@article{7905,
abstract = {We investigate a sheaf-theoretic interpretation of stratification learning from geometric and topological perspectives. Our main result is the construction of stratification learning algorithms framed in terms of a sheaf on a partially ordered set with the Alexandroff topology. We prove that the resulting decomposition is the unique minimal stratification for which the strata are homogeneous and the given sheaf is constructible. In particular, when we choose to work with the local homology sheaf, our algorithm gives an alternative to the local homology transfer algorithm given in Bendich et al. (Proceedings of the 23rd Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms, pp. 1355–1370, ACM, New York, 2012), and the cohomology stratification algorithm given in Nanda (Found. Comput. Math. 20(2), 195–222, 2020). Additionally, we give examples of stratifications based on the geometric techniques of Breiding et al. (Rev. Mat. Complut. 31(3), 545–593, 2018), illustrating how the sheaf-theoretic approach can be used to study stratifications from both topological and geometric perspectives. This approach also points toward future applications of sheaf theory in the study of topological data analysis by illustrating the utility of the language of sheaf theory in generalizing existing algorithms.},
author = {Brown, Adam and Wang, Bei},
issn = {0179-5376},
journal = {Discrete & Computational Geometry},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{Sheaf-theoretic stratification learning from geometric and topological perspectives}},
doi = {10.1007/s00454-020-00206-y},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7908,
abstract = {Volatile anesthetics are widely used for surgery, but neuronal mechanisms of anesthesia remain unidentified. At the calyx of Held in brainstem slices from rats of either sex, isoflurane at clinical doses attenuated EPSCs by decreasing the release probability and the number of readily releasable vesicles. In presynaptic recordings of Ca2+ currents and exocytic capacitance changes, isoflurane attenuated exocytosis by inhibiting Ca2+ currents evoked by a short presynaptic depolarization, whereas it inhibited exocytosis evoked by a prolonged depolarization via directly blocking exocytic machinery downstream of Ca2+ influx. Since the length of presynaptic depolarization can simulate the frequency of synaptic inputs, isoflurane anesthesia is likely mediated by distinct dual mechanisms, depending on input frequencies. In simultaneous presynaptic and postsynaptic action potential recordings, isoflurane impaired the fidelity of repetitive spike transmission, more strongly at higher frequencies. Furthermore, in the cerebrum of adult mice, isoflurane inhibited monosynaptic corticocortical spike transmission, preferentially at a higher frequency. We conclude that dual presynaptic mechanisms operate for the anesthetic action of isoflurane, of which direct inhibition of exocytic machinery plays a low-pass filtering role in spike transmission at central excitatory synapses.},
author = {Wang, Han Ying and Eguchi, Kohgaku and Yamashita, Takayuki and Takahashi, Tomoyuki},
issn = {15292401},
journal = {Journal of Neuroscience},
number = {21},
pages = {4103--4115},
publisher = {Society for Neuroscience},
title = {{Frequency-dependent block of excitatory neurotransmission by isoflurane via dual presynaptic mechanisms}},
doi = {10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2946-19.2020},
volume = {40},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7909,
abstract = {Cell migration entails networks and bundles of actin filaments termed lamellipodia and microspikes or filopodia, respectively, as well as focal adhesions, all of which recruit Ena/VASP family members hitherto thought to antagonize efficient cell motility. However, we find these proteins to act as positive regulators of migration in different murine cell lines. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated loss of Ena/VASP proteins reduced lamellipodial actin assembly and perturbed lamellipodial architecture, as evidenced by changed network geometry as well as reduction of filament length and number that was accompanied by abnormal Arp2/3 complex and heterodimeric capping protein accumulation. Loss of Ena/VASP function also abolished the formation of microspikes normally embedded in lamellipodia, but not of filopodia capable of emanating without lamellipodia. Ena/VASP-deficiency also impaired integrin-mediated adhesion accompanied by reduced traction forces exerted through these structures. Our data thus uncover novel Ena/VASP functions of these actin polymerases that are fully consistent with their promotion of cell migration.},
author = {Damiano-Guercio, Julia and Kurzawa, Laëtitia and Müller, Jan and Dimchev, Georgi A and Schaks, Matthias and Nemethova, Maria and Pokrant, Thomas and Brühmann, Stefan and Linkner, Joern and Blanchoin, Laurent and Sixt, Michael K and Rottner, Klemens and Faix, Jan},
issn = {2050084X},
journal = {eLife},
publisher = {eLife Sciences Publications},
title = {{Loss of Ena/VASP interferes with lamellipodium architecture, motility and integrin-dependent adhesion}},
doi = {10.7554/eLife.55351},
volume = {9},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7910,
abstract = {Quantum illumination uses entangled signal-idler photon pairs to boost the detection efficiency of low-reflectivity objects in environments with bright thermal noise. Its advantage is particularly evident at low signal powers, a promising feature for applications such as noninvasive biomedical scanning or low-power short-range radar. Here, we experimentally investigate the concept of quantum illumination at microwave frequencies. We generate entangled fields to illuminate a room-temperature object at a distance of 1 m in a free-space detection setup. We implement a digital phase-conjugate receiver based on linear quadrature measurements that outperforms a symmetric classical noise radar in the same conditions, despite the entanglement-breaking signal path. Starting from experimental data, we also simulate the case of perfect idler photon number detection, which results in a quantum advantage compared with the relative classical benchmark. Our results highlight the opportunities and challenges in the way toward a first room-temperature application of microwave quantum circuits.},
author = {Barzanjeh, Shabir and Pirandola, S. and Vitali, D and Fink, Johannes M},
issn = {23752548},
journal = {Science Advances},
number = {19},
publisher = {AAAS},
title = {{Microwave quantum illumination using a digital receiver}},
doi = {10.1126/sciadv.abb0451},
volume = {6},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7925,
abstract = {In this paper, we introduce a relaxed CQ method with alternated inertial step for solving split feasibility problems. We give convergence of the sequence generated by our method under some suitable assumptions. Some numerical implementations from sparse signal and image deblurring are reported to show the efficiency of our method.},
author = {Shehu, Yekini and Gibali, Aviv},
issn = {1862-4472},
journal = {Optimization Letters},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{New inertial relaxed method for solving split feasibilities}},
doi = {10.1007/s11590-020-01603-1},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7931,
abstract = {In the course of sample preparation for Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), DNA is fragmented by various methods. Fragmentation shows a persistent bias with regard to the cleavage rates of various dinucleotides. With the exception of CpG dinucleotides the previously described biases were consistent with results of the DNA cleavage in solution. Here we computed cleavage rates of all dinucleotides including the methylated CpG and unmethylated CpG dinucleotides using data of the Whole Genome Sequencing datasets of the 1000 Genomes project. We found that the cleavage rate of CpG is significantly higher for the methylated CpG dinucleotides. Using this information, we developed a classifier for distinguishing cancer and healthy tissues based on their CpG islands statuses of the fragmentation. A simple Support Vector Machine classifier based on this algorithm shows an accuracy of 84%. The proposed method allows the detection of epigenetic markers purely based on mechanochemical DNA fragmentation, which can be detected by a simple analysis of the NGS sequencing data.},
author = {Uroshlev, Leonid A. and Abdullaev, Eldar T. and Umarova, Iren R. and Il’Icheva, Irina A. and Panchenko, Larisa A. and Polozov, Robert V. and Kondrashov, Fyodor and Nechipurenko, Yury D. and Grokhovsky, Sergei L.},
issn = {20452322},
journal = {Scientific Reports},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{A method for identification of the methylation level of CpG islands from NGS data}},
doi = {10.1038/s41598-020-65406-1},
volume = {10},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7932,
abstract = {Pulsating flows through tubular geometries are laminar provided that velocities are moderate. This in particular is also believed to apply to cardiovascular flows where inertial forces are typically too low to sustain turbulence. On the other hand, flow instabilities and fluctuating shear stresses are held responsible for a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Here we report a nonlinear instability mechanism for pulsating pipe flow that gives rise to bursts of turbulence at low flow rates. Geometrical distortions of small, yet finite, amplitude are found to excite a state consisting of helical vortices during flow deceleration. The resulting flow pattern grows rapidly in magnitude, breaks down into turbulence, and eventually returns to laminar when the flow accelerates. This scenario causes shear stress fluctuations and flow reversal during each pulsation cycle. Such unsteady conditions can adversely affect blood vessels and have been shown to promote inflammation and dysfunction of the shear stress-sensitive endothelial cell layer.},
author = {Xu, Duo and Varshney, Atul and Ma, Xingyu and Song, Baofang and Riedl, Michael and Avila, Marc and Hof, Björn},
issn = {10916490},
journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
number = {21},
pages = {11233--11239},
publisher = {National Academy of Sciences},
title = {{Nonlinear hydrodynamic instability and turbulence in pulsatile flow}},
doi = {10.1073/pnas.1913716117},
volume = {117},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7933,
abstract = {We study a mobile quantum impurity, possessing internal rotational degrees of freedom, confined to a ring in the presence of a many-particle bosonic bath. By considering the recently introduced rotating polaron problem, we define the Hamiltonian and examine the energy spectrum. The weak-coupling regime is studied by means of a variational ansatz in the truncated Fock space. The corresponding spectrum indicates that there emerges a coupling between the internal and orbital angular momenta of the impurity as a consequence of the phonon exchange. We interpret the coupling as a phonon-mediated spin-orbit coupling and quantify it by using a correlation function between the internal and the orbital angular momentum operators. The strong-coupling regime is investigated within the Pekar approach, and it is shown that the correlation function of the ground state shows a kink at a critical coupling, that is explained by a sharp transition from the noninteracting state to the states that exhibit strong interaction with the surroundings. The results might find applications in such fields as spintronics or topological insulators where spin-orbit coupling is of crucial importance.},
author = {Maslov, Mikhail and Lemeshko, Mikhail and Yakaboylu, Enderalp},
issn = {24699969},
journal = {Physical Review B},
number = {18},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {{Synthetic spin-orbit coupling mediated by a bosonic environment}},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.101.184104},
volume = {101},
year = {2020},
}
@inproceedings{7936,
abstract = {State-of-the-art detection systems are generally evaluated on their ability to exhaustively retrieve objects densely distributed in the image, across a wide variety of appearances and semantic categories. Orthogonal to this, many real-life object detection applications, for example in remote sensing, instead require dealing with large images that contain only a few small objects of a single class, scattered heterogeneously across the space. In addition, they are often subject to strict computational constraints, such as limited battery capacity and computing power.To tackle these more practical scenarios, we propose a novel flexible detection scheme that efficiently adapts to variable object sizes and densities: We rely on a sequence of detection stages, each of which has the ability to predict groups of objects as well as individuals. Similar to a detection cascade, this multi-stage architecture spares computational effort by discarding large irrelevant regions of the image early during the detection process. The ability to group objects provides further computational and memory savings, as it allows working with lower image resolutions in early stages, where groups are more easily detected than individuals, as they are more salient. We report experimental results on two aerial image datasets, and show that the proposed method is as accurate yet computationally more efficient than standard single-shot detectors, consistently across three different backbone architectures.},
author = {Royer, Amélie and Lampert, Christoph},
booktitle = {IEEE Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision},
isbn = {9781728165530},
location = { Snowmass Village, CO, United States},
publisher = {IEEE},
title = {{Localizing grouped instances for efficient detection in low-resource scenarios}},
doi = {10.1109/WACV45572.2020.9093288},
year = {2020},
}
@inproceedings{7937,
abstract = {Fine-tuning is a popular way of exploiting knowledge contained in a pre-trained convolutional network for a new visual recognition task. However, the orthogonal setting of transferring knowledge from a pretrained network to a visually different yet semantically close source is rarely considered: This commonly happens with real-life data, which is not necessarily as clean as the training source (noise, geometric transformations, different modalities, etc.).To tackle such scenarios, we introduce a new, generalized form of fine-tuning, called flex-tuning, in which any individual unit (e.g. layer) of a network can be tuned, and the most promising one is chosen automatically. In order to make the method appealing for practical use, we propose two lightweight and faster selection procedures that prove to be good approximations in practice. We study these selection criteria empirically across a variety of domain shifts and data scarcity scenarios, and show that fine-tuning individual units, despite its simplicity, yields very good results as an adaptation technique. As it turns out, in contrast to common practice, rather than the last fully-connected unit it is best to tune an intermediate or early one in many domain- shift scenarios, which is accurately detected by flex-tuning.},
author = {Royer, Amélie and Lampert, Christoph},
booktitle = {2020 IEEE Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision},
isbn = {9781728165530},
location = {Snowmass Village, CO, United States},
publisher = {IEEE},
title = {{A flexible selection scheme for minimum-effort transfer learning}},
doi = {10.1109/WACV45572.2020.9093635},
year = {2020},
}
@phdthesis{7996,
abstract = {Quantum computation enables the execution of algorithms that have exponential complexity. This might open the path towards the synthesis of new materials or medical drugs, optimization of transport or financial strategies etc., intractable on even the fastest classical computers. A quantum computer consists of interconnected two level quantum systems, called qubits, that satisfy DiVincezo’s criteria. Worldwide, there are ongoing efforts to find the qubit architecture which will unite quantum error correction compatible single and two qubit fidelities, long distance qubit to qubit coupling and
calability. Superconducting qubits have gone the furthest in this race, demonstrating an algorithm running on 53 coupled qubits, but still the fidelities are not even close to those required for realizing a single logical qubit. emiconductor qubits offer extremely good characteristics, but they are currently investigated across different platforms. Uniting those good characteristics into a single platform might be a big step towards the quantum computer realization.
Here we describe the implementation of a hole spin qubit hosted in a Ge hut wire double quantum dot. The high and tunable spin-orbit coupling together with a heavy hole state character is expected to allow fast spin manipulation and long coherence times. Furthermore large lever arms, for hut wire devices, should allow good coupling to superconducting resonators enabling efficient long distance spin to spin coupling and a sensitive gate reflectometry spin readout. The developed cryogenic setup (printed circuit board sample holders, filtering, high-frequency wiring) enabled us to perform low temperature spin dynamics experiments. Indeed, we measured the fastest single spin qubit Rabi frequencies reported so far, reaching 140 MHz, while the dephasing times of 130 ns oppose the long decoherence predictions. In order to further investigate this, a double quantum dot gate was connected directly to a lumped element
resonator which enabled gate reflectometry readout. The vanishing inter-dot transition signal, for increasing external magnetic field, revealed the spin nature of the measured quantity.},
author = {Kukucka, Josip},
issn = {2663-337X},
pages = {178},
publisher = {IST Austria},
title = {{Implementation of a hole spin qubit in Ge hut wires and dispersive spin sensing}},
doi = {10.15479/AT:ISTA:7996},
year = {2020},
}
@misc{7383,
abstract = {Organisms cope with change by employing transcriptional regulators. However, when faced with rare environments, the evolution of transcriptional regulators and their promoters may be too slow. We ask whether the intrinsic instability of gene duplication and amplification provides a generic alternative to canonical gene regulation. By real-time monitoring of gene copy number mutations in E. coli, we show that gene duplications and amplifications enable adaptation to fluctuating environments by rapidly generating copy number, and hence expression level, polymorphism. This ‘amplification-mediated gene expression tuning’ occurs on timescales similar to canonical gene regulation and can deal with rapid environmental changes. Mathematical modeling shows that amplifications also tune gene expression in stochastic environments where transcription factor-based schemes are hard to evolve or maintain. The fleeting nature of gene amplifications gives rise to a generic population-level mechanism that relies on genetic heterogeneity to rapidly tune expression of any gene, without leaving any genomic signature.},
author = {Grah, Rok},
keywords = {Matlab scripts, analysis of microfluidics, mathematical model},
publisher = {IST Austria},
title = {{Matlab scripts for the Paper: Gene Amplification as a Form of Population-Level Gene Expression regulation}},
doi = {10.15479/AT:ISTA:7383},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7939,
abstract = {We design fast deterministic algorithms for distance computation in the Congested Clique model. Our key contributions include:
A (2+ϵ)-approximation for all-pairs shortest paths in O(log2n/ϵ) rounds on unweighted undirected graphs. With a small additional additive factor, this also applies for weighted graphs. This is the first sub-polynomial constant-factor approximation for APSP in this model.
A (1+ϵ)-approximation for multi-source shortest paths from O(n−−√) sources in O(log2n/ϵ) rounds on weighted undirected graphs. This is the first sub-polynomial algorithm obtaining this approximation for a set of sources of polynomial size.
Our main techniques are new distance tools that are obtained via improved algorithms for sparse matrix multiplication, which we leverage to construct efficient hopsets and shortest paths. Furthermore, our techniques extend to additional distance problems for which we improve upon the state-of-the-art, including diameter approximation, and an exact single-source shortest paths algorithm for weighted undirected graphs in O~(n1/6) rounds. },
author = {Censor-Hillel, Keren and Dory, Michal and Korhonen, Janne and Leitersdorf, Dean},
issn = {14320452},
journal = {Distributed Computing},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{Fast approximate shortest paths in the congested clique}},
doi = {10.1007/s00446-020-00380-5},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7940,
abstract = {We prove that the Yangian associated to an untwisted symmetric affine Kac–Moody Lie algebra is isomorphic to the Drinfeld double of a shuffle algebra. The latter is constructed in [YZ14] as an algebraic formalism of cohomological Hall algebras. As a consequence, we obtain the Poincare–Birkhoff–Witt (PBW) theorem for this class of affine Yangians. Another independent proof of the PBW theorem is given recently by Guay, Regelskis, and Wendlandt [GRW18].},
author = {Yang, Yaping and Zhao, Gufang},
issn = {1531586X},
journal = {Transformation Groups},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{The PBW theorem for affine Yangians}},
doi = {10.1007/s00031-020-09572-6},
year = {2020},
}
@inbook{7941,
abstract = {Expansion microscopy is a recently developed super-resolution imaging technique, which provides an alternative to optics-based methods such as deterministic approaches (e.g. STED) or stochastic approaches (e.g. PALM/STORM). The idea behind expansion microscopy is to embed the biological sample in a swellable gel, and then to expand it isotropically, thereby increasing the distance between the fluorophores. This approach breaks the diffraction barrier by simply separating the emission point-spread-functions of the fluorophores. The resolution attainable in expansion microscopy is thus directly dependent on the separation that can be achieved, i.e. on the expansion factor. The original implementation of the technique achieved an expansion factor of fourfold, for a resolution of 70–80 nm. The subsequently developed X10 method achieves an expansion factor of 10-fold, for a resolution of 25–30 nm. This technique can be implemented with minimal technical requirements on any standard fluorescence microscope, and is more easily applied for multi-color imaging than either deterministic or stochastic super-resolution approaches. This renders X10 expansion microscopy a highly promising tool for new biological discoveries, as discussed here, and as demonstrated by several recent applications.},
author = {Truckenbrodt, Sven M and Rizzoli, Silvio O.},
booktitle = {Methods in Cell Biology},
issn = {0091679X},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Simple multi-color super-resolution by X10 microscopy}},
doi = {10.1016/bs.mcb.2020.04.016},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7942,
abstract = {An understanding of the missing antinodal electronic excitations in the pseudogap state is essential for uncovering the physics of the underdoped cuprate high-temperature superconductors1,2,3,4,5,6. The majority of high-temperature experiments performed thus far, however, have been unable to discern whether the antinodal states are rendered unobservable due to their damping or whether they vanish due to their gapping7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18. Here, we distinguish between these two scenarios by using quantum oscillations to examine whether the small Fermi surface pocket, found to occupy only 2% of the Brillouin zone in the underdoped cuprates19,20,21,22,23,24, exists in isolation against a majority of completely gapped density of states spanning the antinodes, or whether it is thermodynamically coupled to a background of ungapped antinodal states. We find that quantum oscillations associated with the small Fermi surface pocket exhibit a signature sawtooth waveform characteristic of an isolated two-dimensional Fermi surface pocket25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32. This finding reveals that the antinodal states are destroyed by a hard gap that extends over the majority of the Brillouin zone, placing strong constraints on a drastic underlying origin of quasiparticle disappearance over almost the entire Brillouin zone in the pseudogap regime7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18.},
author = {Hartstein, Máté and Hsu, Yu Te and Modic, Kimberly A and Porras, Juan and Loew, Toshinao and Tacon, Matthieu Le and Zuo, Huakun and Wang, Jinhua and Zhu, Zengwei and Chan, Mun K. and Mcdonald, Ross D. and Lonzarich, Gilbert G. and Keimer, Bernhard and Sebastian, Suchitra E. and Harrison, Neil},
issn = {17452481},
journal = {Nature Physics},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{Hard antinodal gap revealed by quantum oscillations in the pseudogap regime of underdoped high-Tc superconductors}},
doi = {10.1038/s41567-020-0910-0},
year = {2020},
}
@inproceedings{7952,
abstract = {Isomanifolds are the generalization of isosurfaces to arbitrary dimension and codimension, i.e. manifolds defined as the zero set of some multivariate vector-valued smooth function f: ℝ^d → ℝ^(d-n). A natural (and efficient) way to approximate an isomanifold is to consider its Piecewise-Linear (PL) approximation based on a triangulation 𝒯 of the ambient space ℝ^d. In this paper, we give conditions under which the PL-approximation of an isomanifold is topologically equivalent to the isomanifold. The conditions are easy to satisfy in the sense that they can always be met by taking a sufficiently fine triangulation 𝒯. This contrasts with previous results on the triangulation of manifolds where, in arbitrary dimensions, delicate perturbations are needed to guarantee topological correctness, which leads to strong limitations in practice. We further give a bound on the Fréchet distance between the original isomanifold and its PL-approximation. Finally we show analogous results for the PL-approximation of an isomanifold with boundary. },
author = {Boissonnat, Jean-Daniel and Wintraecken, Mathijs},
booktitle = {36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry},
isbn = {978-3-95977-143-6},
issn = {1868-8969},
location = {Zürich, Switzerland},
pages = {20:1--20:18},
publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik},
title = {{The topological correctness of PL-approximations of isomanifolds}},
doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.20},
volume = {164},
year = {2020},
}
@inproceedings{7955,
abstract = {Simple stochastic games are turn-based 2½-player games with a reachability objective. The basic question asks whether one player can ensure reaching a given target with at least a given probability. A natural extension is games with a conjunction of such conditions as objective. Despite a plethora of recent results on the analysis of systems with multiple objectives, the decidability of this basic problem remains open. In this paper, we present an algorithm approximating the Pareto frontier of the achievable values to a given precision. Moreover, it is an anytime algorithm, meaning it can be stopped at any time returning the current approximation and its error bound.},
author = {Ashok, Pranav and Chatterjee, Krishnendu and Kretinsky, Jan and Weininger, Maximilian and Winkler, Tobias},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 35th Annual ACM/IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science },
isbn = {9781450371049},
location = {Saarbrücken, Germany},
pages = {102--115},
publisher = {Association for Computing Machinery},
title = {{Approximating values of generalized-reachability stochastic games}},
doi = {10.1145/3373718.3394761},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7956,
abstract = {When short-range attractions are combined with long-range repulsions in colloidal particle systems, complex microphases can emerge. Here, we study a system of isotropic particles, which can form lamellar structures or a disordered fluid phase when temperature is varied. We show that, at equilibrium, the lamellar structure crystallizes, while out of equilibrium, the system forms a variety of structures at different shear rates and temperatures above melting. The shear-induced ordering is analyzed by means of principal component analysis and artificial neural networks, which are applied to data of reduced dimensionality. Our results reveal the possibility of inducing ordering by shear, potentially providing a feasible route to the fabrication of ordered lamellar structures from isotropic particles.},
author = {Pȩkalski, J. and Rzadkowski, Wojciech and Panagiotopoulos, A. Z.},
issn = {10897690},
journal = {The Journal of chemical physics},
number = {20},
publisher = {AIP},
title = {{Shear-induced ordering in systems with competing interactions: A machine learning study}},
doi = {10.1063/5.0005194},
volume = {152},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7957,
author = {Parenti, Ilaria and Garcia Rabaneda, Luis E and Schön, Hanna and Novarino, Gaia},
issn = {1878108X},
journal = {Trends in Neurosciences},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Neurodevelopmental disorders: From genetics to functional pathways}},
doi = {10.1016/j.tins.2020.05.004},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7960,
abstract = {Let A={A1,…,An} be a family of sets in the plane. For 0≤i2b be integers. We prove that if each k-wise or (k+1)-wise intersection of sets from A has at most b path-connected components, which all are open, then fk+1=0 implies fk≤cfk−1 for some positive constant c depending only on b and k. These results also extend to two-dimensional compact surfaces.},
author = {Kalai, Gil and Patakova, Zuzana},
issn = {14320444},
journal = {Discrete and Computational Geometry},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{Intersection patterns of planar sets}},
doi = {10.1007/s00454-020-00205-z},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7962,
abstract = {A string graph is the intersection graph of a family of continuous arcs in the plane. The intersection graph of a family of plane convex sets is a string graph, but not all string graphs can be obtained in this way. We prove the following structure theorem conjectured by Janson and Uzzell: The vertex set of almost all string graphs on n vertices can be partitioned into five cliques such that some pair of them is not connected by any edge (n→∞). We also show that every graph with the above property is an intersection graph of plane convex sets. As a corollary, we obtain that almost all string graphs on n vertices are intersection graphs of plane convex sets.},
author = {Pach, János and Reed, Bruce and Yuditsky, Yelena},
issn = {14320444},
journal = {Discrete and Computational Geometry},
number = {4},
pages = {888--917},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{Almost all string graphs are intersection graphs of plane convex sets}},
doi = {10.1007/s00454-020-00213-z},
volume = {63},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7968,
abstract = {Organic materials are known to feature long spin-diffusion times, originating in a generally small spin–orbit coupling observed in these systems. From that perspective, chiral molecules acting as efficient spin selectors pose a puzzle that attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Here, we revisit the physical origins of chiral-induced spin selectivity (CISS) and propose a simple analytic minimal model to describe it. The model treats a chiral molecule as an anisotropic wire with molecular dipole moments aligned arbitrarily with respect to the wire’s axes and is therefore quite general. Importantly, it shows that the helical structure of the molecule is not necessary to observe CISS and other chiral nonhelical molecules can also be considered as potential candidates for the CISS effect. We also show that the suggested simple model captures the main characteristics of CISS observed in the experiment, without the need for additional constraints employed in the previous studies. The results pave the way for understanding other related physical phenomena where the CISS effect plays an essential role.},
author = {Ghazaryan, Areg and Paltiel, Yossi and Lemeshko, Mikhail},
issn = {1932-7447},
journal = {The Journal of Physical Chemistry C},
number = {21},
pages = {11716--11721},
publisher = {American Chemical Society},
title = {{Analytic model of chiral-induced spin selectivity}},
doi = {10.1021/acs.jpcc.0c02584},
volume = {124},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7971,
abstract = {Multilayer graphene lattices allow for an additional tunability of the band structure by the strong perpendicular electric field. In particular, the emergence of the new multiple Dirac points in ABA stacked trilayer graphene subject to strong transverse electric fields was proposed theoretically and confirmed experimentally. These new Dirac points dubbed “gullies” emerge from the interplay between strong electric field and trigonal warping. In this work, we first characterize the properties of new emergent Dirac points and show that the electric field can be used to tune the distance between gullies in the momentum space. We demonstrate that the band structure has multiple Lifshitz transitions and higher-order singularity of “monkey saddle” type. Following the characterization of the band structure, we consider the spectrum of Landau levels and structure of their wave functions. In the limit of strong electric fields when gullies are well separated in momentum space, they give rise to triply degenerate Landau levels. In the second part of this work, we investigate how degeneracy between three gully Landau levels is lifted in the presence of interactions. Within the Hartree-Fock approximation we show that the symmetry breaking state interpolates between the fully gully polarized state that breaks C3 symmetry at high displacement field and the gully symmetric state when the electric field is decreased. The discontinuous transition between these two states is driven by enhanced intergully tunneling and exchange. We conclude by outlining specific experimental predictions for the existence of such a symmetry-breaking state.},
author = {Rao, Peng and Serbyn, Maksym},
issn = {2469-9950},
journal = {Physical Review B},
number = {24},
publisher = {American Physical Society},
title = {{Gully quantum Hall ferromagnetism in biased trilayer graphene}},
doi = {10.1103/physrevb.101.245411},
volume = {101},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7985,
abstract = {The goal of limiting global warming to 1.5 °C requires a drastic reduction in CO2 emissions across many sectors of the world economy. Batteries are vital to this endeavor, whether used in electric vehicles, to store renewable electricity, or in aviation. Present lithium-ion technologies are preparing the public for this inevitable change, but their maximum theoretical specific capacity presents a limitation. Their high cost is another concern for commercial viability. Metal–air batteries have the highest theoretical energy density of all possible secondary battery technologies and could yield step changes in energy storage, if their practical difficulties could be overcome. The scope of this review is to provide an objective, comprehensive, and authoritative assessment of the intensive work invested in nonaqueous rechargeable metal–air batteries over the past few years, which identified the key problems and guides directions to solve them. We focus primarily on the challenges and outlook for Li–O2 cells but include Na–O2, K–O2, and Mg–O2 cells for comparison. Our review highlights the interdisciplinary nature of this field that involves a combination of materials chemistry, electrochemistry, computation, microscopy, spectroscopy, and surface science. The mechanisms of O2 reduction and evolution are considered in the light of recent findings, along with developments in positive and negative electrodes, electrolytes, electrocatalysis on surfaces and in solution, and the degradative effect of singlet oxygen, which is typically formed in Li–O2 cells.},
author = {Kwak, WJ and Sharon, D and Xia, C and Kim, H and Johnson, LR and Bruce, PG and Nazar, LF and Sun, YK and Frimer, AA and Noked, M and Freunberger, Stefan Alexander and Aurbach, D},
issn = {0009-2665},
journal = {Chemical Reviews},
publisher = {ACS},
title = {{Lithium-oxygen batteries and related systems: Potential, status, and future}},
doi = {10.1021/acs.chemrev.9b00609},
year = {2020},
}
@inproceedings{7989,
abstract = {We prove general topological Radon-type theorems for sets in ℝ^d, smooth real manifolds or finite dimensional simplicial complexes. Combined with a recent result of Holmsen and Lee, it gives fractional Helly theorem, and consequently the existence of weak ε-nets as well as a (p,q)-theorem. More precisely: Let X be either ℝ^d, smooth real d-manifold, or a finite d-dimensional simplicial complex. Then if F is a finite, intersection-closed family of sets in X such that the ith reduced Betti number (with ℤ₂ coefficients) of any set in F is at most b for every non-negative integer i less or equal to k, then the Radon number of F is bounded in terms of b and X. Here k is the smallest integer larger or equal to d/2 - 1 if X = ℝ^d; k=d-1 if X is a smooth real d-manifold and not a surface, k=0 if X is a surface and k=d if X is a d-dimensional simplicial complex. Using the recent result of the author and Kalai, we manage to prove the following optimal bound on fractional Helly number for families of open sets in a surface: Let F be a finite family of open sets in a surface S such that the intersection of any subfamily of F is either empty, or path-connected. Then the fractional Helly number of F is at most three. This also settles a conjecture of Holmsen, Kim, and Lee about an existence of a (p,q)-theorem for open subsets of a surface.},
author = {Patakova, Zuzana},
booktitle = {36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry},
isbn = {9783959771436},
issn = {18688969},
location = {Zürich, Switzerland},
pages = {61:1--61:13},
publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik},
title = {{Bounding radon number via Betti numbers}},
doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.61},
volume = {164},
year = {2020},
}
@inproceedings{7990,
abstract = {Given a finite point set P in general position in the plane, a full triangulation is a maximal straight-line embedded plane graph on P. A partial triangulation on P is a full triangulation of some subset P' of P containing all extreme points in P. A bistellar flip on a partial triangulation either flips an edge, removes a non-extreme point of degree 3, or adds a point in P ⧵ P' as vertex of degree 3. The bistellar flip graph has all partial triangulations as vertices, and a pair of partial triangulations is adjacent if they can be obtained from one another by a bistellar flip. The goal of this paper is to investigate the structure of this graph, with emphasis on its connectivity. For sets P of n points in general position, we show that the bistellar flip graph is (n-3)-connected, thereby answering, for sets in general position, an open questions raised in a book (by De Loera, Rambau, and Santos) and a survey (by Lee and Santos) on triangulations. This matches the situation for the subfamily of regular triangulations (i.e., partial triangulations obtained by lifting the points and projecting the lower convex hull), where (n-3)-connectivity has been known since the late 1980s through the secondary polytope (Gelfand, Kapranov, Zelevinsky) and Balinski’s Theorem. Our methods also yield the following results (see the full version [Wagner and Welzl, 2020]): (i) The bistellar flip graph can be covered by graphs of polytopes of dimension n-3 (products of secondary polytopes). (ii) A partial triangulation is regular, if it has distance n-3 in the Hasse diagram of the partial order of partial subdivisions from the trivial subdivision. (iii) All partial triangulations are regular iff the trivial subdivision has height n-3 in the partial order of partial subdivisions. (iv) There are arbitrarily large sets P with non-regular partial triangulations, while every proper subset has only regular triangulations, i.e., there are no small certificates for the existence of non-regular partial triangulations (answering a question by F. Santos in the unexpected direction).},
author = {Wagner, Uli and Welzl, Emo},
booktitle = {36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry},
isbn = {9783959771436},
issn = {18688969},
location = {Zürich, Switzerland},
publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik},
title = {{Connectivity of triangulation flip graphs in the plane (Part II: Bistellar flips)}},
doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.67},
volume = {164},
year = {2020},
}
@inproceedings{7991,
abstract = {We define and study a discrete process that generalizes the convex-layer decomposition of a planar point set. Our process, which we call homotopic curve shortening (HCS), starts with a closed curve (which might self-intersect) in the presence of a set P⊂ ℝ² of point obstacles, and evolves in discrete steps, where each step consists of (1) taking shortcuts around the obstacles, and (2) reducing the curve to its shortest homotopic equivalent. We find experimentally that, if the initial curve is held fixed and P is chosen to be either a very fine regular grid or a uniformly random point set, then HCS behaves at the limit like the affine curve-shortening flow (ACSF). This connection between HCS and ACSF generalizes the link between "grid peeling" and the ACSF observed by Eppstein et al. (2017), which applied only to convex curves, and which was studied only for regular grids. We prove that HCS satisfies some properties analogous to those of ACSF: HCS is invariant under affine transformations, preserves convexity, and does not increase the total absolute curvature. Furthermore, the number of self-intersections of a curve, or intersections between two curves (appropriately defined), does not increase. Finally, if the initial curve is simple, then the number of inflection points (appropriately defined) does not increase.},
author = {Avvakumov, Sergey and Nivasch, Gabriel},
booktitle = {36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry},
isbn = {9783959771436},
issn = {18688969},
location = {Zürich, Switzerland},
pages = {12:1 -- 12:15},
publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik},
title = {{Homotopic curve shortening and the affine curve-shortening flow}},
doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.12},
volume = {164},
year = {2020},
}
@inproceedings{7992,
abstract = {Let K be a convex body in ℝⁿ (i.e., a compact convex set with nonempty interior). Given a point p in the interior of K, a hyperplane h passing through p is called barycentric if p is the barycenter of K ∩ h. In 1961, Grünbaum raised the question whether, for every K, there exists an interior point p through which there are at least n+1 distinct barycentric hyperplanes. Two years later, this was seemingly resolved affirmatively by showing that this is the case if p=p₀ is the point of maximal depth in K. However, while working on a related question, we noticed that one of the auxiliary claims in the proof is incorrect. Here, we provide a counterexample; this re-opens Grünbaum’s question. It follows from known results that for n ≥ 2, there are always at least three distinct barycentric cuts through the point p₀ ∈ K of maximal depth. Using tools related to Morse theory we are able to improve this bound: four distinct barycentric cuts through p₀ are guaranteed if n ≥ 3.},
author = {Patakova, Zuzana and Tancer, Martin and Wagner, Uli},
booktitle = {36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry},
isbn = {9783959771436},
issn = {18688969},
location = {Zürich, Switzerland},
publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik},
title = {{Barycentric cuts through a convex body}},
doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.62},
volume = {164},
year = {2020},
}
@inproceedings{7994,
abstract = {In the recent study of crossing numbers, drawings of graphs that can be extended to an arrangement of pseudolines (pseudolinear drawings) have played an important role as they are a natural combinatorial extension of rectilinear (or straight-line) drawings. A characterization of the pseudolinear drawings of K_n was found recently. We extend this characterization to all graphs, by describing the set of minimal forbidden subdrawings for pseudolinear drawings. Our characterization also leads to a polynomial-time algorithm to recognize pseudolinear drawings and construct the pseudolines when it is possible.},
author = {Arroyo Guevara, Alan M and Bensmail, Julien and Bruce Richter, R.},
booktitle = {36th International Symposium on Computational Geometry},
isbn = {9783959771436},
issn = {18688969},
location = {Zürich, Switzerland},
publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik},
title = {{Extending drawings of graphs to arrangements of pseudolines}},
doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2020.9},
volume = {164},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7995,
abstract = {When divergent populations are connected by gene flow, the establishment of complete reproductive isolation usually requires the joint action of multiple barrier effects. One example where multiple barrier effects are coupled consists of a single trait that is under divergent natural selection and also mediates assortative mating. Such multiple‐effect traits can strongly reduce gene flow. However, there are few cases where patterns of assortative mating have been described quantitatively and their impact on gene flow has been determined. Two ecotypes of the coastal marine snail, Littorina saxatilis , occur in North Atlantic rocky‐shore habitats dominated by either crab predation or wave action. There is evidence for divergent natural selection acting on size, and size‐assortative mating has previously been documented. Here, we analyze the mating pattern in L. saxatilis with respect to size in intensively sampled transects across boundaries between the habitats. We show that the mating pattern is mostly conserved between ecotypes and that it generates both assortment and directional sexual selection for small male size. Using simulations, we show that the mating pattern can contribute to reproductive isolation between ecotypes but the barrier to gene flow is likely strengthened more by sexual selection than by assortment.},
author = {Perini, Samuel and Rafajlović, Marina and Westram, Anja M and Johannesson, Kerstin and Butlin, Roger K.},
issn = {15585646},
journal = {Evolution},
publisher = {Wiley},
title = {{Assortative mating, sexual selection, and their consequences for gene flow in Littorina}},
doi = {10.1111/evo.14027},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7999,
abstract = {Linking epigenetic marks to clinical outcomes improves insight into molecular processes, disease prediction, and therapeutic target identification. Here, a statistical approach is presented to infer the epigenetic architecture of complex disease, determine the variation captured by epigenetic effects, and estimate phenotype-epigenetic probe associations jointly. Implicitly adjusting for probe correlations, data structure (cell-count or relatedness), and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker effects, improves association estimates and in 9,448 individuals, 75.7% (95% CI 71.70–79.3) of body mass index (BMI) variation and 45.6% (95% CI 37.3–51.9) of cigarette consumption variation was captured by whole blood methylation array data. Pathway-linked probes of blood cholesterol, lipid transport and sterol metabolism for BMI, and xenobiotic stimuli response for smoking, showed >1.5 times larger associations with >95% posterior inclusion probability. Prediction accuracy improved by 28.7% for BMI and 10.2% for smoking over a LASSO model, with age-, and tissue-specificity, implying associations are a phenotypic consequence rather than causal. },
author = {Trejo Banos, D and McCartney, DL and Patxot, M and Anchieri, L and Battram, T and Christiansen, C and Costeira, R and Walker, RM and Morris, SW and Campbell, A and Zhang, Q and Porteous, DJ and McRae, AF and Wray, NR and Visscher, PM and Haley, CS and Evans, KL and Deary, IJ and McIntosh, AM and Hemani, G and Bell, JT and Marioni, RE and Robinson, Matthew Richard},
issn = {2041-1723},
journal = {Nature Communications},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{Bayesian reassessment of the epigenetic architecture of complex traits}},
doi = {10.1038/s41467-020-16520-1},
volume = {11},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8001,
author = {Vandael, David H and Borges Merjane, Carolina and Zhang, Xiaomin and Jonas, Peter M},
issn = {10974199},
journal = {Neuron},
publisher = {Elsevier},
title = {{Short-term plasticity at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses is induced by natural activity patterns and associated with vesicle pool engram formation}},
doi = {10.1016/j.neuron.2020.05.013},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8002,
abstract = {Wound healing in plant tissues, consisting of rigid cell wall-encapsulated cells, represents a considerable challenge and occurs through largely unknown mechanisms distinct from those in animals. Owing to their inability to migrate, plant cells rely on targeted cell division and expansion to regenerate wounds. Strict coordination of these wound-induced responses is essential to ensure efficient, spatially restricted wound healing. Single-cell tracking by live imaging allowed us to gain mechanistic insight into the wound perception and coordination of wound responses after laser-based wounding in Arabidopsis root. We revealed a crucial contribution of the collapse of damaged cells in wound perception and detected an auxin increase specific to cells immediately adjacent to the wound. This localized auxin increase balances wound-induced cell expansion and restorative division rates in a dose-dependent manner, leading to tumorous overproliferation when the canonical TIR1 auxin signaling is disrupted. Auxin and wound-induced turgor pressure changes together also spatially define the activation of key components of regeneration, such as the transcription regulator ERF115. Our observations suggest that the wound signaling involves the sensing of collapse of damaged cells and a local auxin signaling activation to coordinate the downstream transcriptional responses in the immediate wound vicinity.},
author = {Hörmayer, Lukas and Montesinos López, Juan C and Marhavá, Petra and Benková, Eva and Yoshida, Saiko and Friml, Jiří},
issn = {0027-8424},
journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences},
number = {26},
publisher = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences},
title = {{Wounding-induced changes in cellular pressure and localized auxin signalling spatially coordinate restorative divisions in roots}},
doi = {10.1073/pnas.2003346117},
volume = {117},
year = {2020},
}
@inproceedings{8012,
abstract = {Asynchronous programs are notoriously difficult to reason about because they spawn computation tasks which take effect asynchronously in a nondeterministic way. Devising inductive invariants for such programs requires understanding and stating complex relationships between an unbounded number of computation tasks in arbitrarily long executions. In this paper, we introduce inductive sequentialization, a new proof rule that sidesteps this complexity via a sequential reduction, a sequential program that captures every behavior of the original program up to reordering of coarse-grained commutative actions. A sequential reduction of a concurrent program is easy to reason about since it corresponds to a simple execution of the program in an idealized synchronous environment, where processes act in a fixed order and at the same speed. We have implemented and integrated our proof rule in the CIVL verifier, allowing us to provably derive fine-grained implementations of asynchronous programs. We have successfully applied our proof rule to a diverse set of message-passing protocols, including leader election protocols, two-phase commit, and Paxos.},
author = {Kragl, Bernhard and Enea, Constantin and Henzinger, Thomas A and Mutluergil, Suha Orhun and Qadeer, Shaz},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 41st ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation},
isbn = {9781450376136},
location = {London, United Kingdom},
pages = {227--242},
publisher = {Association for Computing Machinery},
title = {{Inductive sequentialization of asynchronous programs}},
doi = {10.1145/3385412.3385980},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8036,
abstract = {When tiny soft ferromagnetic particles are placed along a liquid interface and exposed to a vertical magnetic field, the balance between capillary attraction and magnetic repulsion leads to self-organization into well-defined patterns. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that precessing magnetic fields induce metachronal waves on the periphery of these assemblies, similar to the ones observed in ciliates and some arthropods. The outermost layer of particles behaves like an array of cilia or legs whose sequential movement causes a net and controllable locomotion. This bioinspired many-particle swimming strategy is effective even at low Reynolds number, using only spatially uniform fields to generate the waves.},
author = {Collard, Ylona and Grosjean, Galien M and Vandewalle, Nicolas},
issn = {23993650},
journal = {Communications Physics},
publisher = {Springer Nature},
title = {{Magnetically powered metachronal waves induce locomotion in self-assemblies}},
doi = {10.1038/s42005-020-0380-9},
volume = {3},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8038,
abstract = {Microelectromechanical systems and integrated photonics provide the basis for many reliable and compact circuit elements in modern communication systems. Electro-opto-mechanical devices are currently one of the leading approaches to realize ultra-sensitive, low-loss transducers for an emerging quantum information technology. Here we present an on-chip microwave frequency converter based on a planar aluminum on silicon nitride platform that is compatible with slot-mode coupled photonic crystal cavities. We show efficient frequency conversion between two propagating microwave modes mediated by the radiation pressure interaction with a metalized dielectric nanobeam oscillator. We achieve bidirectional coherent conversion with a total device efficiency of up to ~60%, a dynamic range of 2 × 10^9 photons/s and an instantaneous bandwidth of up to 1.7 kHz. A high fidelity quantum state transfer would be possible if the drive dependent output noise of currently ~14 photons s^−1 Hz^−1 is further reduced. Such a silicon nitride based transducer is in situ reconfigurable and could be used for on-chip classical and quantum signal routing and filtering, both for microwave and hybrid microwave-optical applications.},
author = {Fink, Johannes M and Kalaee, M. and Norte, R. and Pitanti, A. and Painter, O.},
issn = {20589565},
journal = {Quantum Science and Technology},
number = {3},
publisher = {IOP Publishing},
title = {{Efficient microwave frequency conversion mediated by a photonics compatible silicon nitride nanobeam oscillator}},
doi = {10.1088/2058-9565/ab8dce},
volume = {5},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8039,
abstract = {In the present work, we report a solution-based strategy to produce crystallographically textured SnSe bulk nanomaterials and printed layers with optimized thermoelectric performance in the direction normal to the substrate. Our strategy is based on the formulation of a molecular precursor that can be continuously decomposed to produce a SnSe powder or printed into predefined patterns. The precursor formulation and decomposition conditions are optimized to produce pure phase 2D SnSe nanoplates. The printed layer and the bulk material obtained after hot press displays a clear preferential orientation of the crystallographic domains, resulting in an ultralow thermal conductivity of 0.55 W m–1 K–1 in the direction normal to the substrate. Such textured nanomaterials present highly anisotropic properties with the best thermoelectric performance in plane, i.e., in the directions parallel to the substrate, which coincide with the crystallographic bc plane of SnSe. This is an unfortunate characteristic because thermoelectric devices are designed to create/harvest temperature gradients in the direction normal to the substrate. We further demonstrate that this limitation can be overcome with the introduction of small amounts of tellurium in the precursor. The presence of tellurium allows one to reduce the band gap and increase both the charge carrier concentration and the mobility, especially the cross plane, with a minimal decrease of the Seebeck coefficient. These effects translate into record out of plane ZT values at 800 K.},
author = {Zhang, Yu and Liu, Yu and Xing, Congcong and Zhang, Ting and Li, Mengyao and Pacios, Mercè and Yu, Xiaoting and Arbiol, Jordi and Llorca, Jordi and Cadavid, Doris and Ibáñez, Maria and Cabot, Andreu},
issn = {19448252},
journal = {ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces},
number = {24},
pages = {27104--27111},
publisher = {American Chemical Society},
title = {{Tin selenide molecular precursor for the solution processing of thermoelectric materials and devices}},
doi = {10.1021/acsami.0c04331},
volume = {12},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8040,
abstract = {The mitochondrial respiratory chain, formed by five protein complexes, utilizes energy from catabolic processes to synthesize ATP. Complex I, the first and the largest protein complex of the chain, harvests electrons from NADH to reduce quinone, while pumping protons across the mitochondrial membrane. Detailed knowledge of the working principle of such coupled charge-transfer processes remains, however, fragmentary due to bottlenecks in understanding redox-driven conformational transitions and their interplay with the hydrated proton pathways. Complex I from Thermus thermophilus encases 16 subunits with nine iron–sulfur clusters, reduced by electrons from NADH. Here, employing the latest crystal structure of T. thermophilus complex I, we have used microsecond-scale molecular dynamics simulations to study the chemo-mechanical coupling between redox changes of the iron–sulfur clusters and conformational transitions across complex I. First, we identify the redox switches within complex I, which allosterically couple the dynamics of the quinone binding pocket to the site of NADH reduction. Second, our free-energy calculations reveal that the affinity of the quinone, specifically menaquinone, for the binding-site is higher than that of its reduced, menaquinol form—a design essential for menaquinol release. Remarkably, the barriers to diffusive menaquinone dynamics are lesser than that of the more ubiquitous ubiquinone, and the naphthoquinone headgroup of the former furnishes stronger binding interactions with the pocket, favoring menaquinone for charge transport in T. thermophilus. Our computations are consistent with experimentally validated mutations and hierarchize the key residues into three functional classes, identifying new mutation targets. Third, long-range hydrogen-bond networks connecting the quinone-binding site to the transmembrane subunits are found to be responsible for proton pumping. Put together, the simulations reveal the molecular design principles linking redox reactions to quinone turnover to proton translocation in complex I.},
author = {Gupta, Chitrak and Khaniya, Umesh and Chan, Chun Kit and Dehez, Francois and Shekhar, Mrinal and Gunner, M. R. and Sazanov, Leonid A and Chipot, Christophe and Singharoy, Abhishek},
issn = {15205126},
journal = {Journal of the American Chemical Society},
number = {20},
pages = {9220--9230},
publisher = {American Chemical Society},
title = {{Charge transfer and chemo-mechanical coupling in respiratory complex I}},
doi = {10.1021/jacs.9b13450},
volume = {142},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8042,
abstract = {We consider systems of N bosons in a box of volume one, interacting through a repulsive two-body potential of the form κN3β−1V(Nβx). For all 0<β<1, and for sufficiently small coupling constant κ>0, we establish the validity of Bogolyubov theory, identifying the ground state energy and the low-lying excitation spectrum up to errors that vanish in the limit of large N.},
author = {Boccato, Chiara and Brennecke, Christian and Cenatiempo, Serena and Schlein, Benjamin},
issn = {14359855},
journal = {Journal of the European Mathematical Society},
number = {7},
pages = {2331--2403},
publisher = {European Mathematical Society},
title = {{The excitation spectrum of Bose gases interacting through singular potentials}},
doi = {10.4171/JEMS/966},
volume = {22},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8043,
abstract = {With decreasing Reynolds number, Re, turbulence in channel flow becomes spatio-temporally intermittent and self-organises into solitary stripes oblique to the mean flow direction. We report here the existence of localised nonlinear travelling wave solutions of the Navier–Stokes equations possessing this obliqueness property. Such solutions are identified numerically using edge tracking coupled with arclength continuation. All solutions emerge in saddle-node bifurcations at values of Re lower than the non-localised solutions. Relative periodic orbit solutions bifurcating from branches of travelling waves have also been computed. A complete parametric study is performed, including their stability, the investigation of their large-scale flow, and the robustness to changes of the numerical domain.},
author = {Paranjape, Chaitanya S and Duguet, Yohann and Hof, Björn},
issn = {14697645},
journal = {Journal of Fluid Mechanics},
publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
title = {{Oblique stripe solutions of channel flow}},
doi = {10.1017/jfm.2020.322},
volume = {897},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8057,
abstract = {Water-in-salt electrolytes based on highly concentrated bis(trifluoromethyl)sulfonimide (TFSI) promise aqueous electrolytes with stabilities approaching 3 V. However, especially with an electrode approaching the cathodic (reductive) stability, cycling stability is insufficient. While stability critically relies on a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), the mechanism behind the cathodic stability limit remains unclear. Here, we reveal two distinct reduction potentials for the chemical environments of ‘free’ and ‘bound’ water and that both contribute to SEI formation. Free-water is reduced ~1V above bound water in a hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and responsible for SEI formation via reactive intermediates of the HER; concurrent LiTFSI precipitation/dissolution establishes a dynamic interface. The free-water population emerges, therefore, as the handle to extend the cathodic limit of aqueous electrolytes and the battery cycling stability.},
author = {Bouchal, Roza and Li, Zhujie and Bongu, Chandra and Le Vot, Steven and Berthelot, Romain and Rotenberg, Benjamin and Favier, Frederic and Freunberger, Stefan Alexander and Salanne, Mathieu and Fontaine, Olivier},
issn = {0044-8249},
journal = {Angewandte Chemie},
publisher = {Wiley},
title = {{Competitive salt precipitation/dissolution during free‐water reduction in water‐in‐salt electrolyte}},
doi = {10.1002/ange.202005378},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8142,
abstract = {Cell production and differentiation for the acquisition of specific functions are key features of living systems. The dynamic network of cellular microtubules provides the necessary platform to accommodate processes associated with the transition of cells through the individual phases of cytogenesis. Here, we show that the plant hormone cytokinin fine‐tunes the activity of the microtubular cytoskeleton during cell differentiation and counteracts microtubular rearrangements driven by the hormone auxin. The endogenous upward gradient of cytokinin activity along the longitudinal growth axis in Arabidopsis thaliana roots correlates with robust rearrangements of the microtubule cytoskeleton in epidermal cells progressing from the proliferative to the differentiation stage. Controlled increases in cytokinin activity result in premature re‐organization of the microtubule network from transversal to an oblique disposition in cells prior to their differentiation, whereas attenuated hormone perception delays cytoskeleton conversion into a configuration typical for differentiated cells. Intriguingly, cytokinin can interfere with microtubules also in animal cells, such as leukocytes, suggesting that a cytokinin‐sensitive control pathway for the microtubular cytoskeleton may be at least partially conserved between plant and animal cells.},
author = {Montesinos López, Juan C and Abuzeineh, A and Kopf, Aglaja and Juanes Garcia, Alba and Ötvös, Krisztina and Petrášek, J and Sixt, Michael K and Benková, Eva},
issn = {0261-4189},
journal = {The Embo Journal},
publisher = {Embo Press},
title = {{Phytohormone cytokinin guides microtubule dynamics during cell progression from proliferative to differentiated stage}},
doi = {10.15252/embj.2019104238},
year = {2020},
}
@unpublished{7800,
abstract = {De novo loss of function mutations in the ubiquitin ligase-encoding gene Cullin3 (CUL3) lead to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we used Cul3 mouse models to evaluate the consequences of Cul3 mutations in vivo. Our results show that Cul3 haploinsufficient mice exhibit deficits in motor coordination as well as ASD-relevant social and cognitive impairments. Cul3 mutant brain displays cortical lamination abnormalities due to defective neuronal migration and reduced numbers of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. In line with the observed abnormal columnar organization, Cul3 haploinsufficiency is associated with decreased spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory activity in the cortex. At the molecular level, employing a quantitative proteomic approach, we show that Cul3 regulates cytoskeletal and adhesion protein abundance in mouse embryos. Abnormal regulation of cytoskeletal proteins in Cul3 mutant neuronal cells results in atypical organization of the actin mesh at the cell leading edge, likely causing the observed migration deficits. In contrast to these important functions early in development, Cul3 deficiency appears less relevant at adult stages. In fact, induction of Cul3 haploinsufficiency in adult mice does not result in the behavioral defects observed in constitutive Cul3 haploinsufficient animals. Taken together, our data indicate that Cul3 has a critical role in the regulation of cytoskeletal proteins and neuronal migration and that ASD-associated defects and behavioral abnormalities are primarily due to Cul3 functions at early developmental stages.},
author = {Morandell, Jasmin and Schwarz, Lena A and Basilico, Bernadette and Tasciyan, Saren and Nicolas, Armel and Sommer, Christoph M and Kreuzinger, Caroline and Knaus, Lisa and Dobler, Zoe and Cacci, Emanuele and Danzl, Johann G and Novarino, Gaia},
booktitle = {BioRxiv},
pages = {31},
publisher = {Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory},
title = {{Cul3 regulates cytoskeleton protein homeostasis and cell migration during a critical window of brain development}},
year = {2020},
}
@article{8099,
abstract = {Sewall Wright developed FST for describing population differentiation and it has since been extended to many novel applications, including the detection of homomorphic sex chromosomes. However, there has been confusion regarding the expected estimate of FST for a fixed difference between the X‐ and Y‐chromosome when comparing males and females. Here, we attempt to resolve this confusion by contrasting two common FST estimators and explain why they yield different estimates when applied to the case of sex chromosomes. We show that this difference is true for many allele frequencies, but the situation characterized by fixed differences between the X‐ and Y‐chromosome is among the most extreme. To avoid additional confusion, we recommend that all authors using FST clearly state which estimator of FST their work uses.},
author = {Gammerdinger, William J and Toups, Melissa A and Vicoso, Beatriz},
issn = {1755-098X},
journal = {Molecular Ecology Resources},
pages = {1--9},
publisher = {Wiley},
title = {{Disagreement in FST estimators: A case study from sex chromosomes}},
doi = {10.1111/1755-0998.13210},
year = {2020},
}
@unpublished{7553,
abstract = {Normative theories and statistical inference provide complementary approaches for the study of biological systems. A normative theory postulates that organisms have adapted to efficiently solve essential tasks, and proceeds to mathematically work out testable consequences of such optimality; parameters that maximize the hypothesized organismal function can be derived ab initio, without reference to experimental data. In contrast, statistical inference focuses on efficient utilization of data to learn model parameters, without reference to any a priori notion of biological function, utility, or fitness. Traditionally, these two approaches were developed independently and applied separately. Here we unify them in a coherent Bayesian framework that embeds a normative theory into a family of maximum-entropy “optimization priors.” This family defines a smooth interpolation between a data-rich inference regime (characteristic of “bottom-up” statistical models), and a data-limited ab inito prediction regime (characteristic of “top-down” normative theory). We demonstrate the applicability of our framework using data from the visual cortex, and argue that the flexibility it affords is essential to address a number of fundamental challenges relating to inference and prediction in complex, high-dimensional biological problems.},
author = {Mlynarski, Wiktor F and Hledik, Michal and Sokolowski, Thomas R and Tkačik, Gašper},
booktitle = {bioRxiv},
publisher = {Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory},
title = {{Statistical analysis and optimality of biological systems}},
year = {2020},
}
@unpublished{8063,
abstract = {We present a generative model of images that explicitly reasons over the set
of objects they show. Our model learns a structured latent representation that
separates objects from each other and from the background; unlike prior works,
it explicitly represents the 2D position and depth of each object, as well as
an embedding of its segmentation mask and appearance. The model can be trained
from images alone in a purely unsupervised fashion without the need for object
masks or depth information. Moreover, it always generates complete objects,
even though a significant fraction of training images contain occlusions.
Finally, we show that our model can infer decompositions of novel images into
their constituent objects, including accurate prediction of depth ordering and
segmentation of occluded parts.},
author = {Anciukevicius, Titas and Lampert, Christoph and Henderson, Paul M},
booktitle = {ArXiv},
pages = {24},
publisher = {ArXiv},
title = {{Object-centric image generation with factored depths, locations, and appearances}},
year = {2020},
}
@unpublished{8101,
abstract = {We propose a quantitative, scale-spanning model for same-material tribocharging. Our key insight is to account for mesoscale spatial correlations in donor/acceptor surface properties, which dramatically affect the macroscopic
charge transfer and quantitatively reconcile previous inconsistencies related to the microscale. We furthermore identify a viable mechanism by which the mesoscale features emerge, which may help constrain the list of donor/acceptor
candidates. As the only free-parameters in our model involve the atomic scale, data analyzed in light of it could help resolve the detailed mechanism of tribocharging.},
author = {Grosjean, Galien M and Wald, Sebastian and Sobarzo Ponce, Juan Carlos A and Waitukaitis, Scott R},
booktitle = {ArXiv},
publisher = {ArXiv},
title = {{A quantitatively consistent, scale-spanning model for same-material tribocharging}},
year = {2020},
}
@unpublished{7901,
abstract = {We derive rigorously the leading order of the correlation energy of a Fermi
gas in a scaling regime of high density and weak interaction. The result
verifies the prediction of the random-phase approximation. Our proof refines
the method of collective bosonization in three dimensions. We approximately
diagonalize an effective Hamiltonian describing approximately bosonic
collective excitations around the Hartree-Fock state, while showing that
gapless and non-collective excitations have only a negligible effect on the
ground state energy.},
author = {Benedikter, Niels P and Nam, Phan Thành and Porta, Marcello and Schlein, Benjamin and Seiringer, Robert},
booktitle = {ArXiv},
pages = {56},
publisher = {ArXiv},
title = {{Correlation energy of a weakly interacting Fermi gas}},
year = {2020},
}
@article{7697,
abstract = {* Morphogenesis and adaptive tropic growth in plants depend on gradients of the phytohormone auxin, mediated by the membrane‐based PIN‐FORMED (PIN) auxin transporters. PINs localize to a particular side of the plasma membrane (PM) or to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to directionally transport auxin and maintain intercellular and intracellular auxin homeostasis, respectively. However, the molecular cues that confer their diverse cellular localizations remain largely unknown.
* In this study, we systematically swapped the domains between ER‐ and PM‐localized PIN proteins, as well as between apical and basal PM‐localized PINs from Arabidopsis thaliana , to shed light on why PIN family members with similar topological structures reside at different membrane compartments within cells.
* Our results show that not only do the N‐ and C‐terminal transmembrane domains (TMDs) and central hydrophilic loop contribute to their differential subcellular localizations and cellular polarity, but that the pairwise‐matched N‐ and C‐terminal TMDs resulting from intramolecular domain–domain coevolution are also crucial for their divergent patterns of localization.
* These findings illustrate the complexity of the evolutionary path of PIN proteins in acquiring their plethora of developmental functions and adaptive growth in plants.},
author = {Zhang, Yuzhou and Hartinger, Corinna and Wang, Xiaojuan and Friml, Jiří},
issn = {0028-646X},
journal = {New Phytologist},
publisher = {Wiley},
title = {{Directional auxin fluxes in plants by intramolecular domain‐domain co‐evolution of PIN auxin transporters}},
doi = {10.1111/nph.16629},
year = {2020},
}