TY - JOUR
AB - We introduce a multiscale topological description of the Megaparsec web-like cosmic matter distribution. Betti numbers and topological persistence offer a powerful means of describing the rich connectivity structure of the cosmic web and of its multiscale arrangement of matter and galaxies. Emanating from algebraic topology and Morse theory, Betti numbers and persistence diagrams represent an extension and deepening of the cosmologically familiar topological genus measure and the related geometric Minkowski functionals. In addition to a description of the mathematical background, this study presents the computational procedure for computing Betti numbers and persistence diagrams for density field filtrations. The field may be computed starting from a discrete spatial distribution of galaxies or simulation particles. The main emphasis of this study concerns an extensive and systematic exploration of the imprint of different web-like morphologies and different levels of multiscale clustering in the corresponding computed Betti numbers and persistence diagrams. To this end, we use Voronoi clustering models as templates for a rich variety of web-like configurations and the fractal-like Soneira-Peebles models exemplify a range of multiscale configurations. We have identified the clear imprint of cluster nodes, filaments, walls, and voids in persistence diagrams, along with that of the nested hierarchy of structures in multiscale point distributions. We conclude by outlining the potential of persistent topology for understanding the connectivity structure of the cosmic web, in large simulations of cosmic structure formation and in the challenging context of the observed galaxy distribution in large galaxy surveys.
AU - Pranav, Pratyush
AU - Edelsbrunner, Herbert
AU - Van De Weygaert, Rien
AU - Vegter, Gert
AU - Kerber, Michael
AU - Jones, Bernard
AU - Wintraecken, Mathijs
ID - 1022
IS - 4
JF - Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
SN - 00358711
TI - The topology of the cosmic web in terms of persistent Betti numbers
VL - 465
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider products of independent square non-Hermitian random matrices. More precisely, let X1,…, Xn be independent N × N random matrices with independent entries (real or complex with independent real and imaginary parts) with zero mean and variance 1/N. Soshnikov-O’Rourke [19] and Götze-Tikhomirov [15] showed that the empirical spectral distribution of the product of n random matrices with iid entries converges to (equation found). We prove that if the entries of the matrices X1,…, Xn are independent (but not necessarily identically distributed) and satisfy uniform subexponential decay condition, then in the bulk the convergence of the ESD of X1,…, Xn to (0.1) holds up to the scale N–1/2+ε.
AU - Nemish, Yuriy
ID - 1023
JF - Electronic Journal of Probability
SN - 10836489
TI - Local law for the product of independent non-Hermitian random matrices with independent entries
VL - 22
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Many organ surfaces are covered by a protective epithelial-cell layer. It emerges that such layers are maintained by cell stretching that triggers cell division mediated by the force-sensitive ion-channel protein Piezo1. See Letter p.118
AU - Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp J
ID - 1025
IS - 7643
JF - Nature
SN - 00280836
TI - Cell biology: Stretched divisions
VL - 543
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - The optogenetic revolution enabled spatially-precise and temporally-precise control over protein function, signaling pathway activation, and animal behavior with tremendous success in the dissection of signaling networks and neural circuits. Very recently, optogenetic methods have been paired with optical reporters in novel drug screening platforms. In these all-optical platforms, light remotely activated ion channels and kinases thereby obviating the use of electrophysiology or reagents. Consequences were remarkable operational simplicity, throughput, and cost-effectiveness that culminated in the identification of new drug candidates. These blueprints for all-optical assays also revealed potential pitfalls and inspire all-optical variants of other screens, such as those that aim at better understanding dynamic drug action or orphan protein function.
AU - Agus, Viviana
AU - Janovjak, Harald L
ID - 1026
JF - Current Opinion in Biotechnology
SN - 09581669
TI - Optogenetic methods in drug screening: Technologies and applications
VL - 48
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Optogenetics and photopharmacology provide spatiotemporally precise control over protein interactions and protein function in cells and animals. Optogenetic methods that are sensitive to green light and can be used to break protein complexes are not broadly available but would enable multichromatic experiments with previously inaccessible biological targets. Herein, we repurposed cobalamin (vitamin B12) binding domains of bacterial CarH transcription factors for green-light-induced receptor dissociation. In cultured cells, we observed oligomerization-induced cell signaling for the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 fused to cobalamin-binding domains in the dark that was rapidly eliminated upon illumination. In zebrafish embryos expressing fusion receptors, green light endowed control over aberrant fibroblast growth factor signaling during development. Green-light-induced domain dissociation and light-inactivated receptors will critically expand the optogenetic toolbox for control of biological processes.
AU - Kainrath, Stephanie
AU - Stadler, Manuela
AU - Gschaider-Reichhart, Eva
AU - Distel, Martin
AU - Janovjak, Harald L
ID - 1028
IS - 16
JF - Angewandte Chemie - International Edition
SN - 14337851
TI - Green-light-induced inactivation of receptor signaling using cobalamin-binding domains
VL - 56
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Auf der Suche nach einem Bibliothekssystem entschied sich die Forschungseinrichtung IST Austria im Jahr 2014 für das Open-Source-Produkt Koha. In einem ersten Schritt wurden zunächst Grundfunktionen aktiviert um im Anschluss diverse zusätzliche Tools zum Einsatz zu bringen. Die große Flexibilität des Systems erlaubt maßgeschneiderte Lösungen für unterschiedlichste Institutionen. Trotz Herausforderungen kann die Bibliothek auf eine erfolgreiche Implementierung zurückblicken.
AU - Villányi, Márton
ID - 1030
IS - 1
JF - Informationspraxis
SN - 2297-3249
TI - Ein freies Bibliothekssystem für wissenschaftliche Bibliotheken – Werkstattbericht der IST Austria Library
VL - 3
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Severe environmental change can drive a population extinct unless the population adapts in time to the new conditions (“evolutionary rescue”). How does biparental sexual reproduction influence the chances of population persistence compared to clonal reproduction or selfing? In this article, we set up a one‐locus two‐allele model for adaptation in diploid species, where rescue is contingent on the establishment of the mutant homozygote. Reproduction can occur by random mating, selfing, or clonally. Random mating generates and destroys the rescue mutant; selfing is efficient at generating it but at the same time depletes the heterozygote, which can lead to a low mutant frequency in the standing genetic variation. Due to these (and other) antagonistic effects, we find a nontrivial dependence of population survival on the rate of sex/selfing, which is strongly influenced by the dominance coefficient of the mutation before and after the environmental change. Importantly, since mating with the wild‐type breaks the mutant homozygote up, a slow decay of the wild‐type population size can impede rescue in randomly mating populations.
AU - Uecker, Hildegard
ID - 1063
IS - 4
JF - Evolution
SN - 00143820
TI - Evolutionary rescue in randomly mating, selfing, and clonal populations
VL - 71
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - We consider the problem of reachability in pushdown graphs. We study the problem for pushdown graphs with constant treewidth. Even for pushdown graphs with treewidth 1, for the reachability problem we establish the following: (i) the problem is PTIME-complete, and (ii) any subcubic algorithm for the problem would contradict the k-clique conjecture and imply faster combinatorial algorithms for cliques in graphs.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Osang, Georg F
ID - 1065
JF - Information Processing Letters
SN - 00200190
TI - Pushdown reachability with constant treewidth
VL - 122
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Simulation is an attractive alternative to language inclusion for automata as it is an under-approximation of language inclusion, but usually has much lower complexity. Simulation has also been extended in two orthogonal directions, namely, (1) fair simulation, for simulation over specified set of infinite runs; and (2) quantitative simulation, for simulation between weighted automata. While fair trace inclusion is PSPACE-complete, fair simulation can be computed in polynomial time. For weighted automata, the (quantitative) language inclusion problem is undecidable in general, whereas the (quantitative) simulation reduces to quantitative games, which admit pseudo-polynomial time algorithms.
In this work, we study (quantitative) simulation for weighted automata with Büchi acceptance conditions, i.e., we generalize fair simulation from non-weighted automata to weighted automata. We show that imposing Büchi acceptance conditions on weighted automata changes many fundamental properties of the simulation games, yet they still admit pseudo-polynomial time algorithms.
AU - Chatterjee, Krishnendu
AU - Henzinger, Thomas A
AU - Otop, Jan
AU - Velner, Yaron
ID - 1066
IS - 2
JF - Information and Computation
TI - Quantitative fair simulation games
VL - 254
ER -
TY - JOUR
AB - Embryo morphogenesis relies on highly coordinated movements of different tissues. However, remarkably little is known about how tissues coordinate their movements to shape the embryo. In zebrafish embryogenesis, coordinated tissue movements first become apparent during “doming,” when the blastoderm begins to spread over the yolk sac, a process involving coordinated epithelial surface cell layer expansion and mesenchymal deep cell intercalations. Here, we find that active surface cell expansion represents the key process coordinating tissue movements during doming. By using a combination of theory and experiments, we show that epithelial surface cells not only trigger blastoderm expansion by reducing tissue surface tension, but also drive blastoderm thinning by inducing tissue contraction through radial deep cell intercalations. Thus, coordinated tissue expansion and thinning during doming relies on surface cells simultaneously controlling tissue surface tension and radial tissue contraction.
AU - Morita, Hitoshi
AU - Grigolon, Silvia
AU - Bock, Martin
AU - Krens, Gabriel
AU - Salbreux, Guillaume
AU - Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp J
ID - 1067
IS - 4
JF - Developmental Cell
SN - 15345807
TI - The physical basis of coordinated tissue spreading in zebrafish gastrulation
VL - 40
ER -