@inproceedings{1636,
abstract = {Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) is a fundamental algorithmic problem that appears in many areas of Computer Science. It can be equivalently stated as computing a homomorphism R→ΓΓ between two relational structures, e.g. between two directed graphs. Analyzing its complexity has been a prominent research direction, especially for the fixed template CSPs where the right side ΓΓ is fixed and the left side R is unconstrained.
Far fewer results are known for the hybrid setting that restricts both sides simultaneously. It assumes that R belongs to a certain class of relational structures (called a structural restriction in this paper). We study which structural restrictions are effective, i.e. there exists a fixed template ΓΓ (from a certain class of languages) for which the problem is tractable when R is restricted, and NP-hard otherwise. We provide a characterization for structural restrictions that are closed under inverse homomorphisms. The criterion is based on the chromatic number of a relational structure defined in this paper; it generalizes the standard chromatic number of a graph.
As our main tool, we use the algebraic machinery developed for fixed template CSPs. To apply it to our case, we introduce a new construction called a “lifted language”. We also give a characterization for structural restrictions corresponding to minor-closed families of graphs, extend results to certain Valued CSPs (namely conservative valued languages), and state implications for (valued) CSPs with ordered variables and for the maximum weight independent set problem on some restricted families of graphs.},
author = {Kolmogorov, Vladimir and Rolinek, Michal and Takhanov, Rustem},
location = {Nagoya, Japan},
pages = {566 -- 577},
publisher = {Springer},
title = {{Effectiveness of structural restrictions for hybrid CSPs}},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-662-48971-0_48},
volume = {9472},
year = {2015},
}
@inproceedings{1637,
abstract = {An instance of the Valued Constraint Satisfaction Problem (VCSP) is given by a finite set of variables, a finite domain of labels, and a sum of functions, each function depending on a subset of the variables. Each function can take finite values specifying costs of assignments of labels to its variables or the infinite value, which indicates an infeasible assignment. The goal is to find an assignment of labels to the variables that minimizes the sum. We study, assuming that P ≠ NP, how the complexity of this very general problem depends on the set of functions allowed in the instances, the so-called constraint language. The case when all allowed functions take values in {0, ∞} corresponds to ordinary CSPs, where one deals only with the feasibility issue and there is no optimization. This case is the subject of the Algebraic CSP Dichotomy Conjecture predicting for which constraint languages CSPs are tractable (i.e. solvable in polynomial time) and for which NP-hard. The case when all allowed functions take only finite values corresponds to finite-valued CSP, where the feasibility aspect is trivial and one deals only with the optimization issue. The complexity of finite-valued CSPs was fully classified by Thapper and Zivny. An algebraic necessary condition for tractability of a general-valued CSP with a fixed constraint language was recently given by Kozik and Ochremiak. As our main result, we prove that if a constraint language satisfies this algebraic necessary condition, and the feasibility CSP (i.e. the problem of deciding whether a given instance has a feasible solution) corresponding to the VCSP with this language is tractable, then the VCSP is tractable. The algorithm is a simple combination of the assumed algorithm for the feasibility CSP and the standard LP relaxation. As a corollary, we obtain that a dichotomy for ordinary CSPs would imply a dichotomy for general-valued CSPs.},
author = {Kolmogorov, Vladimir and Krokhin, Andrei and Rolinek, Michal},
location = {Berkeley, CA, United States},
pages = {1246 -- 1258},
publisher = {IEEE},
title = {{The complexity of general-valued CSPs}},
doi = {10.1109/FOCS.2015.80},
year = {2015},
}
@article{1638,
abstract = {The mitochondrial respiratory chain, also known as the electron transport chain (ETC), is crucial to life, and energy production in the form of ATP is the main mitochondrial function. Three proton-translocating enzymes of the ETC, namely complexes I, III and IV, generate proton motive force, which in turn drives ATP synthase (complex V). The atomic structures and basic mechanisms of most respiratory complexes have previously been established, with the exception of complex I, the largest complex in the ETC. Recently, the crystal structure of the entire complex I was solved using a bacterial enzyme. The structure provided novel insights into the core architecture of the complex, the electron transfer and proton translocation pathways, as well as the mechanism that couples these two processes.},
author = {Sazanov, Leonid A},
journal = {Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology},
number = {6},
pages = {375 -- 388},
publisher = {Nature Publishing Group},
title = {{A giant molecular proton pump: structure and mechanism of respiratory complex I}},
doi = {10.1038/nrm3997},
volume = {16},
year = {2015},
}
@article{1639,
abstract = {In this paper the optimal transport and the metamorphosis perspectives are combined. For a pair of given input images geodesic paths in the space of images are defined as minimizers of a resulting path energy. To this end, the underlying Riemannian metric measures the rate of transport cost and the rate of viscous dissipation. Furthermore, the model is capable to deal with strongly varying image contrast and explicitly allows for sources and sinks in the transport equations which are incorporated in the metric related to the metamorphosis approach by Trouvé and Younes. In the non-viscous case with source term existence of geodesic paths is proven in the space of measures. The proposed model is explored on the range from merely optimal transport to strongly dissipative dynamics. For this model a robust and effective variational time discretization of geodesic paths is proposed. This requires to minimize a discrete path energy consisting of a sum of consecutive image matching functionals. These functionals are defined on corresponding pairs of intensity functions and on associated pairwise matching deformations. Existence of time discrete geodesics is demonstrated. Furthermore, a finite element implementation is proposed and applied to instructive test cases and to real images. In the non-viscous case this is compared to the algorithm proposed by Benamou and Brenier including a discretization of the source term. Finally, the model is generalized to define discrete weighted barycentres with applications to textures and objects.},
author = {Maas, Jan and Rumpf, Martin and Schönlieb, Carola and Simon, Stefan},
journal = {ESAIM: Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Analysis},
number = {6},
pages = {1745 -- 1769},
publisher = {EDP Sciences},
title = {{A generalized model for optimal transport of images including dissipation and density modulation}},
doi = {10.1051/m2an/2015043},
volume = {49},
year = {2015},
}
@article{1640,
abstract = {Auxin and cytokinin are key endogenous regulators of plant development. Although cytokinin-mediated modulation of auxin distribution is a developmentally crucial hormonal interaction, its molecular basis is largely unknown. Here we show a direct regulatory link between cytokinin signalling and the auxin transport machinery uncovering a mechanistic framework for cytokinin-auxin cross-talk. We show that the CYTOKININ RESPONSE FACTORS (CRFs), transcription factors downstream of cytokinin perception, transcriptionally control genes encoding PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin transporters at a specific PIN CYTOKININ RESPONSE ELEMENT (PCRE) domain. Removal of this cis-regulatory element effectively uncouples PIN transcription from the CRF-mediated cytokinin regulation and attenuates plant cytokinin sensitivity. We propose that CRFs represent a missing cross-talk component that fine-tunes auxin transport capacity downstream of cytokinin signalling to control plant development.},
author = {Šimášková, Mária and O'Brien, José and Khan-Djamei, Mamoona and Van Noorden, Giel and Ötvös, Krisztina and Vieten, Anne and De Clercq, Inge and Van Haperen, Johanna and Cuesta, Candela and Hoyerová, Klára and Vanneste, Steffen and Marhavy, Peter and Wabnik, Krzysztof T and Van Breusegem, Frank and Nowack, Moritz and Murphy, Angus and Friml, Jiřĺ and Weijers, Dolf and Beeckman, Tom and Benková, Eva},
journal = {Nature Communications},
publisher = {Nature Publishing Group},
title = {{Cytokinin response factors regulate PIN-FORMED auxin transporters}},
doi = {10.1038/ncomms9717},
volume = {6},
year = {2015},
}