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation
TI - P: Safe asynchronous event-driven programming
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - MADM (Mosaic Analysis with Double Markers) technology offers a genetic approach in mice to visualize and concomitantly manipulate genetically defined cells at clonal level and single cell resolution. MADM employs Cre recombinase/loxP-dependent interchromosomal mitotic recombination to reconstitute two split marker genes—green GFP and red tdTomato—and can label sparse clones of homozygous mutant cells in one color and wild-type cells in the other color in an otherwise unlabeled background. At present, major MADM applications include lineage tracing, single cell labeling, conditional knockouts in small populations of cells and induction of uniparental chromosome disomy to assess effects of genomic imprinting. MADM can be applied universally in the mouse with the sole limitation being the specificity of the promoter controlling Cre recombinase expression. Here I review recent developments and extensions of the MADM technique and give an overview of the major discoveries and progresses enabled by the implementation of the novel genetic MADM tools.
AU - Hippenmeyer, Simon
ID - 2303
IS - 6
JF - Frontiers in Biology
TI - Dissection of gene function at clonal level using mosaic analysis with double markers
VL - 8
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - This extended abstract is concerned with the irregularities of distribution of one-dimensional permuted van der Corput sequences that are generated from linear permutations. We show how to obtain upper bounds for the discrepancy and diaphony of these sequences, by relating them to Kronecker sequences and applying earlier results of Faure and Niederreiter.
AU - Pausinger, Florian
ID - 2304
JF - Electronic Notes in Discrete Mathematics
TI - Van der Corput sequences and linear permutations
VL - 43
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We study the complexity of central controller synthesis problems for finite-state Markov decision processes, where the objective is to optimize both the expected mean-payoff performance of the system and its stability. e argue that the basic theoretical notion of expressing the stability in terms of the variance of the mean-payoff (called global variance in our paper) is not always sufficient, since it ignores possible instabilities on respective runs. For this reason we propose alernative definitions of stability, which we call local and hybrid variance, and which express how rewards on each run deviate from the run's own mean-payoff and from the expected mean-payoff, respectively. We show that a strategy ensuring both the expected mean-payoff and the variance below given bounds requires randomization and memory, under all the above semantics of variance. We then look at the problem of determining whether there is a such a strategy. For the global variance, we show that the problem is in PSPACE, and that the answer can be approximated in pseudo-polynomial time. For the hybrid variance, the analogous decision problem is in NP, and a polynomial-time approximating algorithm also exists. For local variance, we show that the decision problem is in NP. Since the overall performance can be traded for stability (and vice versa), we also present algorithms for approximating the associated Pareto curve in all the three cases. Finally, we study a special case of the decision problems, where we require a given expected mean-payoff together with zero variance. Here we show that the problems can be all solved in polynomial time.
AU - Brázdil, Tomáš
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Forejt, Vojtěch
AU - Kučera, Antonín
ID - 2305
T2 - 28th Annual ACM/IEEE Symposium
TI - Trading performance for stability in Markov decision processes
ER -
TY - BOOK
AB - Das Buch ist sowohl eine Einführung in die Themen Linked Data, Open Data und Open Linked Data als es auch den konkreten Bezug auf Bibliotheken behandelt. Hierzu werden konkrete Anwendungsprojekte beschrieben. Der Band wendet sich dabei sowohl an Personen aus der Bibliothekspraxis als auch an Personen aus dem Bibliotheksmanagement, die noch nicht mit dem Thema vertraut sind.
AU - Danowski, Patrick
AU - Pohl, Adrian
ID - 2306
TI - (Open) Linked Data in Bibliotheken
VL - 50
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - We define the model-measuring problem: given a model M and specification φ, what is the maximal distance ρ such that all models M′ within distance ρ from M satisfy (or violate) φ. The model measuring problem presupposes a distance function on models. We concentrate on automatic distance functions, which are defined by weighted automata. The model-measuring problem subsumes several generalizations of the classical model-checking problem, in particular, quantitative model-checking problems that measure the degree of satisfaction of a specification, and robustness problems that measure how much a model can be perturbed without violating the specification. We show that for automatic distance functions, and ω-regular linear-time and branching-time specifications, the model-measuring problem can be solved. We use automata-theoretic model-checking methods for model measuring, replacing the emptiness question for standard word and tree automata by the optimal-weight question for the weighted versions of these automata. We consider weighted automata that accumulate weights by maximizing, summing, discounting, and limit averaging. We give several examples of using the model-measuring problem to compute various notions of robustness and quantitative satisfaction for temporal specifications.
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
AU - Otop, Jan
ID - 2327
TI - From model checking to model measuring
VL - 8052
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Linearizability of concurrent data structures is usually proved by monolithic simulation arguments relying on identifying the so-called linearization points. Regrettably, such proofs, whether manual or automatic, are often complicated and scale poorly to advanced non-blocking concurrency patterns, such as helping and optimistic updates.
In response, we propose a more modular way of checking linearizability of concurrent queue algorithms that does not involve identifying linearization points. We reduce the task of proving linearizability with respect to the queue specification to establishing four basic properties, each of which can be proved independently by simpler arguments. As a demonstration of our approach, we verify the Herlihy and Wing queue, an algorithm that is challenging to verify by a simulation proof.
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
AU - Sezgin, Ali
AU - Vafeiadis, Viktor
ID - 2328
TI - Aspect-oriented linearizability proofs
VL - 8052
ER -
TY - CONF
AB - Two-player games on graphs are central in many problems in formal verification and program analysis such as synthesis and verification of open systems. In this work, we consider both finite-state game graphs, and recursive game graphs (or pushdown game graphs) that model the control flow of sequential programs with recursion. The objectives we study are multidimensional mean-payoff objectives, where the goal of player 1 is to ensure that the mean-payoff is non-negative in all dimensions. In pushdown games two types of strategies are relevant: (1) global strategies, that depend on the entire global history; and (2) modular strategies, that have only local memory and thus do not depend on the context of invocation. Our main contributions are as follows: (1) We show that finite-state multidimensional mean-payoff games can be solved in polynomial time if the number of dimensions and the maximal absolute value of the weights are fixed; whereas if the number of dimensions is arbitrary, then the problem is known to be coNP-complete. (2) We show that pushdown graphs with multidimensional mean-payoff objectives can be solved in polynomial time. For both (1) and (2) our algorithms are based on hyperplane separation technique. (3) For pushdown games under global strategies both one and multidimensional mean-payoff objectives problems are known to be undecidable, and we show that under modular strategies the multidimensional problem is also undecidable; under modular strategies the one-dimensional problem is NP-complete. We show that if the number of modules, the number of exits, and the maximal absolute value of the weights are fixed, then pushdown games under modular strategies with one-dimensional mean-payoff objectives can be solved in polynomial time, and if either the number of exits or the number of modules is unbounded, then the problem is NP-hard. (4) Finally we show that a fixed parameter tractable algorithm for finite-state multidimensional mean-payoff games or pushdown games under modular strategies with one-dimensional mean-payoff objectives would imply the fixed parameter tractability of parity games.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Velner, Yaron
ID - 2329
TI - Hyperplane separation technique for multidimensional mean-payoff games
VL - 8052
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Here, we describe a novel virulent bacteriophage that infects Bacillus weihenstephanensis, isolated from soil in Austria. It is the first phage to be discovered that infects this species. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of this podovirus.
AU - Fernandes Redondo, Rodrigo A
AU - Kupczok, Anne
AU - Stift, Gertraud
AU - Bollback, Jonathan P
ID - 2410
IS - 3
JF - Genome Announcements
TI - Complete genome sequence of the novel phage MG-B1 infecting bacillus weihenstephanensis
VL - 1
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Background: The CRISPR/Cas system is known to act as an adaptive and heritable immune system in Eubacteria and Archaea. Immunity is encoded in an array of spacer sequences. Each spacer can provide specific immunity to invasive elements that carry the same or a similar sequence. Even in closely related strains, spacer content is very dynamic and evolves quickly. Standard models of nucleotide evolutioncannot be applied to quantify its rate of change since processes other than single nucleotide changes determine its evolution.Methods We present probabilistic models that are specific for spacer content evolution. They account for the different processes of insertion and deletion. Insertions can be constrained to occur on one end only or are allowed to occur throughout the array. One deletion event can affect one spacer or a whole fragment of adjacent spacers. Parameters of the underlying models are estimated for a pair of arrays by maximum likelihood using explicit ancestor enumeration.Results Simulations show that parameters are well estimated on average under the models presented here. There is a bias in the rate estimation when including fragment deletions. The models also estimate times between pairs of strains. But with increasing time, spacer overlap goes to zero, and thus there is an upper bound on the distance that can be estimated. Spacer content similarities are displayed in a distance based phylogeny using the estimated times.We use the presented models to analyze different Yersinia pestis data sets and find that the results among them are largely congruent. The models also capture the variation in diversity of spacers among the data sets. A comparison of spacer-based phylogenies and Cas gene phylogenies shows that they resolve very different time scales for this data set.Conclusions The simulations and data analyses show that the presented models are useful for quantifying spacer content evolution and for displaying spacer content similarities of closely related strains in a phylogeny. This allows for comparisons of different CRISPR arrays or for comparisons between CRISPR arrays and nucleotide substitution rates.
AU - Kupczok, Anne
AU - Bollback, Jonathan P
ID - 2412
IS - 1
JF - BMC Evolutionary Biology
TI - Probabilistic models for CRISPR spacer content evolution
VL - 13
ER -
TY - CHAP
AB - Progress in understanding the global brain dynamics has remained slow to date in large part because of the highly multiscale nature of brain activity. Indeed, normal brain dynamics is characterized by complex interactions between multiple levels: from the microscopic scale of single neurons to the mesoscopic level of local groups of neurons, and finally to the macroscopic level of the whole brain. Among the most difficult tasks are those of identifying which scales are significant for a given particular function and describing how the scales affect each other. It is important to realize that the scales of time and space are linked together, or even intertwined, and that causal inference is far more ambiguous between than within levels. We approach this problem from the perspective of our recent work on simultaneous recording from micro- and macroelectrodes in the human brain. We propose a physiological description of these multilevel interactions, based on phase–amplitude coupling of neuronal oscillations that operate at multiple frequencies and on different spatial scales. Specifically, the amplitude of the oscillations on a particular spatial scale is modulated by phasic variations in neuronal excitability induced by lower frequency oscillations that emerge on a larger spatial scale. Following this general principle, it is possible to scale up or scale down the multiscale brain dynamics. It is expected that large-scale network oscillations in the low-frequency range, mediating downward effects, may play an important role in attention and consciousness.
AU - Valderrama, Mario
AU - Botella Soler, Vicente
AU - Le Van Quyen, Michel
ED - Meyer, Misha
ED - Pesenson, Z.
ID - 2413
SN - 9783527411986
T2 - Multiscale Analysis and Nonlinear Dynamics: From Genes to the Brain
TI - Neuronal oscillations scale up and scale down the brain dynamics
ER -